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Spice Industry Research Needs in India

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Title: Spice Industry Research Needs in India


1
Spice Industry Research Needs to Meet Domestic
Export Demand
Dr. Suresh Dagade
M.B.A., Ph. D (Horticulture)
2
Spices Scenario
  • India largest producer, consumer and exporter
    home of spices
  • Brand Ambassadors of India
  • ISO 109 listed 75 grown in India
  • Share in world trade volume 48 (699170 tons)
  • value 43 (Rs 11171 crore)
  • Estimated demand growth rate (world) 3.19

Indian Horticulture Sector (2012-13)
Sector Area (Million ha) Production (Million t) Productivity (t/ha) Prod Share Area AGR () over 2011-12 Production AGR () over 2011-12
Fruits 7.0 82.3 11.6 30.2 4.1 6.4
Vegetables 9.2 162.2 17.6 60.3 2.4 3.7
Flower aromatics 0.8 2.6 3.4 1 8.3 4.7
Plantation 3.6 17.0 4.7 6.3 1.8 3.8
Spices 3.1 5.7 1.9 2.1 -4.2 -3.5
Total 23.7 268.8 11.4 99.9 1.9 4.5
(Horticulture Statistics 2014 D/o Agriculture
Cooperation, India)
3
Growth Trends in Spices Production
   1978-79  1978-79  1978-79  2012-13  2012-13  2012-13  Difference   Difference   Difference 
Spice Area (ha) Production (t) Productivity (t/ha) Area (ha) Production (t) Productivity (t/ha) Area (ha) Production (t) Productivity (t/ha)
Black Pepper 85000 22000 0.26 125000 53000 0.42 40000 31000 0.17
Cardamom S 93000 4000 0.04 69870 14000 0.20 -23130 10000 0.16
Cardamom L       26060 4145 0.16      
Chilli 827000 566000 0.68 794000 1304000 1.64 -33000 738000 0.96
Turmeric 90000 161000 1.79 194000 971000 5.01 104000 810000 3.22
Ginger 41000 76000 1.85 136000 683000 5.02 95000 607000 3.17
Vanilla       7000 1000 0.14      
Coriander 384000 145000 0.38 543000 524000 0.97 159000 379000 0.59
Cumin 181000 79000 0.44 594000 394000 0.66 413000 315000 0.23
Fenugreek       93000 113000 1.22      
Fennel       100000 143000 1.43      
Clove       2000 1000 0.50      
Nutmeg mace       17000 13000 0.76      
Pepper mint                  
Tamarind       58000 202000 3.48      
Garlic 49000 167000 3.41 248000 1259000 5.08 199000 1092000 1.67
Cinnamon       3000 5000 1.67      
Total 1799000 1309000 0.73 3076000 5744000 1.87 1277000 4435000 1.14
( Spices Board, Horticulture Statistics, 2014
)
4
Spices Export - Import Economy
  Spice Export (2012-13) Export (2012-13) Export (2012-13) Export (2012-13) Import (2012-13)  Import (2012-13)  Import (2012-13)  Import (2012-13) 
  Spice Quantity (t) Value (Rs Crore) Equivalent Area (ha) Export earnings (Rs lac /ha) Competing Countries Import (t) Value (Rs Crore) Equivalent Area (ha)
Black Pepper 16000 673 37736 1.8 Indonesia 15600 569 36792.45
Cardamom S 2250 185 11229 1.6 Gautemala 495 16 2470.40
Cardamom L 1100 74 6916 1.1   3895 146 24488.23
Chilli 281000 2261 171100 1.3 China 1225 9 745.90
Turmeric 80050 540 15994 3.4 China 2495 22 498.49
Ginger 19850 169 3953 4.3 China 57090 104 11367.85
Vanilla 55 7 385 1.8        
Coriander 37100 211 38445 0.5 Russia 4470 35 4632.08
Cumin 79900 1093 120458 0.9  Turkey 120 2 180.91
Fenugreek 31100 108 25596 0.4        
Fennel 14575 114 10192 1.1        
Clove         Brazil 10105 452 20210.00
Nutmeg mace 3645 261 4767 5.5 Grenada 1287 45 1683.00
Pepper mint                
Tamarind 18200 106 5226 2.0        
Garlic 24000 74 4728 1.6  China 95 1 18.71
Cinnamon         Madagascar 12180 82 7308.00
Total 699170 11171.16 374416 3.0   109057 1483.64 58401.69
Domestic use 87.6 , Export 12.4
(Horticulture Statistics 2014), Calculated
5
Challenges in Spices Export
  • Competitions from other countries China,
    Brazil, Vietnam, Pakistan, Egypt, Turkey,
    African, Caribbean etc
  • Quality food Safety More legislation on
    quality requirements. World-wide USA, EU New
    Food Safety Modernization Act - more stringent
    norms on pesticide and chemical residues.
  • India has the status of mere a commodity exporter
    in the market. The processors in importing
    countries and companies buy Indian products, sell
    them at a price 4-5 times more
  • Contamination of spices illegal dyes (Rhodamine
    B, Sudan Red), pesticides (BHC, Ethion),
    aflatoxins, Salmonella etc.
  • Lack awareness of pesticide use and mycotoxin
    contaminants chilli, cumin, nutmeg, cardamom
  • Sustainable supply turmeric, ginger, mint,
    pepper, paprika
  • Poor product quality low competitiveness in
    garlic
  • Cyclic market fluctuations in international
    markets
  • Rising demand AGR 3.19

6
Challenges in Spices Production
  • Low productivity Dwindling Quality Raw material
    production /supply - Increase productivity to
    bring down the cost and increase surplus
  • Low farm profitability shift in farmers interest
    towards less risky but more profitable crops,
    increased cost of cultivation, non availability
    of farm labour, huge wastage
  • Limited resources climate change land, water
    and human resources Need for new technologies
    productivity with sustainability by assured
    irrigation and deferred seasons. Shift in
    production area IISR - GIS study present spice
    areas will become unsuitable for cultivation in
    25 years (Datta, 2013)
  • Technology innovations Limited applied
    research to develop innovative products due to
    limited level of research and development,
    industry- academia gap, skill gap and technology
    gap to meet global quality standards and need of
    small players
  • Domestic use of certain spices by 2050

7
Opportunities
  • Gap in present and potential yield of some spice
    crops

Spice National (t/ha) Progressive farmer (t/ha) Research Stations (t/ha) Abroad (t/ha)
Pepper 0.283 2.000 2.445 2.925 (Malaysia)
Cardamom 0.181 1.625 0.450 0.320 (Guatemala)
Ginger 4.880 5.500 8.250  
Turmeric 5.090 6.200 10.70  
  • Infrastructure Spices board, ICAR, SAUs, NGO,
    SHG etc
  • Historical background of spices cultivation
    organic spices
  • More than 5 million growers and traders are
    engaged in spice trade
  • Sustainability of supplies to bridge the demand
    and supply imbalances with out adversely
    affecting the environment involving producers,
    traders, industry and consumers and adjusting to
    emerging market trends
  • Need multi institute and multi disciplinary
    research efforts

8
Research Initiatives for Increased
Sustainable Spices Production
  • Spices Genetic Resource Management
  • India - world collections in most spices over
    250 improved varieties of spices suitable for
    various regions.
  • Focus on climate change drought and disease
    resistance
  • Convergent breeding and MAS to develop genotypes
    with multiple resistance.
  • MIDH for production of certified planting
    material and delivery of biocontrol agents
    following certified license supplier agreement
  • Spices Health Management
  • Micro irrigation, micronutrients and fertigation
    in turmeric and seed spices
  • Efficient utilisation of water, nutrients and
    labour shortage mitigation
  • Use of biofumigation, biocontrol agents and PGPR
    in pepper, cardamom, ginger, seed spices for
    ecologically sound agriculture
  • GAPs cardamom - Contract cultivation
  • Protected cultivation, precision farming
  • Intelligent planting for better returns.
  • Clean spices - free of pesticides and other
    contaminants.
  • Sustenance and livelihood of small and marginal
    farmers, increasing productivity/unit area and to
    overcome price fluctuations
  • Spices Post Harvest Management
  • Spices harvesting, drying, storage, processing
    secondary agriculture to produce clean spices
  • Market intelligence

9
Spices Genetic Resources Management
Collection, conservation, evaluation and
cataloging of germplasm.
Spice Germplasm Varieties Spice Germplasm Varieties
All spice 180   Cardamom L 179 7
Cassia 26 2 Cardamom S 1198 12
Cinnamon 250 7 Pepper 977 28
Clove 408 1 Coriander   40
Curryleaf   4 Cumin   15
Fenugreek   20 Fennel   11
Garcinia 54 2 Ginger 645 20
Garlic 700 20 Turmeric 568 35
Kokum 36 2 Chilli 566 60
Nutmeg 65 5 Pepper mint   2
Tamarind 500 5 Vanilla 82 (4)
(Nybe et al, 2007 Haldankar et al, 2013)
  • Introductions clove and other valuable spice
    types
  • Conservation of rare/threatened species and old
    varieties Ginger (Kurupapampady, Ellackal),
    Turmeric (Elanji), Chilli (Byadagi) etc
  • Study of genetic variability source of biotic
    and abiotic stress, quality
  • Identification of rootstock and its compatibility
    studies
  • Selection and breeding/development of varieties
    of high yield, quality and resistance to biotic
    and abiotic stresses through conventional and
    biotechnological approaches
    . ctd

10
  • ctd
  • Standardizing propagation methods ensure large
    scale production and assured supply of high
    yielding varieties
  • Intensive land use
  • High density trench system cardamom 5000
    plants/ha, cinnamon
  • Cropping system pepper, rubber, clove, cocoa,
    papaya, orange Brazil,
  • Lakhi bag DBKKV Dapoli, urban area cultivation
    bush pepper etc
  • Organized production management of tree spices
  • Promotion of cluster planting, mixed farming,
    protected cultivation, GAP etc
  • Evaluation of organic package of practices

Betelvine in Madipakkam Chennai
11
Lakhi Bag
12
Spices Health Management
  • Package of practices renovation of old and
    senile spice orchard, new varieties
  • Agro techniques increasing production and
    productivity
  • IPNS low soil pH, high clay and low sand
    content, low CEC, base saturation, low organic C,
    K, Ca, Mg and Zn
  • Spice crop removes 12300 tons of nutrients
    deficit of nutrients (20) crop removal and
    supply through fertilisers (25 )
  • Wide range of soils location specific
    fertilizer recommendations
  • Nutrient balance sheet (applied-removalstock in
    soil) DRIS, MDRIS and CND soil test kits and
    decision support software
  • Soil Erosion associated nutrient loss
    vegetative barrier like pineapple, French bean
    and ginger
  • Integration of native and synthetic inputs with
    natural resources biofertilisers, biosolids,
    city waste, crop residues etc
  • Protected cultivation shade net 40-60 shading
    intensity, off season cultivation
  • Responding to climate change
  • Mitigation studies of rising temperature- reduced
    bees activity, pollination, maturation period,
    evolution of new pest diseases/strains,
    breeding flowering behaviour (pollen fertility
    prolonged flowering), new pest disease
    outbreak
  • Water stress management due to irregular rainfall
    and drought mulching, trashing, earthing up,
    shade , trenches, microirrigation (sprinkler,
    drip, mini sprinkler)
  • IPDM evaluation of new biomolecules, IPDM
    modules, minimizing residue levels
  • Organic spice production location and crop
    specific (AGR 2)

13
Spices Post Harvest Management
  • Functional foods, dietary supplements, medicinal,
    cosmetic uses
  • Value addition - export share increased from 10
    in 1987-88 to 52 in 2013-14
  • Spice oils and oleoresins export share (2012-13)
    1 volume and 13 value
  • Mint products and essential oils (pepper, nutmeg,
    garlic, aniseed, clove leaf/stem, ginger, celery
    seed etc) gt 17568 tons Rs 2230 Crores
  • Oleoresins of Capsicum, Cardamom, Celery Seed,
    Clove, Corriander, Cumin, Fennel, Fennugreek,
    Ginger, Nutmeg, Pepper, Turmeric etc gt 97562 tons
    Rs 1339 Crores
  • Investigation on nutraceuticals, cosmoceuticals,
    spice extracts and pharmacokinetics aspects of
    spices
  • Evaluation of tools/machineries/equipments for
    efficiency, optimum cost threshers, harvesters,
    cleaners, separators, graders, garbling drum,
    peelers, polishing drum, boilers, driers,
    excavators, seed processors etc
  • Evaluation of packing films, box, irradiation,
    jars
  • Spice packing in MAP, N2, Co2
  • Biological plant products/extracts garlic,
    curry leaf
  • Biological antagonist non toxic strain of
    pathogenic organism
  • Containers of packing HDPE, HMHDPE

14
Collaborations
  • SGRM ICAR institutes, SAUs, WSO, IBPGR, IPC
    etc
  • SHM Progressive farmers, SHG, PPP, DASD,
    Societies, Cooperatives
  • SPHM CFTRI, SAUs, CIPHET, BARC, NCBI, PPP etc
  • SToT MIDH, KVK, Publications, News, Electronic
    media, ARI, FM, mobile Apps, SHG etc
  • SHRD POSDC, flexibility, skill development,
    recognition, motivation, mindset, involvement,
    accountability etc
  • Constant resource support, sustainable and
    equitable participation of all concerned will
    lead to achieve set targets

15
Outcome
  • Development of new varieties quality, location,
    stress
  • New technologies planting material, quality
    production, processing, packing etc
  • Protocols for GAP, HDP, INM, IPDM
  • Organic farming package of practices
  • Product/technology patents
  • Optimum natural resource utilization
  • Revenue generation from value addition
  • More income/unit area
  • Employment generation
  • Premier supplier of high quality and value
    added spices and herbs to the domestic as well as
    international market on sustainable basis
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