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Shrimp Industry in Bangladesh

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Title: Shrimp Industry in Bangladesh


1
Welcome to the PresentationGroup I
  • Presented By
  • Sk. Faijan Bin Halim (MSS 151510)
  • Economics Discipline
  • Khulna University
  • Khulna
  • Special Thanks To
  • Nishad Nasrin
  • Assistant Professor
  • Economics Discipline
  • Khulna University
  • Khulna

2
Group I
  • Shrimp Industry Study Problems, Prospects and
    Intervention Agenda
  • A Paper By ATDP Research Team
  • September 18, 2005

3
Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • ATDP Agro-based Industries and Technology
    Development
  • DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
  • EC European Commission
  • EU European Union
  • Govt. Government
  • ha Hectare
  • mt Metric Ton
  • PL Post Larvae
  • RD Research and Development
  • SPS Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary
  • SSOQ Shrimp Seal of Quality
  • USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
  • WTO World Trade Organization

4
Terminology
  • Antibiotics Generally used for the treatment of
    a bacterial infection.
  • Bio-security Bio-security is a set of measures
    designed to protect a property from the entry and
    spread of pests and diseases.
  • Brackish Water Normally known as brack water. It
    is salt water and fresh water mixed together. It
    is saltier than fresh water but not salty as sea
    water.
  • Brood Mother Brood mother is a specific pathogen
    free variety of shrimp for commercial aquaculture
    today. This ultimately helps the marginal farmers
    and increase export.
  • Greater Noakhali Agriculture Extension Project
    (GNAEP) A fisheries management model developed
    and tested for fisheries, giving genuine
    fisherman access to fishing rights direct from
    the government and aiming at a sustainable
    utilization of resources. It was first started in
    July 1998, with a project duration of 7 years.
  • Hatchery A place where the hatching of fish is
    artificially controlled for commercial purposes.

5
Terminology (cont)
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCPP)
    It is a systematic preventive approach for food
    safety from biological, chemical and physical
    hazards that can make the finished product to be
    unsafe, and designs measurement to reduce these
    risks to a safe level.
  • Land Grabbing Land grabbing means buying or
    leasing of large pieces of land in developing
    countries by domestic and transnational
    companies, government and individual.
  • Mortality Rate The number of deaths in a given
    area or period, or from a particular cause.
  • Post Larvae Hatcheries sell two products. One is
    nauplii (tiny, newly hatched and first stage
    larvae) and post larvae means which have passed
    through three larval stage.
  • Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary (SPS) SPS
    measurement enteed into force with the
    establishment of WTO in 1995. SPS measurement
    sets out the basis rule for food safety, and
    animal and plant health standard. It allows
    countries to set their own standard.

6
Terminology (cont)
  • Shrimp Seal of Quality (SSOQ) SSOQ prepares
    certification standard pertaining to food safety,
    quality assurance, environmental sustainability
    and social responsibility in the Bangladesh
    shrimp sector. These standards apply to all
    operators in the shrimp sector.
  • Tax Holiday It is a temporary reduction and
    elimination of tax. Government usually creates
    tax holidays as incentives for business
    investment.
  • Value Chain A value chain is a set of activities
    that a firm operating in a specific industry
    performs in order to deliver a valuable product
    or service for the market.
  • Wild Fry Wild fry is also known as wild post
    larvae. There are abundant supply of naturally
    occurring post larvae therefore there is no need
    to develop hatchery technology.

7
Summary of The Study
  • Shrimp is one of the leading export items of
    Bangladesh and accounts for roughly 2.5 percent
    of global exports and fetches a fair amount of
    foreign exchange (250-330) million for last
    three years.
  • It has ample demand in international market and
    Bangladesh is blessed with an environment
    congenial for shrimp production.
  • A primary study was undertaken to detect the
    problems plaguing the different levels of the
    value chain of shrimp in the country.
  • Motive of the Study
  • This study aims to identify obstacles to the
    growth of the industry and develop some
    intervention strategies that would help eradicate
    these obstacles and begin to develop a strategic
    model to achieve an export target of 1 billion
    by 2010.

8
Problems of the Study
  • Inefficient Management
  • High Mortality Rates
  • Low Quality Shrimp
  • Negative Country Image Abroad
  • Indiscriminate Catching Brood Mothers
  • Lack of Integrated Agriculture Policy
  • Inadequate Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Measures
  • Lack of Standard
  • Virtual Competition Among Different Actors
  • Lack of Coordination among Donor Agencies
  • Lack of Awareness
  • Unfair Practice by Agents
  • Non-existent RD endeavor

9
Intervention Strategies Towards Achieving Target
  • The study strongly recommends an integrated model
    for both Golda and Bagda projects.
  • Strategic business units can be cooperative
    based, where groups of farmers work together
    under a commercial umbrella and disseminate
    technical information and training to their
    farmer clients
  • Dialogues and forums should be held regularly
    with exporters and importers to raise and address
    questionable trade practices and standards.
  • The government must formulate an integrated
    agricultural policy to ensure sustainable
    development in this sector.
  • Instead of working in isolation, the donors
    should address these problems collaboratively so
    that transfer of learning and experience is
    ensured.

10
Intervention Strategies Towards Achieving Target
(cont.)
  • Donors should also formulate smooth exit
    strategies whereby projects are handed over to
    the private sector after completion.
  • Ecological protection and gender equity issues
    can be controlled by working with the
    aforementioned strategic units to prohibit
    certain dangerous practices like land grabbing,
    indiscriminate catching, child labor and
    participation of women across the value chain,
    etc.
  • Mass awareness can be generated on such issues as
    bio-security by again working through the
    established industry channels that will benefit
    from them. These again are the business units and
    association groups.
  • The SSOQ and DANIDA models can be applied in this
    area. The positive aspects of both the models may
    be applied in the value chain.
  • It is found that such intervention can be done
    quite possibly if all the stakeholders confront
    them jointly in an integrated fashion.

11
Shrimp Industry in Bangladesh
  • Largest export commodity of the country.
  • Bangladesh Produces 2.5 percent of the global
    production of shrimp generating more than US 300
    million annually.
  • Main cultured species is the tiger shrimp (bagda
    shrimp) a marine shrimp and mainly cultivated in
    brackish water. Around 250 million contributed
    from Bagda alone.
  • Next cultured species for export is the fresh
    water variety locally called golda.
  • Shrimp industry provides direct employment to
    over 6,00,000 people who in turn support over 3.5
    million dependents.
  • Suffers from lack of vision and strategic
    direction.

12
Shrimp Sector Contribution
Year Percentage Contribution to Total Export Export to EU (mt) Value (million taka)
2001-2002 4.76 19235 7925.70
2002-2003 5.10 21941 9392.60
2003-2004 5.71 25522 11775.00
2004-2005 5.90 27508 12628.95
2005-2006 4.56 29177 15230.00
2006-2007 4.90 36851 1660.00
Japan, EU and USA are the main importer of
Bangladeshi shrimp
13
Shrimp Culture
  • Follow traditional method and annual yield is
    250-300 kg/ha
  • Total Shrimp farming area-2,76,000 ha
  • Marine Shrimp-195000 ha and Freshwater
    Shrimp-86,000 ha
  • District involved-20, Upazila-52
  • Bangladesh captured only 2-3 percent of world
    production of shrimp.
  • Shrimp sector contributes 84 share of total
    fishery export in Bangladesh (2012-13).
  • Country-wise Share
  • USA-26, Belgium-21, UK-13, Netherland-5,
    Germany-8, Japan-4, Russia-3, Others-20
  • Supply Chain of Shrimp

Culture
Supplier
Boat, Rickshaw
Agent
Boat, Truck
Depot
Commission Agent
Factory
14
  • Objective of the Study
  • The objective of this study is to identify the
    industry-embedded problems and then to layout
    intervention strategies at each step of the
    value-chain to address the same.
  • Ultimate Goal of the Study
  • The ultimate goal of the research is to assess
    the possibilities of developing a strategic
    business model that can help achieve an export
    target worth US1 billion by 2010.
  • Methodology of the Study
  • The methodology entailed both secondary and
    primary qualitative study. Secondary research
    included both local and international studies
    conducted on the subject. Primary study involving
    depth interviews of actors across the value
    chain.
  • The findings of the first phase of the study was
    validated in a stakeholders workshop focusing on
    problems outlined by the members of the value
    chain and the intervention strategy developed
    based on the outcome of the study

15
Interviewed Representative Members of Value Chain
  • Brood Agency
  • Hatchery/Nursery
  • Transport Agency
  • Trade Agency
  • Depot
  • Farm-Shrimp/Nursery
  • Processing Industry
  • Financial Agency
  • Laboratory
  • Wholesale Market
  • Department of Fisheries
  • Facilitating Agency
  • Shrimp Technologist
  • Association
  • Donor Agency
  • Scope of the Study
  • The scope of the study included the entire value
    chain and covered both bagda and galda.
    Geographical coverage was Coxs Bazaar,
    Chittagong, Noakhali, Dhaka, Bagerhat, and Khulna.

16
Sector Map of Bangladesh Shrimp Industry
17
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (General)
  • Lack of integrated agricultural policy
  • Wild fry collection
  • Land grabbing
  • Lack of standard at all level of value chain
  • Hatcheries operating under capacity
  • High demand but inadequate supply due to high
    mortality rates and farms are unable to supply to
    the processors despite of high international
    demand
  • Change in price due to inconsistency in supply
    chain
  • Farmers sometimes inject illegal material to
    shrimp for necessary weight requirement
  • Lack of proper monitoring mechanism
  • Government provided extension workers perform
    very poorly.

Post Larvae of Shrimp
18
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Brood
Parent Collectors)
  • According to experts indiscriminate catching of
    brood mothers may extinct from our country within
    two to three years
  • In Bangladesh male and female shrimps are
    harvested together. There is no mechanism for
    harvesting brood mothers separately
  • Inadequate policy measures regarding the time of
    catching, technology and human resource
  • Lack of local expertise in the time of fry
    collection from the sea
  • People involved in this business have no
    knowledge regarding wild life
  • Lack of monitoring compliance affect the value
    chain as well

Brood Parents
19
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agents
and Hatchery)
  • Hatchery/Nursery
  • Agent
  • Agents are mostly traders and most of them
    entered into business by force. Traders force the
    farmers to buy PL in stocks.
  • Quality and price control mechanisms are
    compromised due to inadequate supply.
  • Inadequate control and monitoring by law
    enforcing agencies is also a troubling issue.
  • This portion complies too many players and all of
    them are engaged in marginal operation.
  • Most investors are motivated to turn black money
    white. Production and sales figures are often
    exaggerated to override the low.
  • Inadequate bio-security measures such as
    drainage, bacterial and viral control and use of
    medication lead to low quality of product.

20
Hatchery/Nursery (cont)
  • In case of golda bio security related problems EU
    imposed a ban on Bangladeshi shrimp import due to
    failure to comply with EU regulation.
  • Lack of trained human resources. Majority 70 are
    from outside country and of which 50 are from
    Indian nationals. Illegal application of
    technology and medication represents a potential
    threat to bio-security.
  • Unethical business practice arises due to the
    direct result of govt. programmes directed in
    favor of the hatcheries.
  • Cost of RD activities at the hatchery level is
    highly uneconomical.

21
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agent-PL,
Transport Agency)
  • Transport Agency
  • Agent-PL
  • Lack of working capital and availability of
    special interest rate is the main constraint
  • High mortality rate during transshipment from
    hatchery to farm especially in case of bagda
  • These agents control both farm and hatchery. They
    purchase on credit from the hatchery owner and
    receive commission from farm
  • In case of golda, a large number of PL imported
    from India which contains nitrofurine (a
    prohibited substance)
  • Poor infrastructure makes hindrance incase of
    transporting bagda from Coxs bazar to Khulna.
  • Lack of landing facility from air transport in
    Khulna, it increase time and transportation cost.
    Policy for licensing air transport is inadequate.
  • Due to time heavy time consumption some
    hatcheries try to transport PL by road but the
    situation is still unimproved.
  • Temperature and oxygen controlled vans for road
    transport are still at the experimental stage.

22
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry
(Farmer/Nursery)
  • Low awareness level resulting high mortality
    rate.
  • Inadequate banking support and financial ability
    hinder progress of daily work.
  • Processors of shrimp mostly get the benefit from
    export and pass some of benefit to agent from the
    higher price but other members do not absorb much
    of the benefit.
  • Higher production cost due to inefficient
    management bodies and high mortality. Higher
    price for the product does not always ensures
    higher profit due to higher production cost as
    like in Bangladesh.
  • Sale price is completely independent of cost.
  • However due to low production cost, survival of
    this sector is quite easy than from the other
    shrimp producing countries.
  • Cost of maintaining nurseries is too risky and
    expensive.

23
Additional Problems of Shrimp Industry (Agent
Shrimp, Processor)
  • Processor
  • Agent Shrimp
  • Huge gap between demand for shrimp by processors
    and supply of the same by the farmers .
  • Processors dictate price based on international
    market.
  • Shrimps are injected with fluid and chemical
    substance to increase its weight.
  • Monitoring of compliance are alarmingly
    inadequate.
  • Quality of shrimp supplied to the processor is
    not of good quality due to adulteration.
  • Processor engaged in their business during the
    tax holiday extension after that they shift their
    profession which rises financial default.
  • Low marketing effort and low prices reduces the
    demand in the international market and it also
    creates a negative image in the outside market.

24
Processor (cont)
  • Inadequate technology and knowledge transfer
    impact market operation.
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is
    still inadequate.
  • It is sometimes difficult to maintain the
    international standard of exported shrimp. For
    example EU regulation for using nitrofurans is
    very low to maintain health standard which is not
    highly maintained in our country and it may ban
    the export of shrimp to EU.
  • What We have Learnt ????
  • Have a Closer Look on the Marked Portion
  • This is a perfect example of inappropriate
    grounds for rejection by the developed countries.
    International laws can therefore sometimes be
    questionable.

25
Business Development System
Some General Barriers
  • Co-ordination Related Problems
  • No coherent coordination and hatchery business is
    mainly set up for interest.
  • Industry needs are not well communicated with
    donor activities.
  • Donor activities also not well communicated among
    themselves.
  • Non-existent government activities.
  • Technological Problems
  • Non-existent RD activity.
  • Donor programmes are not well designed to develop
    appropriate technology.
  • Inappropriate imported technology.
  • Human resource development is not long term
    sustainable.
  • Hatcheries seem to be interested in profit
    sharing not technology sharing.

26
Business Development System (cont)
Some General Barriers
  • Feed
  • Price of feed is beyond the quality of the poor
    farmer.
  • Most available feed suppliers are substandard,
    therefore we often have poor quality of shrimp.
  • Inefficient monitoring of feed and drug
    manufacturing system.
  • Financial Problems
  • Financial agencies found financial farm non
    profitable therefore are reluctant in extending
    loan.
  • Inadequate knowledge of financial operator
    regarding the demand and supply status.
  • Large extent loan is disbursed towards hatcheries
    and processors as they seem to be larger in the
    actor of the value chain.

27
Business Development System (cont)
Some General Barriers
  • Bio-Security Problems
  • As agents are commercially driven, therefore they
    tend to oversell medications such as antibiotics
    and hormones just to gain more profit.
  • Inadequate laboratory facilities result in low
    RD advantage.
  • Due to low level of knowledge regarding bacterial
    and fungal infestation lot of exports turn out to
    be infected.

Antibiotics of Shrimp
Bacterial disease of shrimp
28
Target Achievement
  • It is evident that the target rate of US 1
    billion target is achievable provided that
    certain bottlenecks are removed.
  • Here the main bottleneck is production level is
    unacceptably low.
  • With the dissemination of technology through the
    programmes like SSOQ production in the farmers
    level may be increased 4-5 fold making it
    possible for the industry to reach its desired
    target.
  • Concentration on increasing management efficiency
    ultimately reduce the high mortality rate and
    manifold the production level.

29
Intervention Strategy
  • Strategies that were previously uncovered in the
    primary study illustrated below
  • Agricultural Policy
  • Ministry of agriculture and land should initiate
    an integrated policy to enhance land productivity
    while considering different sub-sectors like
    shrimp, jute, horticulture etc.
  • Fisheries department should prepare different
    policies for bagda and golda as requirement for
    these two species are completely different.
  • As 70 of the foreign exchequer from shrimp is
    contributed by bagda, therefore emphasis should
    be placed there.
  • Hatcheries, farmers and processors should be
    considered as single unit rather than competitors
    while formulating any policies.
  • Policy assessment and updating should be done on
    annual basis based on foreign technician and
    international market scenario.

30
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 2. Policy on Brood and Hatcheries
  • Brood parents catching for bagda and golda
    should be strongly monitored during some specific
    seasons whereas experts suggest that it should be
    banned in some specific areas specially in
    Sundarbans and Satkhira to enable a consistent
    flow of brood mothers.
  • Brood mothers collecting method should be changed
    in our country observing from others developed
    countries. Training facilities will be helpful in
    this case.
  • A 100 ban should be imposed on collecting PL for
    Bagda which makes industries non-existent.
    However such ban should not be imposed before
    making any alternative livelihood for the
    individuals whose main occupation rely on it.
  • In Coxs Bazar govt. initiate tax holiday for
    bagda hatcheries, similar steps should be taken
    for golda.
  • Restrictions should be imposed on using net and
    individuals without trade license should not be
    allowed in this trade.
  • Private sector operation and support from the
    donor should be introduces.

31
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 3. Policy on Bio-Security
  • A free market mechanism across the value chain
    with biologically safe food force the farmers to
    adopt bio-security measures.
  • Rather than depending on foreign technicians
    local manpower should be trained on testing
    measurement.
  • Certification program like SSOQ plays a major
    role for creating value addition in the form of
    better quality and enhance image. SSOQ has
    laboratory in Coxs bazar which test the post
    larvae and then send it to the farmers.
  • Bio-security policy should include viral,
    bacterial and fungal diseases. Policies must be
    adopted in the use of harmful chemical
    substances.
  • Traceability is important which helps farmer to
    receive training on record keeping and
    certification procedure. It should be adopted at
    each and every stage of the value chain including
    importer. This proactive measurement helps to
    achieve larger export also.

32
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 4. Financial Policy
  • Restriction on number of hatcheries to control
    financial corruption which may eradicate
    unethical practices rampant in this sector.
  • Government should undertake investigation before
    granting any hatcheries/processors to operate.
  • Tax holiday should be directed towards the farmer
    in the form of low interest rate to ensure that
    traders do not take all the advantage.
  • Incentives can be more effective that helps
    farmer to meet certain bio-security measures.
  • 5. International Policy
  • In the last few years consumers are more
    conscious about whether imported shrimp is
    produced maintaining international codes for food
    safety, produced in an environment friendly way.
    Therefore, international standard should be
    ensured.

33
International Policy (cont)
  • Concerted effort on a global scale is necessary
    to assist LDCs in order to build capacity
    necessary to guarantee compliance.
  • The SPS (Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary) provisions
    should be formulated in a transparent and
    accountable manner.
  • If standards are to be harmonized, these should
    be take into consideration of regional condition.
    For example, though EU ban import shrimp but
    exporters are able to divert some a part of
    consignment to USA and Japan.
  • Adequate preparatory measures should be ensured
    for exporting countries (SPS measure) prior to
    imposition of any penalty.
  • Adequate financial and technical assistance
    should be provided to the LDCs to facilitate
    conformity with SPS requirement.
  • Certification procedure should be clearly
    addressed to avoid any conflicting interpretation
    with respect to standard.

34
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 6. Policy of Donor Agency
  • Donor agencies should develop a joint country
    strategy to ensure smooth and effective
    functioning.
  • Ensure greater transfer of knowledge which
    increases the effectiveness of the project by
    learning from other mistakes and implementing
    other success stories.
  • Donor agencies should develop a plan based on
    long term exist strategy rather and transfer of
    ownership should follow a smooth and efficient
    process.
  • Instead of acting only a financing source only
    donor agencies can also function as a broker and
    aid govt. to formulate an integrated agricultural
    policy.
  • Emphasis should focus on the private sector as
    from 1986 to 1996 govt. established only a few
    hatcheries whereas private sectors established
    total of 55 hatcheries with less fund.
  • Donors can aid in country image promotion and
    export diversification.

35
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 7. Operational Strategy General
  • A shrimp association should be formed taking one
    representative from each value chain group. There
    exist two hatcheries and one processor
    association but they work in isolation with each
    other but they should work under an umbrella
    organization.
  • There are few agents who have control over
    farmers and hatchery supply. However they need to
    be enlisted to collect information from them and
    disseminated it to monitor of farm activities.
  • SSOQ model could be used in ensuring increase in
    production.
  • National target on exports as well as performance
    target should be directed towards the value chain
    to ensure efficient integration.
  • Bagda and Golda are two different generic brand
    therefore, their promotional strategies also need
    to be different.
  • In developing an operational strategy, grass root
    problems should be solved in the organization
    level.

36
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 8. Operational Strategy Golda
  • For Golda project regional integration model may
    be helpful where all the value chain actor
    performed regionally and whey it matured then
    attempt to form a limited company.
  • GNAEP model is very much effective and have a
    goal of transition from project phase to private
    sector phase.
  • Regional association may be considered fro
    financial support.
  • All movement of good from hatcheries to processor
    recorded properly since a single entity is in
    operation.
  • Golda can also be cultivated in a poly-culture
    system with Carp to boost production.

37
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 9. Operational Strategy Bagda
  • For the hatcheries to be stationed across the
    country, they have to consider the production of
    bagda as they are located near coastal belts and
    the strategies need to be different due to
    geological proximity.
  • Hatcheries can jointly run the PL and use
    technology using road as a means of transport.
    Code number for hatcheries, certification system
    improved efficiency in transport, distribution
    and traceability.
  • Farmers should be helped to form a group.
    Bargaining power of famers should be boosted for
    equitable distribution of benefit. Farmers of a
    specific geo-graphical region should be tagged
    for easy accessibility, supervision and
    traceability.
  • Govt. agencies should monitor bio-security
    measures and provide financial support to the
    farmer to develop export oriented industry.
  • Cooperatives have to be allowed freedom.

38
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 10. Processor
  • 11. RD
  • Support can be sought from the govt. and the
    donor agencies to enhance country image.
  • Strategies should also be generic for bagda and
    golda.
  • Strategies should be directed towards brand which
    increase industry competition within the country.
  • Maintain data banks of products.
  • Maintain liaison with the market and transmit
    information down the chain.
  • RD facilities can be mobilized through linkage
    with the various universities of the country.
  • Research activities can be initiated by the
    regional integrated units or join effort by the
    hatcheries of bagda.
  • Strong linkage with the SSOQ is needed at the
    initial stage.
  • Internship program of the students in various
    universities can be developed at all level of
    value chain to ensure human resource development.

39
Intervention Strategy (cont)
  • 12. Operational Strategy Donor
  • Donor should continue with SSOQ model to ensure
    smooth transition and placement of technology
    transfer.
  • Donor should develop a plan on milestone basis
    rather than time bound basis in the areas of
    technology, standardized operation and marketing
    strategies.
  • An integrated model should be developed by taking
    representative of the private bodies for smooth
    transition from the very beginning of the
    project.
  • A typical NGO driven model should be avoided
    since it lacks transition and partnership with
    public sector need also to be avoided because
    this may lead to ownership issue.

40
Conclusion
  • Integration of activities both in terms of value
    chain and region may help to achieve US 1
    billion theoretically described in the above
    discussion.
  • Working with existing PL supply agents who
    control a significant number of farmers and also
    ensure quick dissemination of information and
    provide technical training.
  • Presence of donor in the absence of government
    guidance is very much essential for a planned
    time period as a facilitators only.
  • Private sector participation is essential and
    project should be handed over only after the
    sustainable profitability has been ascertained.
  • Fisheries department and donor should outline
    policy framework according to the need of the
    buyer and ask the govt. for implementation.
  • If all of the strategies are met only then
    Bangladesh can increase its market share and
    become one of the leader in the global shrimp
    market.

41
  • Thank You All
  • From
  • Any Questions????
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