FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR

Description:

Project is designed to develop a FACTs (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR (Thyristor Switch Reactance) used in two ways. Read more about this project here. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:706
Slides: 24
Provided by: anjalibajpai
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR


1
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
2
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Introduction
  • The project is designed to implement FACTS
    (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR (Thyristor
    Switch Reactance). This method is used either
    when charging the transmission line or when there
    is very low load at the receiving end. Due to
    very low or no load, very low current flows
    through the transmission line and shunt
    capacitance in the transmission line becomes
    dominant. This causes voltage amplification

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
3
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Block Diagram
http//www.edgefxkits.com/
4
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Hardware Requirements
  • 8051 series Microcontroller
  • Op-amps
  • LCD
  • Shunt Capacitors
  • SCR
  • Opto-Isolator
  • Current Transformer
  • Choke
  • Crystal
  • Slide Switches

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
5
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Hardware Requirements
  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • Diodes
  • Transformer
  • Regulator
  • Lamp

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
6
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Software Requirements
  • Keil compiler
  • Languages Embedded C or Assembly

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
7
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
FACTS
  • Flexible AC Transmission System (Facts) is a new
    integrated concept.
  • Based on power electronic switching converters
    and dynamic controllers to enhance the system
    utilization and power transfer capacity as well
    as the stability, security, reliability and power
    quality of AC system interconnections.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
8
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Over View of FACTS
http//www.edgefxkits.com/
9
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Applications of FACTS
  • Steady state voltage stability
  • Power flow control
  • Damping of power system oscillations
  • Reducing generation costs
  • HVDC link application
  • Deregulated power systems

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
10
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Applications of FACTS
  • Flicker mitigation
  • Interconnection of renewable, distributed
    generation and storages.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
11
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR
  • Thyrister is a three terminal device having Gate
    ,Anode and Cathode.
  • Anode is positive and Cathode is negative
    terminal
  • Gate terminal for a controlling input signal

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
12
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR
GATE
CATHODE
ANODE
E
http//www.edgefxkits.com/
13
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR
  • A thyristor is normally four layer three-terminal
    device.
  • Four layers are formed by alternating n type
    and p type semiconductor materials.
  • Consequently there are three p n junctions
    formed in the device.
  • It is a bistable device.
  • The three terminals of this device are called
    anode (A), cathode (K) and gate (G) respectively.
  • The gate (G) terminal is control terminal of the
    device.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
14
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR
  • That means, the current flowing through the
    device is controlled by electrical signal applied
    to the gate (G) terminal.
  • The anode (A) and cathode (K) are the power
    terminals of the device handle the large applied
    voltage and conduct the major current through the
    thyristor.
  • For example, when the device is connected in
    series with load circuit, the load current will
    flow through the device from anode (A) to cathode
    (K) but this load current will be controlled by
    the gate(G) signal applied to the device
    externally

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
15
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR
  • A tyristor is on off switch which is used to
    control output power of an electrical circuit by
    switching on and off the load circuit
    periodically in a preset interval.
  • The main difference of thyristors with other
    digital and electronics switches is that, a
    thyristor can handle large current and can
    withstand large voltage.
  • Other digital and electronic switches handle only
    tiny current and tiny voltage.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
16
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
TSR/SCR Circuit
GATE
ANODE
CATHODE
http//www.edgefxkits.com/
17
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Basic Construction of Thyristor
  • A high- resistive, n-base region, presents in
    every thyristor.
  • As it is seen in the figure, this n-base region
    is associated with junction, J2.
  • This must support the large applied forward
    voltages that occur when the switch is in its
    off- or forward-blocking state (non-conducting).
  • This n-base region is typically doped with
    impurity phosphorous atoms at a concentration of
    1013 to 1014 per cube centimeter.
  • This region is typically made 10 to 100
    micrometer thick to support large voltages

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
18
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Basic Construction of Thyristor
  • High-voltage thyristors are generally made by
    diffusing aluminum or gallium into both surfaces
    to create p-doped regions forming deep junctions
    with the n-base.
  • The doping profile of the p-regions ranges from
    about 1015 to 1017 per cube centimeter.
  • These p-regions can be up to tens of micrometer
    thick. The cathode region (typically only a few
    micrometer thick) is formed by using phosphorous
    atoms at a doping density of 1017 to 1018 cube
    centimeter.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
19
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Basic Construction of Thyristor
  • For higher forward-blocking voltage rating of
    thyristor, the n-base region is made thicker.
  • But thicker n - based high-resistive region slows
    down on off operation of the device.
  • This is because of more stored charge during
    conduction.
  • A device rated for forward blocking voltage of 1
    kV will operate much more slowly than the
    thyristor rated for 100 V.
  • Thicker high-resistive region also causes larger
    forward voltage drop during conduction.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
20
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Operating Principle of Thyristor
  • Although there are different types of thyristors
    but basic operating principle of all thyristor
    more or less same.
  • The figure below represents a conceptual view of
    a typical thyristor. There are three pn
    junctions J1, J2 and J3.
  • There are also three terminals anode (A), cathode
    (K) and gate (G) as levelled in the figure.
  • When the anode (A) is in higher potential with
    respect to the cathode, the junctions J1 and J3
    are forward biased and J2 is reverse biased and
    the thyristor is in the forward blocking mode.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
21
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Operating Principle of Thyristor
  • A thyristor can be considered as back to back
    connected two bipolar transistors.
  • A p-n-p-n structure of thyristor can be
    represented by the p-n-p and n-p-n transistors,
    as shown in the figure.
  • Here in this device, the collector current of one
    transistor is used as base current of other
    transistor.
  • When the device is in forward blocking mode if a
    hole current is injected through the gate (G)
    terminal, the device is triggered on.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
22
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR
Conclusion
  • FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission) by TSR was
    designed and implemented. The flexible ac
    transmission system (FACTS), a new technology
    based on power electronics, offers an opportunity
    to enhance controllability, stability, and power
    transfer capability of ac transmission systems.
    Further the project can be enhanced by using
    firing angle control methodology for smooth
    control of the voltage. Thus, this is better than
    switching reactors in steps where voltage control
    (also in steps) is not very precise.

http//www.edgefxkits.com/
23
http//www.edgefxkits.com/
About PowerShow.com