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Esophageal Cancer Treatment in India

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Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Esophageal Cancer Treatment in India


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Esophageal Cancer Cancer that forms in tissues
lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through
which food passes from the throat to the
stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are
squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in
flat cells lining the esophagus) and
adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that
make and release mucus and other fluids).
Esophageal cancer has been categorized into two
types that include Adenocarcinoma  This type
of esophageal cancer starts in the glandular
tissue in the lower part of the esophagus. The
stomach and the esophagus appear together in this
lower part of esophagus. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
 Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the squamous
cells lining the esophagus. This type of
esophageal cancer typically occurs in the middle
and upper part of the esophagus.
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  • Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause
    symptoms. However, as the cancer grows, symptoms
    may include painful or difficulty in swallowing,
    weight loss and coughing up blood. Risk factors
    for developing esophageal cancer include
  •  
  • Smoking
  • Heavy Drinking
  • Damage from acid reflux
  • Frequent choking while eating
  • Chest burning, pain or pressure
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Stages of Esophageal Cancer Stage 0 In this
stage, the abnormal or unusual cells can only be
seen in the layer of cells lining the
esophagus. Stage 1 The first stage is marked by
the presence of cancer cells in the layer of
cells lining the esophagus. Stage 2 In the
second stage, the cancer has reached to the outer
wall of the esophagus or to the muscle layer of
the esophagus. Also these cancer cells may have
invaded 1-2 surrounding lymph nodes. Stage
3 The third stage is marked by the spread of the
cancer into the connective tissue wall or deep
into the inner muscle layer. Also this cancer has
spread to more lymph nodes close to esophagus and
they may also spread beyond esophagus in the
surrounding organ. Stage 4 This is considered
as the advanced stage of esophageal cancer. Now
the cancer has spread to lymph nodes far away
from the esophagus or to different organs.
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Signs and Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer Early
esophageal cancer usually does not cause
symptoms. However, as the cancer grows, symptoms
may include difficult or painful swallowing,
severe weight loss, pain in the throat or back,
behind the breastbone or between the shoulder
blades, chronic cough, Vomiting and / or Coughing
up blood. 
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DIAGNOSIS OF ESOPHAGEAL CANCER Barium Swallow or
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) X-rays -Esophageal
cancers grow from the wall of the esophagus into
the opening of the esophagus, creating a tumor or
bump inside the esophagus. Barium in liquid form
is used to coat the esophagus wall before the
x-ray is taken, allowing the x-ray to show the
esophagus clearly.  Upper Endoscopy for
Esophageal Cancer - Upper endoscopy is a
procedure involving use of an endoscope, which is
a flexible, very narrow tube with a video camera
and light on the end. The patient is sedated to
allow for this tube to pass through into the
esophagus and stomach. The camera is connected to
a television and doctor to sees abnormalities in
the wall of the esophagus clearly. Endoscopy is
important test for diagnosing esophageal
cancer.  Endoscopic Ultrasound for Esophageal
Cancer - An endoscope with a small ultrasound
probe attached to its end is used. The probe
sends very sensitive sound waves that penetrate
deep into tissues. The sound waves bounce off the
normal tissues and the cancer are picked up by
the probe and determine how deeply the tumor has
invaded into the esophagus. 
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Bronchoscopy for Esophageal Cancer - This
procedure is similar to an upper endoscopy except
in this instance the doctor looks into the
trachea (windpipe) and bronchi (tubes leading
from the trachea to the lung). The patient is
sedated the procedure.  Positron Emission
Tomography for Esophageal Cancer - In this
test, radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected
into your vein. Because cancers use sugar much
faster than normal tissues, the cancerous tissue
takes up the radioactive material. A scanner can
spot the radioactive deposits. It may be a useful
test for staging the cancer.  Thoracoscopy and
Laparoscopy for Esophageal Cancer -These
procedures allow the doctor to see lymph nodes
and other organs near the esophagus inside the
chest (by thoracoscopy) or the abdomen (by
laparoscopy) through a hollow lighted tube. The
surgeon can operate instruments through the tube
and remove lymph node samples and biopsy organs
to see whether they contain cancer cells. It is
often important to decide whether a person is
likely to benefit from surgery.  Biopsy for
Esophageal Cancer - During an endoscopy or
other procedure, the doctor will remove a small
piece of tissue. This tissue is then examined by
a pathologist who examines the tissue to
determine whether cancer cells are present and if
so, their type. It usually takes a couple of days
to get the results of a biopsy.
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Treatment of Esophageal Cancer at World Best
Cancer Hospitals in India Surgery  The surgical
procedure for removing the entire or a part of
the esophagus depends on the location and size of
the tumor. There are a number of surgical
procedures for reaching to the esophagus. The
surgical procedure can remove nearby soft
tissues, a section of the esophagus and the lymph
nodes. The entire or a part of the stomach can
also be removed. The cancer is removed by making
several incisions in the abdomen and chest. In
majority of cases, the stomach is pulled up and
is then joined with the remaining portion of the
esophagus. Also, a part of the intestine is used
for connecting the stomach with the esophagus
remaining part. A part of large intestine or
small intestine may also be used. A part of the
intestine is used when the stomach is removed for
joining it with the left over part of the
esophagus to the small intestine. Photodynamic
Therapy  A form of treatment that uses a
photosensitizing agent, administered by mouth or
intravenously, which concentrates selectively in
certain cells, followed by exposure of the
involved tissue to a special light (such as laser
or ultraviolet light), in order to destroy as
much of the abnormal tissue as possible. For
example, photodynamic therapy is used to treat
some forms of cancer and psoriasis.
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Radio Therapy  High-energy radiation beams are
targeted on the cancerous tissue in order to
destroy it. Radiotherapy is usually used in
addition with either chemotherapy or surgery.
Radiotherapy can be categorized into two
different types for treating esophageal cancer
that include Internal Radiotherapy  A small
radioactive implant is placed close to the
cancerous tumor for removing and destroying
it. External Radiotherapy  This therapy makes
use of machine that is placed outside the body.
This machine helps in directing the radiation on
the cancer for the purpose of destroying
it. Chemotherapy  People with esophageal cancer
can also be treated with the help of
chemotherapy. This therapy makes use of certain
drugs that helps in destroying the cancer cells.
The injection of these drugs is done into a vein
(intravenous) that then travels throughout the
different parts of the body. Radiofrequency
ablation (RFA)  In this outpatient procedure,
controlled bursts of radiofrequency energy burn
away thin layers of abnormal tissue on the
surface of the esophagus, leaving healthy tissue
intact. Radiofrequency ablation takes about 45
minutes, and patients can usually return to their
normal activities the next day, though some
patient may experience chest pain and difficulty
swallowing for about a week.
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FAQ - Esophageal Cancer Treatment India   How is
esophageal cancer diagnosed? Diagnosis may be
made with a double-contrast barium esophagram.
This test shows nodularity, irregular narrowing,
ulceration, abrupt angulation or stiffness of the
esophagus.  Does this condition have a genetic
or hereditary link? Tylosis, a rare
autosomal-dominant disorder is the only genetic
link to esophageal cancer. Those affected by this
condition have a significantly increased chance
of developing esophageal cancer by the age of 63
to 65. How to find the Best esophageal Cancer
Treatment and Surgery in India? As there are many
top class surgeons in India, finding the best can
be tricky. Send us your medical report and we
will choose from among the best surgeons most
suitable for your condition. Why people Choose
India for esophageal Cancer Treatment and
Surgery? Uterine cancer hospitals in India
specialize in advanced, minimally invasive
techniques that fight cancer while supporting
your quality of life, both during and after
treatment.
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