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Autism Treatment for Children

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Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder which cause impairment of social interactions because autism in children affects language and communication skills. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Autism Treatment for Children


1
Autism Treatment for Children
2
What is Autism
  • It is defined by the presence of abnormal and/ or
    impaired development that is manifest before the
    age of 3 years, characterized by abnormalities of
    social development, communication and a
    restriction of behavior and interest.
  • Autism is a lifelong developmental disability
    that affects how a person communicates with and
    relates to, other people. It also affects how
    they make sense of the world around them.

3
About Autism
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Autism are
    both general terms for a group of complex
    disorders of brain function development.
  • The three main areas of difficulty which all
    people with autism share are sometimes known as
    the 'triad of impairments'. They are
  • 1. Difficulty with social communication.
  • 2. Difficulty with social interaction.
  • 3. The difficulty with social imagination.

4
What Causes Autism?
  • Over the last five years, scientists have
    identified a number of rare gene changes, or
    mutations, associated with autism. A small number
    of these factors are sufficient to cause autism
    by them.
  • In most cases of autism, however, it appear to be
    caused by a combination of autism risk genes and
    environmental factors influencing early brain
    development.
  • Autism is four times more likely to affect boys
    than girls, and is found in all racial, ethnic,
    and social groups.

5
What Causes Autism?
  • There is no known single cause for autism,
    although the best available scientific point has
    important genetic components.
  • If one identical (monozygotic) twin has autism
    then there is an 80-90 chance that the other
    twin will also be diagnosed with an autism
    spectrum disorder. For non-identical (dizygotic)
    twins, the chance is about 3-10 that both twins
    will develop autism spectrum disorder. The chance
    that siblings will both be affected by ASD is
    also about 3-10.

6
Autism Spectrum Disorders
There are five Autism Spectrum Disorders,
sometimes called Pervasive Developmental
Disorders (PDD).
  • PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Delay.
  • Autism (sometimes referred to as Classic Autism,
    Early Infantile Autism, Childhood
    Autism, or Autistic Disorder)
  • Asperger Syndrome
  • Rett Syndrome
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

7
Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Autism spectrum disorders affect three different
    areas of a child's life
  • Social interaction
  • Communication -- both verbal and non-verbal
  • Behaviors and interests
  • Each child with an ASD will have his or her own
    pattern of autism.

8
How is Autism Diagnosed?
  • Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be
    difficult since there is no medical test, like a
    blood test, to diagnose the disorders.
  • Doctors look at the childs behavior and
    development to make a diagnosis.
  • Often parents are the first to notice that their
    child is showing unusual behaviors such as
    failing to make eye contact, not responding to
    his or her name or playing with toys in unusual,
    repetitive ways.

9
How is Autism Diagnosed?
  • ASD can sometimes be detected at 18 months or
    younger. By age 2, a diagnosis by an experienced
    professional can be considered very reliable.
  • Diagnosing an ASD takes two steps
  • Developmental Screening
  • Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation

10
Developmental Screening
  • Developmental screening is a short test to tell
    if a child is learning basic skills when he or
    she should, or if there are delays.
  • Developmental screening can also be done by other
    professionals in health care, community, or
    school settings.
  • Doctors and nurses use developmental screening to
    tell if children are learning basic skills when
    they should, or if they might have problems.
  • Your child's doctor may ask you questions or
    talk and play with your child during an exam to
    see how he or she learns, speaks, behaves, and
    moves. A delay in any of these areas could be a
    sign of a problem.

11
Developmental Screening
  • Additional screening might be needed if a child
    is at high risk for developmental problems due to
    pre-term birth, low birth weight or other
    reasons.
  • If the doctor sees any signs of a problem, a
    comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is needed.
  • 9 months
  • 18 months
  • 24 or 30 months

12
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation
  • The second step of diagnosis is a comprehensive
    evaluation. This thorough review may include
    looking at the childs behavior and development
    and interviewing the parents.
  • It may also include a hearing and vision
    screening, genetic testing, neurological testing,
    and another medical testing.

13
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation
  • In some cases, the primary care doctor might
    choose to refer the child and family to a
    specialist for further assessment and diagnosis.
    Specialists who can do this type of evaluation
    include
  • Developmental Pediatricians (doctors who have
    special training in child development and
    children with special needs)
  • Child Neurologists (doctors who work on the
    brain, spine, and nerves)
  • Child Psychologists or Psychiatrists (doctors who
    know about the human mind)

14
Characteristics of Autism
  • Autism is characterized by marked difficulties in
    behavior, social interaction, communication and
    sensory sensitivities. Some of these
    characteristics are common among people with
    autism others are typical of the disability but
    not necessarily exhibited by all people on the
    autism spectrum.

15
Interventions
  • A treatment method or an educational method that
    will work for one child may not work for another
    child.
  • Effective early intervention programs are an
    important first step for children with autism and
    those with other developmental concerns. Early
    diagnosis followed by individualized early
    intervention can provide the best opportunities
    for achieving their potential.

16
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