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Faster Web Performance Using Virtualization in the Browser

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The user experience of many web page or web application usually rely on the page load performance which then depends on how fast the browser can download the applications, process them and render them on screen. In this presentation, Mehrdad Reshadi from Instart Logic explains ways to accelerate web performance in the browser using Nanovisor.js, a web application virtualization technology. Know more: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Faster Web Performance Using Virtualization in the Browser


1
FASTER WEB PERFORMANCE USING VIRTUALIZATION IN
THE BROWSER
BY MEHRDAD RESHADI
2
Instart Logics NanoVisor Architect explains
dual-sided client-cloud architecture A web page
or web app references external resources and
determines their absolute or relative position
and presentation on the screen. This may be done
statically via HTML tags and attributes, or
dynamically via JavaScript. For many web
applications, the user experience is usually
directly correlated to the page load performance,
which depends on how fast the browser can
download the resources and process and render
them on the screen. This in turn depends on
bandwidth, latency, and number of network
connections to the origins of these resources.
3
OPTIMIZATIONS
  • There have been many optimizations in the past
    that focused on different elements of web
    browsing. Content delivery networks (CDNs)
    optimize the middle mile VM optimizations run
    the code faster on the server or the client,
    front end optimizations (FEO) optimize the static
    content in the page but almost all of these
    optimizations are predominantly applicable to the
    static, homogeneous and predictable world of
    desktop browsing. Your users now live in a highly
    dynamic, mobile, and heterogeneous online world.
    Instead of wired Ethernet, we have 3G, 4G, and
    LTE, along with public and private Wi-Fi.
    Standard desktop displays are now accompanied
    with high-resolution Retina and 4K HD displays
    all the way down to small devices with their own
    high-resolution displays. The browser landscape
    has moved away from few slow-changing desktop
    browsers to many rapidly-changing desktop and
    mobile browsers. More importantly, fairly static
    web pages are now replaced by highly dynamic
    content adjusted to user context, location,
    device, and profile. (I realize many of you
    reading this are already quite aware of this, but
    it helps set the stage for the points I make
    below.)
  • The current dynamism of the web has two important
    implications
  • Standalone optimizations applied only to static
    content will not pay off as much.
  • It is too costly to both develop the content and
    manually optimize it for different targets and
    scenarios.

4
  • When it comes to optimizing content for faster
    delivery and rendering, three major choices stand
    out
  • Automated Front End Optimizations run on the
    origin server and manipulate the structure of the
    page and inline, externalize, combine, or
    transform resources such as CSS, JavaScript, or
    images. These optimizations are particularly
    limited to what is statically specified in the
    page (for example, only applying to tags in HTML)
    and cannot deal with cases where JavaScript
    dynamically requests and manipulates resources on
    the client side.
  • CDN optimizations run between the origin server
    and client browser and mainly reduce the latency
    of the requested resources by caching them as
    close as possible to the client device. These
    optimizations are applied at the granularity of
    individual resources and independent of how they
    might be used in a certain webpage or
    application. They are also fairly reactive and
    only respond to what the client is requesting.
    And CDNs were developed for the wired era and
    dont address new challenges with wireless
    networks.
  • Browser-side optimizations such as caching and
    prefetching try to identify individual resources
    in the page and reduce the latency of requesting
    them by either reusing a previously downloaded
    one, or making the request sooner. Once again,
    these optimizations are fairly static.
    Prefetching can only work on statically-referenced
    resources in the page, and caching does not
    consider the criticality of the resource.

5
TIME AND CONTENT
We considered the overall effects of sub-elements
of resources and content on the overall
performance of the page. The novelty of our
approach can be best explained by better
understanding the evolution of multimedia video
streaming. Video streaming is a proven technique
in the world of media delivery that has now
entirely replaced downloading full videos. In
generic terms, media streaming overlaps the
delivery and the consumption of the media. We can
also think of streaming as ordering the delivery
of the contents according to their time of
consumption. This is easy to understand in the
context of video. For example, when watching a
video at 30 frames per second, every pixel in
every frame can be directly associated with the
time it should be shown in the display. This
strong ordering is explicitly embedded in the
content itself. Unfortunately, web pages and web
apps do not have an explicit notion of time in
their content. But it is possible to think of the
process of loading a page on the screen as a
video that starts with a blank screen and
gradually (frame by frame) morphs into the final
presentation of the content. From this point of
view, different bytes coming down the network
link will be needed at different times, and
ideally we would download them in the same order
that they are needed for construction of the page
(i.e. overlapping delivery and consumption).
6
To apply the concept of streaming to the web
page, we need to introduce the notion of timeline
in the page and control the overall process of
page load according to this timeline. When
loading a web page, browser, CDN, and resource
origin servers react to the requests made by
the page (or application). For example, if
JavaScript code requests several images, the
browser must download the JS code, execute the
code, request the images, and then render them.
However, it could have utilized the network
better by downloading only the part of the JS
code that was needed for execution as well as the
first parts of all images that were needed for
initial positioning and rendering of the images
and then while the JS is executing, it could
download the rest of the JS code and the rest of
the images. Unless this is explicitly hardcoded
in the application, individual elements of the
system such as browser and CDN cannot
automatically and independently identify this
timeline and optimize the delivery and processing.
NANOVISOR.JS AND APPSEQUENCER
This is where our Web Application Streaming
approach comes into the picture. It uses our
client-side NanoVisor.js along with the
cloud-based AppSequencer in a client/server
architecture that turns the independent and
reactive behaviors of the browser and legacy CDNs
into a proactive process that carefully
orchestrates the interactions of different
entities based on a more optimal timeline. This
timeline is extracted and refined as more and
more users visit the same page.
7
Static optimization approaches usually rely on
patterns, such as the typical way web apps and
content are created and organized. However, the
number of possible patterns in a dynamic
application quickly becomes monumental and cannot
be relied on for efficient optimization. Instead
of relying on patterns, our NanoVisor.js client
focuses on the behavior of applications. A
behavior is in fact the result of executing a
pattern. The key insight here is that many
patterns exhibit the same behavior when executed
in the browser. For example, HTML offers many
ways to create and configure an image element
(via tag and various JavaScript API), but all of
these mechanisms at the end create an image
object in the Document Object Model (DOM) of the
page. To capture and control the behavior of the
application, NanoVisor.js creates a thin
virtualization layer between the web app and the
browser. This virtual layer allows us to
intercept all browser API calls and potentially
(a) change their function, (b) postpone them, or
(c) use the result of some speculative action
done in advance. This is closely analogous to
what hardware virtualization techniques such as
VMWare, Hyper-V, and Xen do. While those
approaches intercept OS or system calls, we
intercept the browser calls. The NanoVisor.js
virtual layer also enables us to consider a more
holistic and global view rather than focusing
only on point optimizations of certain content.
For example, instead of optimizing and streaming
all images in a certain page, we can learn from
the behavior of that page and decide on which
images in the page we should apply our streaming
approach. One of our methods is to stream the
images of the page so that the page loads
significantly faster and becomes interactive much
sooner. In my next blog post Ill drill deeper
into the image streaming technology we have
implemented on top of our NanoVisor.js and
AppSequencer client-server architecture. Stay
tuned.
8
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