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Cloning and Cloud Atlas

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This presentation explores modern cloning, a brief history of cloning, uses for cloning technology, cloning laws, and connections/comparisons between current cloning and cloning technology in Cloud Atlas. *IMPORTANT: Be sure to turn your speakers up in order to hear this presentation's accompanying musical piece. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloning and Cloud Atlas


1
Cloning and Cloud Atlas
  • JEREMEY FREELY ERIKA ONTIVEROS ISELA HERNANDEZ

2
The History of Cloning
  • Cloning had been thought of as a subject of
    speculation for most of the 1900s
  • It wasnt until the late 1960s that the idea of
    cloning was taken seriously.
  • Joshua Lederberg was an advocate of cloning and
    genetic engineering

3
  • History of Cloning (Continued)
  • In the 1800s Hans Dreisch cloned a sea urchin
  • In 1902 Hans Spemann cloned a salamander by
    splitting a two-celled salamander embryo in two,
    then letting each cell grew to be adult
    salamanders.
  • Between 1902 and 1951 there were no major
    advances in regards to cloning.

4
Mice Reproduction with Human DNA
  • In 1928, Spemann then conducted the first nuclear
    transfer experiment , from this experiment
    procedure a different salamander clone was
    created. In 1952, Robert Briggs and Thomas J King
    successfully cloned tadpoles. In 1972, there was
    the first cloning of a gene, and later the
    injection of human DNA into newly fertilized
    mouse eggs to produce mice that are part human.
    By the 1990s the cloning technique started
    being used for cloning animals such as pigs,
    sheep, cows and rabbits.

5
Dolly the Sheep
  • A Brief History on Dolly
  • In 1996, Dolly the Sheep was the first cloned
    animal
  • She was cloned by the process called somatic
    cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
  • Though having been only 6.5 years old before
    being euthanized, her legacy allowed many other
    large animals to be cloned.
  • The idea of human cloning began with the success
    of Dolly the Sheep.
  • She was euthanized due to a progressive lung
    disease called Sheep Pulmonary Adenomatosis (SPA)
  • It is speculated that she could have been born
    (cloned) as a 6 year old

6
  • Dollys birth was not revealed until February of
    1997. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in
    Scotland by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues.

7
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
8
Human Cloning
  • In 1998, Advanced Cell Technology was able to
    create a hybrid human clone by the same process
    as Dollys.
  • However, in this case, a nucleus was removed from
    a mans leg cell and inserted into a cows egg.
    It was then cultured and it eventually developed
    into an embryo.
  • It was destroyed 12 days later.

9
Human Cloning
  • In 2013, Shoukhrat Mitalipov published a report
    that they successfully cloned embryonic stem
    cells using SCNT
  • In 2014, Robert Lanza reported that he and his
    team have replicated Mitalipovs successful
    results.

10
Laws on Human CloningAcross the Globe
  • Australia Prohibits human cloning. As of 2006,
    therapeutic cloning and creation of human embryos
    for stem cell research is legal.
  • Britain- In February 2003, the government
    approved work on frozen embryos left over from in
    vitro fertilization, and will allow strictly
    regulated therapeutic cloning. Scientists apply
    for licenses, submit to grilling from fellow
    academics, file reports on how the embryos are
    being used and entertain inspectors unannounced.
    In December it launched the world's first
    human-stem-cell bank to maintain the cell lines,
    manage the intellectual-property rights and make
    cells available to scientists
  • Canada Prohibits human cloning, cloning stem
    cells, growing human embryos for research,
    buying/selling embryos, reproductions cells and
    material

11
Continued Cloning Laws
  • Singapore - The government of Singapore approved
    stem-cell and therapeutic-cloning research in
    July and now wants to transform itself into a
    world-class life sciences hub by 2010. It is
    building a state-of-the-art biomedical RD
    center, called Biopolis, to bring together
    venture capitalists, researchers, clinical
    scientists and academics.
  • United Kingdom Prohibits reproductive cloning
    Allows hybrid human-animal embryos for research
    for treatments in diseases
  • Romania, Serbia, Greece, Spain, Portugal,
    Columbia and European Union all prohibit human
    cloning.

12
United States of America
  • Prohibits federal funding for human cloning. The
    states CA, AR, CT, IA, IN, MA, MD, MI, VA, ND,
    NJ, RI, and SD prohibits reproductive cloning.
    The states AZ, MD and MO prohibits use of public
    funds for cloning. Last year the House passed a
    bill that would forbid all forms
    of human cloning, including the
    therapeutic cloning that would be part of some
    stem-cell therapies. 

Congress can and should act to ban cloning of
human beings during this session. But it should
not act in haste, and it should not pass
legislation that goes far beyond what the
American people want or what the scientific and
medical community understands is necessary or
appropriate (Senator Kennedy ). Though cloning
is already performed with certain species, human
cloning is a more difficult procedure but if
more people were for cloning instead of against,
then the success human cloning would come sooner
rather than later.
13
Cloning in Cloud Atlas
  • Cloning technology is represented in Cloud Atlas
    in a negative manner. The clones were created to
    serve as free mindless servants called
    fabricants. These clones or fabricants are
    enslaved, abused, and even killed. They are not
    allowed any freedom, they are not allowed to
    think or speak for themselves, and they are not
    allowed to develop their own identity. These
    clones are taken advantaged of and treated
    unethically and morally wrong, not only by their
    boss, but by children, employees, and soldiers. A
    clone named Somni-451, proved that though she is
    a clone, she is very much human with dreams and
    needs of her own. These clones, if given the
    freedom, are very capable of building their own
    self identity all they need is that the
    opportunity.

Papas Song diner clones
14
Uses for Cloning
Therapeutic VS
Reproductive
  • Extracting embryonic stem cells
  • Gene modification
  • Drug production
  • and other beneficial medical research
  • The resulting "cloned" cells remain in a dish in
    the lab
  • Reproducing an animal or a deceased pet
  • Reproductive cloning is the production of a
    genetic duplicate of an existing organism.
  • The cloned cells can be implanted in the
    females uterus.

15
Is Human Cloning Ethical?
  • This question is difficult to answer due to ones
    morals.
  • On one hand, there is the scientific freedom of
    inquiry
  • On the other, there is the sanctity of freedom of
    life
  • - which is half-and-half in itself.
  • It is unethical and ethical at the same time. It
    is a matter of ones personal stance on human
    cloning
  • Some oppose reproductive cloning because of
    safety considerations.
  • Many scientists believe that reproductive cloning
    can never be made safe.
  • Human reproductive cloning would also threaten
    the psychological well-being of cloned children,
    open the door to more powerful genetic
    manipulation technologies, and raise other social
    and ethical concerns.

16
Possible Repercussions of Human Cloning on Society
  • If this were to happen in the 21st century, it
    would deprive others of work and income.
  • It could affect the way society looks at children
    who are born this way.
  • Clones will have an identity and individuality
    crisis
  • Might be considered as products of a designed
    manufacturing process instead of as gifts
  • Possibly be seen as scapegoats targeted by
    discriminatory groups against clones

17
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18
CLONING Its inevitable
  • Isela Hernandez

19
  • The demand for human reproductive cloning is
    already evident. Calls for permitting it have
    come from gay men, lesbians and infertile couples
    who wish to have genetically related children,
    and from people who want to clone lost children
    or other relatives. They have cloned human embryos
    , but none has yet successfully grown past the
    early stage where they are solid balls of cells
    known as morulas. In the U.S., not all states
    have banned human reproductive cloning. The
    United Nations has adopted a nonbinding ban.
    If human cloning happens, it will "occur in a
    less restrictive area of the world.
  • Yet human cloning will almost surely happen. In
    the past, other new reproductive technologies
    were also denounced at first but then they were
    adapted to serve human pro-creational needs and
    ultimately became commonplace practices. 
    Human cloning already has advocatesaccording to
    polls, six to seven percent of adult Americans,
    including, no doubt, many who cannot or prefer
    not to have children by conventional means.
    If human cloning is made reliably safe for both
    mother and child, market demand for it will gain
    considerable force, likely overpowering the
    residue of moral objection.

20
Animal cloning is being done today. However,
human cloning is not. Human cloning isnt as easy
for scientist to practice because it is banned.
Many people are against human cloning because it
is unethical, but the people who cannot conceive
are against the ban and are for human cloning.
They see it as another means of being a parent,
like artificial insemination. Artificial
insemination was once ridiculed and not accepted
by many people, but as more success stories were
shared, the more people learned to accept it and
see it as a common alternative to parenthood.
Cloning Today
21
To enslave an individual troubles your
conscience, Archivist, but to enslave a clone is
no more troubling than owning the latest
six-wheeler ford, ethically. Because you cannot
discern our differences, you believe we have
none. But make no mistake even same-stem
fabricants cultured in the same womb tank are as
singular as snowflakes.
22
Works Cited
  • Baird, Steven L. "Technological Literacy And
    Human Cloning." Technology Teacher 62.3 (2002)
    19. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
  •  
  • Boyce, Nell. "The Clone Is Out Of The Bottle."
    U.S. News World Report 136.7 (2004) 40-43.
    Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
  •  
  • Choi, Charles Q. "Cloning Of A Human." Scientific
    American 302.6 (2010) 36-38. Academic Search
    Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
  • Details of Hybrid Clone Revealed. BBC News. 18
    June 1999. Web. 10 April 2015
  • Guterl, Fred, et al. "Attack Of The Clones."
    Newsweek (Atlantic Edition) 141.2 (2003)40.
    MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2015.
  • Hartwell, Sarah. "PROS AND CONS OF CLONING CATS."
    PROS AND CONS OF CLONING CATS. MessyBeast.com,
    2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
  •  
  • Human Cloning and Human Dignity
  • An Ethical Inquiry. The President's Council on
    Bioethics. Web. July 2002.
  •   

23
Works Cited
  • Kevles, Daniel J. "Cloning Can't Be Stopped."
    Technology Review 105.5 (2002) 40. MasterFILE
    Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
  • Khan, Foouad M. "HUMAN CLONING -In The Name Of
    Science." Economic Review (05318955) 34.2 (2003)
    5. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2015.
  • Lederberg, Joshua A. Experimental Genetics and
    Human Evolution. The American Naturalist.
  • Vol. 100, No. 915 (1966) 519-531. Web. 10
    April 2015
  • Park, Alice (17 April 2014). Researchers Clone
    Cells from Two Adult Men. Time. Web. 10 April
    2015
  • Roleff, Tamara L. Cloning Opposing Viewpoints.
    Detroit MI, 2006. Print
  • "Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer." ScienceDaily.
    ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
  • "The Roslin Institute." (University of
    Edinburgh). N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2015.
  • Trounson A, DeWitt ND (2013). Pluripotent Stem
    Cells from Cloned Human Embryos Success at
  • Long Last. Cell Stem Cell 12 (6) 636-8. Web.
    10 April 2015
  • "Why Clone?" Why Clone? University of Utah, n.d.
    Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
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