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In Depth Explanation of the Doctrines of Grace


The Doctrines of Grace uses the acrostic TULIP to abbreviate Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, and Perseverance of the Saints. Also known as the Five Points of Calvinism. As a result of the Synod of Dort in 1610, TULIP was the counter of the five articles (or Five Points of Arminianism) published by the followers of James Arminius that were at variance with the Bible. This presentation is an in-depth explanation of TULIP with Scriptural support and occasional theologian quotes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: In Depth Explanation of the Doctrines of Grace

in depth Explanationof theDoctrines of Grace
27 May 2012 Mark V. Eberhard Ruling Elder Adult
Sunday School Concord Presbyterian Church (PCA)
Doctrines of Grace (TULIP)
  • Total Depravity
  • Unconditional Election
  • Limited Atonement
  • Irresistible Grace
  • Perseverance of the Saints
  • Also known as the Five Points of CalvinismAs a
    result of the Synod of Dort in 1610, TULIP was
    the counter of the five articles (or Five Points
    of Arminianism) published by the followers of
    James Arminius that were at variance with the

Total Depravity Defined
  • Total depravity (also called absolute inability,
    radical corruption, total corruption, or
    Augustinianism) is a theological doctrine that
    derives from the Augustinian concept of original
    sin. It is the teaching that, as a consequence
    of the Fall of Man, every person born into the
    world is enslaved to the service of sin and,
    apart from the efficacious grace of God, is
    utterly unable to choose to follow God or choose
    to accept salvation as it is offered.
  • Augustine of Hippo or Bishop of Hippo, modern
    day Algeria, St. Augustine, lived 354-430 A.D.

Total Depravity (Def Cont.)
  • The doctrine of Total Depravity briefly states
    that because of the fall, man is unable of
    himself to savingly believe the Gospel. The
    sinner is dead, blind and deaf to the things of
    God his heart is deceitful and desperately
    corrupt. His will is not free it is in bondage
    to his evil nature therefore, he will not -
    indeed he cannot - choose good over evil in the
    spiritual realm.

Total Depravity (Def Cont.)
  • Consequently it takes much more than the Spirit's
    assistance to bring a sinner to Christ -- it
    takes regeneration, by which the Spirit makes the
    sinner alive and gives him a new nature. Faith is
    not something man contributes to salvation but is
    itself a part of God's gift of salvation it is
    God's gift to the sinner, not the sinner's gift
    to God.

Total Depravity (More Define)
  • Total depravity is the fallen state of man as a
    result of original sin. The doctrine of total
    depravity asserts that people are by nature not
    inclined or even able to love God wholly with
    heart, mind, and strength, but rather all are
    inclined by nature to serve their own will and
    desires and to reject the rule of God.

Scriptural Support
  • Genesis 65, 821
  • Numbers 1537-39
  • 1 Kings 846
  • Job 1514-16
  • Psalm 141-3, 515, 9411, 1303
  • Proverbs 423, 209
  • Ecclesiastes 720, 811
  • Isaiah 65, 536, 646
  • Jeremiah 1014, 1323, 179
  • Matthew 711, 1519
  • Mark 1018
  • Luke 1710
  • John 224, 336, 644, 155, 16
  • Acts 316, 1614
  • Romans 118-216, 39-20, 23, 512, 718-20, 87
  • 1 Corinthians 214, 123
  • 2 Corinthians 35, 43, 113
  • Ephesians 21-6, 417-19
  • Colossians 213

Free and Uncoerced
  • Even though free and uncoerced, the fallen will
    has no desire for anything except to indulge the
    evil tendencies of the heart. As long as a person
    is inclined only to evil, he chooses only evil.
    Fallen humanity loves darkness and hates light.
    So whenever a person is confronted with a choice
    between darkness and light, he chooses darkness.
    He chooses what is attractive to him, what his
    free will desires.

John 319-20
  • John 319-20 says
  • "This is the judgment, that the Light has come
    into the world, and men loved the darkness rather
    than the Light, for their deeds were evil. For
    everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does
    not come to the Light for fear that his deeds
    will be exposed."

Choosing Your Own Inclination
  • A person always chooses according to his
    inclination. Every member of the human race is
    bonded to choose what he loves. Where is the
    bondage in choosing what we want? The bondage
    comes in the result of the sin he loves, the
    consequences of which he does not like.

Own Inclination (cont.)
  • In sin, we may get what we want, but we do not
    want what we get. The sinner wants to live
    forever. He wants joy, love, peace, but only on
    his terms rather than God's. The sinner seeks
    these things, yet hates righteousness.

Zechariah 13
  • Zechariah 13 says "Therefore say to them, Thus
    says the LORD of hosts, "Return to Me," declares
    the LORD of hosts, "that I may return to you,"
    says the LORD of hosts.'"

Martin Luther
  • Commenting on this verse, the great reformer
    Martin Luther said, "It is not in your power to
    turn to God.
  • If you think that it is in your power to turn to
    God you have missed the whole Reformation and
    don't understand total depravity.

Martin Luther (cont.)
  • It is not in your power to turn to God. You are a
    sinner, you're dead, you're eaten up with
    corruption. Every free choice of yours is evil
    and not good. So how can we turn to Him who is
    light, righteousness, holy and good?"

Total Depravity (Sproul)
  • Total depravity does not mean, however, that
    people are as evil as possible. R.C. Sproul
  • The Bible teaches the total depravity of the
    human race. Total depravity means radical
    corruption. We must be careful to note the
    difference between total depravity and utter
    depravity. To be utterly depraved is to be as
    wicked as one could possibly be.

Total Depravity (Sproul)
  • Hitler was extremely depraved, but he could have
    been worse than he was. I am sinner. Yet I could
    sin more often and more severely than I actually
    do. I am not utterly depraved, but I am totally
    depraved. For total depravity means that I and
    everyone else are depraved or corrupt in the
    totality of our being.

Total Depravity (Palmer)
  • We are, as Edwin H. Palmer puts it, not as
    intensively evil as possible but we are as
    extensively evil as possible. For example, while
    we as individuals may lie and cheat, this does
    not mean that we will go as far as murder.
  • We are incapable of a truly good act of our own
    selves. Any good deeds we do (outside of Christ)
    is merely a "relative" good deed. A truly good
    deed is done for the glory of God unbelievers
    are incapable of this.
  • The supreme point following from these three We
    are unable of ourselves to turn to Christ to be

Scriptural Support of Total Depravity
  • John 644 No man can come to me, except the
    Father which hath sent me draw him and I will
    raise him up at the last day.
  • We will begin, therefore, with the verse that
    clearly does teach total depravity. Palmer
    Palm.5P, 16 tells us, "Here is total depravity
    man cannot choose Jesus. He cannot even take the
    first step to go to Jesus, unless the Father
    draws him."
  • This is indeed total depravity, but there is a
    factor involved that looks to shift the matter
    back to individual choice. Jesus goes on to say
    in John 1232, "And I, if I be lifted up from the
    earth, will draw all men unto me.

More Total Depravity Scripture
  • The Greek word behind "draw" in the two verses is
    the same. Note the connotation that this word can
  • Acts 1619 And when her masters saw that the
    hope of their gains was gone, they caught Paul
    and Silas, and drew them into the marketplace
    unto the rulers...
  • James 26 But ye have despised the poor. Do
    not rich men oppress you, and draw you before the
    judgment seats?
  • This word has the connotation of being brought
    somewhere by force if needed, and against the
    wishes of the "draw-ee." This verse does indeed
    teach the doctrine clearly.

Total Depravity (More)
  • Even religion and philanthropy are wicked to God
    to the extent that these originate from a human
    imagination, passion, and will, and are not done
    to the glory of God. Therefore, in Reformed
    theology, if God is to save anyone He must
    predestine, call, or elect individuals to
    salvation since fallen man does not want to, and
    is indeed incapable of choosing God.

We Are All Sinners
  • Since all of us are sinners, we have a duty to
    return to God, but we are unable to do so. We
    simply do not have the ability. Because we are
    responsible for our sins before God and are
    commanded by Him to return to Him in repentance
    does not mean that we have the natural ability to
    do so.

John 1236
  • Jesus said in John 1236, "'While you have the
    Light, believe in the Light, so that you may
    become sons of Light.' These things Jesus spoke,
    and He went away and hid Himself from them."
    Jesus said "believe in the Light." Most believers
    today would say that because Christ commands us
    to believe, we must have an innate ability to

Not Scriptural
  • But Scripture does not support this view.
    Consider the following verses
  • "But though He had performed so many signs before
    them, yet they were not believing in Him. This
    was to fulfill the word of Isaiah the prophet
    which he spoke 'LORD, WHO HAS BELIEVED OUR

John 1237-41
  • For this reason they could not believe, for
    Isaiah said again, HE HAS BLINDED THEIR EYES AND
    things Isaiah said because he saw His glory, and
    he spoke of Him." (John 1237-41)

Cannot See, Understand, or Come
  • The people described in this passage did not
    believe because they could not. Scripture clearly
    teaches that there are some things a lost person
    cannot do
  • Cannot see - until he first be born again. (John
  • Cannot understand - until he first be given a new
    nature. (1 Corinthians 214)
  • Cannot come - until he first be effectually
    called by the Father. (John 644-45)

John 644-45
  • Jesus said in John 644-45, "No one can come to
    Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him and I
    will raise him up on the last day. It is written
    in the prophets, 'AND THEY SHALL ALL BE TAUGHT OF
    GOD.' Everyone who has heard and learned from the
    Father, comes to Me."

New Birth (Regeneration)
  • According to the words of Jesus, a sinner
    absolutely cannot come to Christ until God first
    does something in that sinner's nature. That
    "something" is what the Bible calls the new birth
    (regeneration), and it is the exclusive work of
    God the Holy Spirit. A person has as much to do
    with being regenerated as he had with being born!
    In other words, no human being has any part
    whatsoever in regeneration.

John 1143
  • A good illustration of this important point can
    be found in John 11
  • "When He Jesus had said these things, He cried
    out with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.'"
    (John 1143)

  • Did Lazarus have the ability in himself to obey
    that command? Of course not, since Lazarus was
    dead! He had no ability at all. Unsaved,
    unregenerate people have a duty to believe the
    gospel, but lack the ability. Why does God
    command us to do what He knows we cannot do? To
    show us how depraved we are, to show us the depth
    of our utter sinfulness and rebellion against

For We Cannot
  • When God commands us to return and promises that
    if we do He will return to us, we will not do it,
    for we cannot. Before regeneration we are in
    bondage to what our sinful nature innately loves,
    that which is darkness and evil. In this state we
    reject what we hate, that which is light and
    goodness and of God. We should be able to turn to
    God, but cannot because of our inherited sinful
    nature that came as a result of Adam's sin in the
    Garden of Eden.

Romans 512
  • In Romans 512, Paul goes into this idea more
    completely. He says, "Therefore, just as through
    one man sin entered into the world, and death
    through sin, and so death spread to all men,
    because all sinned". Paul had now finished his
    description of how God has revealed and applied
    to humans His provided righteousness on the basis
    of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ received
    by faith.

Romans 512 (cont)
  • One thing remains to be done to present the
    contrastive parallelism between the work of Jesus
    Christ (and its results in justification and
    reconciliation) and the work of another man, Adam
    (and its results of sin and death). Paul began by
    saying, "Therefore" (lit., "because of this" cf.
    416 NIV), and started his comparison. But he
    became concerned by other matters and did not
    return to the comparison until 515.

Romans 512 (cont)
  • Paul explained that "sin" (in Greek, "the sin")
    "entered into" (in Greek, "eisethen") the world
    through one man and, in accord with God's
    warning (cf. Gen. 216-17), death (in Greek, "the
    death") through sin. God's penalty for sin was
    both spiritual and physical death (Romans 623,
    713), and Adam and Eve and their descendants
    experienced both. But physical death, being an
    outward, visible experience, is in view in

Romans 512 (cont)
  • Paul concluded, "And in this way death ("the
    death") came to all men. "Literally "passed or
    went through" or "spread through." Eisethen,
    "entered into" (the first clause in the verse)
    means that sin went in the world's front door (by
    means of Adam's sin) and "diel", "went through,"
    means that death penetrated the entire human
    race, like a vapor permeating all the rooms of a
    house. The reason death spread to all, Paul
    explained, is that all sinned.

One Act of Adam's Sin
  • The Greek past (aorist) tense occurs in all three
    verbs in this verse. So the entire human race is
    viewed as having sinned in the one act of Adam's
    sin (i.e., "all have sinned," also the Greek past
    tense, in 323). Two ways of explaining this
    participation of the human race in the sin of
    Adam have been presented by theologians -- the
    "federal headship" of Adam over the race and the
    "natural or seminal headship" of Adam.

Federal Headship
  • (Some say that people merely imitated Adam, that
    he gave the human race a bad example. But that
    does not do justice to 512.)
  • The federal headship view considers Adam, the
    first man, as the representative of the human
    race that generated from him. As the
    representative of all humanity, Adam's act of sin
    was considered by God to be the act of all people
    and his penalty of death was judicially made the
    penalty of everybody.

Federal Headship (cont)
  • The natural headship view, on the other hand,
    recognizes that the entire human race was
    seminally and physical in Adam, the first man. As
    a result, God considered all people as
    participating in the act of sin which Adam
    committed and as receiving the penalty he

Federal Headship (cont)
  • The natural headship view, on the other hand,
    recognizes that the entire human race was
    seminally and physical in Adam, the first man. As
    a result, God considered all people as
    participating in the act of sin which Adam
    committed and as receiving the penalty he
    received. Even adherents of the federal headship
    view must admit that Adam is the natural head of
    the human race physically the issue is the
    relationship spiritually.

Headship in Hebrews 79-10
  • Biblical evidence supports the natural headship
    of Adam. When presenting the superiority of
    Melchizedek's priesthood to Aaron's, the author
    of Hebrews argued that Levi, the head of the
    priestly tribe, "who collects the 10th, paid the
    10th through Abraham, because when Melchizedek
    met Abraham, Levi was still in the body of his
    ancestor". (Hebrews 79-10)

Federal or Natural Headship
  • Whether one accepts the "federal headship" view,
    or the "natural headship" view, it still remains
    that all of mankind is in need of a Savior by
    virtue of Adam's sin.

Gods Sovereignty
  • The very fact that God commands sinners to do
    that which they are utterly unable to do shows
    how totally depraved they are apart from the
    regeneration of the Holy Spirit. And if salvation
    is going to come at all, it must be applied
    sovereignly. This overthrows self-confidence and
    convinces sinners that their salvation is
    altogether out of their hands, leaving them the
    only remaining alternative, that is, total
    dependence on the glorious grace of a sovereign

Romans 310-12
  • Romans 310-12 says
  • "As it is written, THERE IS NONE RIGHTEOUS, NOT

How Serious is Sin?
  • Many people will admit they are sinners, but not
    many will admit sin is so serious that no one can
    be considered righteous or essentially good. They
    point to unbelievers who do good deeds every day,
    obeying the law, providing for their families,
    giving to the needy, etc. Is Paul using hyperbole
    here? Is he exaggerating to make his point? No,
    he is not. This is God's judgment on fallen
    humanity. What is the standard for righteousness,
    the standard by which we shall all be judged?
    God's law.

Good Deeds Measured
  • In biblical categories a good deed is measured in
    two parts, outward conformity and motivation. We
    look at outward appearance but God reads the
    heart. For a work to be considered good it must
    not only conform outwardly to the law of God, but
    it must be motivated inwardly by a sincere love
    for God. From this perspective it is easy to see
    that no one does good.

Our Best Works Tainted
  • Our best works are tainted by our less than pure
    motives. Renowned British preacher Charles H.
    Spurgeon once said,
  • "Our best performances are so stained with sin,
    that it is hard to know whether they are good
    works or bad works." This is a true statement.
    God demands perfection, and we do not perfectly
    do what God commands ever.

Romans 311
  • Romans 311 says, "THERE IS NONE WHO UNDERSTANDS,
  • Do you believe that? Have you ever heard someone
    say, "I am not a Christian but I am searching"?
    Well, the fact of the matter is that God is not
    hiding. In the Garden of Eden who hid? God? No.
    Adam and Eve hid from God. He was looking for

Luke 1910
  • In Luke 1910 Jesus says, "For the Son of Man has
    come to seek and to save that which was lost."
  • This passage shows that Jesus is the one seeking
    and saving. Sinners do not seek God. They might
    seek after the benefits that God can give them,
    but they do not seek God Himself.

Romans 318
  • Romans 318 says "THERE IS NO FEAR OF GOD BEFORE
  • Men have no fear of the holiness and justice of

Ephesians 21-6
  • Ephesians 21-6 says "And you were dead in your
    trespasses and sins, in which you formerly walked
    according to the course of this world, according
    to the prince of the power of the air, of the
    spirit that is now working in the sons of
    disobedience. Among them we too all formerly
    lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the
    desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by
    nature children of wrath, even as the rest.

Ephesians 21-6 (cont)
  • But God, being rich in mercy, because of His
    great love with which He loved us, even when we
    were dead in our transgressions, made us alive
    together with Christ (by grace you have been
    saved), and raised us up with Him, and seated us
    with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,"

Dead in Trespasses Sins
  • This passage teaches that we were dead in
    "trespasses and sins" and in "transgressions".
    Dead people do not and cannot make themselves
    come alive. It is God who makes us alive from
    spiritual death. Consider this non-Reformed
  • A mortally ill man must take the medicine of the
    gospel to live. The man must make the choice he
    must take the medicine. (To Be Continued)

Mortally Ill or Dead?
  • The problem with this analogy, however, is that
    the Bible does not speak of people as being
    mortally ill. It speaks of them as being dead.
    There is a significance difference between being
    mortally ill and being dead.
  • Genesis 217 says "but from the tree of the
    knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for
    in the day that you eat from it you will surely

Romans 623
  • Did Adam die when he ate the forbidden fruit?
    When did he die? He lived physically another 930
    years, but he died spiritually the day that he
    ate it. Humanity's problem is a spiritual
    problem. Humanity is spiritually dead, separated
    from God.
  • Romans 623 says "For the wages of sin is death,
    but the free gift of God is eternal life in
    Christ Jesus our Lord."

Ephesians 25
  • What kind of death is referred to in this
    passage? Physical death or spiritual death? It
    refers to spiritual death.
  • Ephesians 25 says we were dead in our sins.
    Sinners are not mortally ill, they are
    spiritually dead. There is not one ounce of
    spiritual life in them.

1 Corinthians 214-15
  • 1 Corinthians 214-15 says "But a natural man
    does not accept the things of the Spirit of God,
    for they are foolishness to him and he cannot
    understand them, because they are spiritually
    appraised. But he who is spiritual appraises all
    things, yet he himself is appraised by no one."
  • Natural man is dead and totally unreceptive to
    the gospel. He must first be given life before he
    can understand the gospel.

Romans 87-9
  • Romans 87-9 says "The mind set on the flesh is
    hostile toward God for it does not subject
    itself to the law of God, for it is not even able
    to do so, and those who are in the flesh cannot
    please God.
  • However, you are not in the flesh but in the
    Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in
    you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of
    Christ, he does not belong to Him."

1 John 51
  • There is nothing good in the flesh, therefore it
    can do nothing good. A man cannot believe the
    gospel until God gives him life. The teaching of
    Scripture is that regeneration precedes faith.
  • We must have life before we can believe. The
    Scriptures clearly show that faith is the
    evidence of and not the cause of regeneration. 1
    John 51 says "Whoever believes that Jesus is
    the Christ is born of God, and whoever loves the
    Father loves the child born of Him."

A Dead Man Comes Alive
  • Suppose a man who had been dead for many years
    greeted you on the street one day. Would you
    conclude that the man had gotten tired of being
    dead and decided to ask a great doctor to perform
    a miracle and give him life?
  • I am sure you would instead, exclaim in
    amazement, "Man, what happened to you? Who
    brought you back to life?"

A Dead Man Comes Alive (cont)
  • You would see he was alive because he was walking
    and breathing, but you would know these were
    evidences of a miracle having been performed on
    him from without and not the results of his own
    power of will. In like manner, when a spiritually
    dead man begins to perform spiritual acts such as
    placing faith in Jesus Christ alone for
    salvation, loving Him, and seeking to live a life
    pleasing to Him, that shows that the miracle of
    the new birth has taken place.

Spiritual Insensitivity
  • Spiritual death brings an insensitivity to the
    things of God. It is a spiritual slavery, the
    prisoners of which are helplessly, hopelessly
    dead. This is what Total Depravity is. It does
    not mean, as many have misunderstood, that the
    unregenerate man is as bad as he can possibly be.
    It means that the man is as bad off as he can
    possibly be.

God's Sovereign Intervention
  • Salvation does not lie in the exercise of a man's
    so-called free will. It is due to man's own
    corrupt will that he is separated from God. We
    are all destined for eternal condemnation unless
    God gives us spiritual life and inclines our
    wills toward Jesus Christ. We must have a Savior
    who is mighty enough to rescue us from ourselves.
    Clearly, God must do something. We are hopelessly
    lost without God's sovereign intervention.

What is Unconditional Election?
  • Because of humanity's total depravity, God of
    necessity, in eternity past, chose certain people
    to be saved. There was nothing inherently better
    or different about the chosen people which caused
    God to choose them. God was totally free in His
    decision to show grace and mercy to some sinners
    who deserved nothing but His wrath. This is, in
    essence, the doctrine of Unconditional Election.

Unconditional Election Defined
  • Unconditional election is the Calvinist teaching
    that before God created the world, he chose to
    save some people based solely on His purposes and
    apart from an individual's free will. The
    counter-view is conditional election, the belief
    that God chooses, for eternal salvation, those
    whom He foresees will have faith in Christ
    (emphasizing the importance of a person's free

Unconditional Election Defined (cont)
  • Unconditional election is drawn from the
    doctrines of salvation adopted by Augustine of
    Hippo, was first codified in the Belgic
    Confession (1561), re-affirmed in the Canons of
    Dort (1619), which arose from the Quinquarticular
    Controversy, and is represented in the various
    Reformed confessions such as the Westminster
    Standards (1646). It is one of the five points of
    Calvinism and is often linked with predestination.

Belgic Confession
  • The Belgic Confession (1561) became the basis of
    a counter to the Arminian controversy that arose
    in the following century. The text was revised
    again at the Synod of Dort in 1618-19, was
    included in the Canons of Dort (1619), , and
    adopted as one of the doctrinal standards to
    which all office-bearers in the Reformed churches
    were required to subscribe. This revision was
    drafted in the French language .
  • The Belgic Confession consists of 37 articles
    which deal with the doctrines of God, Scripture,
    humanity, sin, Christ, salvation, the Church, and
    the end times.

The Quinquarticular Controversy
  • The Quinquarticular Controversy is a term used to
    refer to the purely theological
    Calvinist-Arminian clashes of the period 1609 to
    1618, a time in which the debate had serious
    political overtones in the Netherlands. This
    controversy is the one that was addressed by the
    Dutch Reformed churches at the Synod of Dort in
    16181619, a meeting to which Protestant
    representatives from Reformed churches in other
    countries were invited. Quinquarticular (i.e.
    "having to do with five points") refers to points
    of contention raised by the Arminian party in its
    publication of five articles of Remonstrance in

Quinquarticular Controversy (cont)
  • These were rejected by the Synod in the Canons of
    Dort, the essence of which is commonly referred
    to as the Five Points of Calvinism.
  • The Controversy marked the transformation of the
    Arminian movement into a separate, persecuted
    church organization in the Netherlands. For
    Arminians, it was the start of full persecution
    after the imposition of an edict, while for
    Calvinists it resulted in the settling in clear
    points of doctrine that were initiated by John
    Calvin and clarified by Theodore Beza. For
    Lutherans the controversies saw the ending of any
    possibility of unification with the Calvinists.

Scriptural Support
  • Deuteronomy 76-10, 15, 95, 294
  • Psalm 654
  • Isaiah 454
  • Mark 1320
  • John 113, 644, 65, 1516, 172
  • Acts 239, 91-18, 1117, 1614, 1827
  • Romans 828-30, 910-26, 1020, 115
  • Ephesians 11-11
  • 1 Corinthians 11
  • 2 Corinthians 46
  • Philippians 129
  • 1 Thessalonians 12-4
  • 2 Thessalonians 213
  • 2 Timothy 19, 210, 19, 25
  • Titus 35
  • Hebrews 915
  • James 118
  • Jude 1

Mystery Only Known to God
  • The basis of God's election is a mystery only
    known to God. We may not understand how it can be
    that He is able to elect some while passing by
    others. But rest assured, everything that God has
    decided to do is perfect and righteous because He
    makes no mistakes. Some say that this paints a
    picture of a God that is capricious and unjust.
    But this view overlooks the fact that if all
    humanity received what is just from God, then all
    would be condemned to eternal death in hell. God
    is under no obligation to save anyone. His shows
    mercy by choosing to save some condemned to

All Stand Guilty Before God
  • God's election is necessary because of the total
    depravity of human nature. Every son and daughter
    of Adam is an ungodly sinner an enemy of God.
    None of us have within our nature the desire to
    choose good and reject evil. All stand guilty
    before God, deserving of His wrath.
  • But God, in His infinite wisdom and grace chose
    to elect certain rebellious sinners to be saved.
    Once He elected these sinners to be saved, He
    then predestined them to be saved.

Election vs. Predestine
  • To elect means to choose to predestine means to
    decide the outcome beforehand. The difference
    between election and predestination is similar to
    the difference between choice and power. A man
    could elect another to be saved, but he would not
    have the power to carry out the results of his
    choice. In contrast, not only has God made the
    choice, but He has the power to carry out that
  • Election and predestination are two different
    activities of God, but they are inseparable
    activities. When God elects, He also predestines
    when He decides something should happen, He sees
    to it that it will happen.

God's Sovereign Choice
  • Election is God's sovereign choice unto
    salvation. The sinner is chosen to be saved but
    is not yet saved. The elect person remains an
    ungodly sinner until the Father draws him to the
    Son through regeneration. So the choice of the
    person's salvation is made in eternity past, but
    the actual salvation occurs within the lifetime
    of the person. This is important because it
    reminds us that we cannot sit back and allow
    election to run its course. Sinners must still be
    evangelized and witnessed to, and the Holy Spirit
    must still convert them.

God Has Chosen the Means
  • God has not only determined those who will be
    saved, but has also chosen the means. Regenerate
    men are saved by grace through faith. (Ephesians
    28) "Faith comes from hearing, and hearing by
    the word of Christ." (Romans 1017) The gospel
    "is the power of God for salvation to everyone
    who believes." (Romans 116-17) The gospel must
    be preached, first of all, because God commanded
    believers to do so (Matthew 2819-20), and
    secondly, because it is the means by which God
    saves His elect.

His Foreknowledge
  • Some people say that God elected people to
    salvation on the basis of His foreknowledge. They
    define God's foreknowledge as His ability to
    read, or predict, the future. In this view God,
    using His foreknowledge, knew who would choose to
    place their faith in Jesus Christ, and elected
    these people to salvation. Faith is the cause of
    election, rather than the result.

Must Have Faith From God
  • This view assumes that human beings have within
    themselves the ability to have faith in Jesus
    Christ without God causing that faith. But due to
    the total depravity of humanity we know that no
    one is capable of any good thought or action,
    including faith. Faith is a gift from God.
    (Ephesians 28) If God had not foreordained to
    give the gift of faith to a person, that person
    would never come to faith in God.

Romans 829
  • There is an important problem with this view of
    God's foreknowledge
  • The Bible does not teach that God foresees faith.
    Romans 829 says, "For those whom He foreknew, He
    also predestined to become conformed to the image
    of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn
    among many brethren." "Those whom He foreknew "
    indicates that God foreknows people, not their

Ephesians 13-14
  • Ephesians 13-14 is perhaps the best place in
    that describes the nature of election.
  • Verse four says "He chose us in Him before the
    foundation of the world, that we would be holy
    and blameless before Him." God chose us in Christ
    before the creation of the world. He chose us
    before we were created, before Adam was created.
    In fact, He chose us before the world was
    created. We were elected to be saved before we
    ever had done anything good or bad, before we had
    the opportunity to choose or reject God.

Ephesians 13-14 (cont)
  • He chose us to be holy and blameless in His
    sight. Some people say that He chose us because
    He knew that we would be holy and blameless. But
    this verse tells us that our being holy and
    blameless is a result of His choice, not the
    cause of His choice.
  • Verses five and six say "He predestined us to
    adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself,
    according to the kind intention of His will, to
    the praise of the glory of His grace, which He
    freely bestowed on us in the Beloved." Having
    chosen us, He also predestined us. His choice and
    predestination are in accordance with His
    pleasure and will.

John 113
  • John 113 says that the saved are "born, not of
    blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the
    will of man, but of God." The source of election
    is God's good pleasure. Salvation is determined
    by God's will, not man's will. The realization of
    our election by God should humble us. It excludes
    all self-accreditation, since we had absolutely
    nothing to do with determining our own salvation.
    It should lead us to praise His glorious grace.

Gods Sovereignty (Sproul)
  • When we speak of divine sovereignty we are
    speaking about Gods authority and about Gods
    power. As sovereign, God is the supreme authority
    of heaven and earth. All other authority is
    lesser authority. Any other authority that exists
    in the universe is derived from and dependent
    upon Gods authority. All other forms of
    authority exist either by Gods command or by
    Gods permission.

Gods Authority (Sproul)
  • The word authority contains within itself the
    word author. God is the author of all things over
    which he has authority. He created the universe.
    He owns the universe. His ownership gives him
    certain rights. He may do with his universe what
    is pleasing to his holy will.
  • Likewise, all power in the universe flows from
    the power of God. All power in this universe is
    subordinate to him. Even Satan is powerless
    without Gods sovereign permission to act.

God vs. Satan (Sproul)
  • Christianity is not dualism. We do not believe in
    two ultimate equal powers locked in an eternal
    struggle for supremacy. If Satan were equal to
    God, we would have no confidence, no hope of good
    triumphing over evil. We would be destined to an
    eternal standoff between two equal and opposing
  • Satan is a creature. He is evil to be sure, but
    even his evil is subject to the sovereignty of
    God, as is our own evil. Gods authority is
    ultimate his power is omnipotent. He is

Not Just a Calvinistic View
  • Chapter III of the Westminster Confession
  • God, from all eternity, did, by the most wise and
    holy counsel of His own will, freely, and
    unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass.
  • The idea that God foreordains whatever comes to
    pass is not an idea unique to Calvinism. It isnt
    even unique to Christianity. It is simply a tenet
    of theisma necessary tenet of theism.

Not Just a Calvinistic View (cont)
  • That God in some sense foreordains whatever comes
    to pass is a necessary result of his sovereignty.
    In itself it does not plead for Calvinism. It
    only declares that God is absolutely sovereign
    over his creation. God can foreordain things in
    different ways. But everything that happens must
    at least happen by his permission. If he permits
    something, then he must decide to allow it. If He
    decides to allow something, then in a sense he is
    foreordaining it.

Sovereign Over All Creation
  • Who, among Christians, would argue that God could
    not stop something in this world from happening?
    If God so desires, he has the power to stop the
    whole world. To say that God foreordains all that
    comes to pass is simply to say that God is
    sovereign over his entire creation. If something
    could come to pass apart from his sovereign
    permission, then that which came to pass would
    frustrate his sovereignty.

Sovereign Over All Creation (cont)
  • If God refused to permit something to happen and
    it happened anyway, then whatever caused it to
    happen would have more authority and power than
    God himself. If there is any part of creation
    outside of Gods sovereignty, then God is simply
    not sovereign. If God is not sovereign, then God
    is not God.

Sproul on Limited Sovereignty
  • If there is one single molecule in this universe
    running around loose, totally free of Gods
    sovereignty, then we have no guarantee that a
    single promise of God will ever be fulfilled.
    Perhaps that one maverick molecule will lay waste
    all the grand and glorious plans that God has
    made and promised to us. If a grain of sand in
    the kidney of Oliver Cromwell changed the course
    of English history, so our maverick molecule
    could change the course of all redemption
    history. Maybe that one molecule will be the
    thing that prevents Christ from returning.

No Sovereignty, No God
  • Without sovereignty God cannot be God. If we
    reject divine sovereignty then we must embrace
    atheism. This is the problem we all face. We must
    hold tightly to Gods sovereignty. Yet we must do
    it in such a way so as not to violate human

WCF on Sovereignty Complete
  • Lets review the entire statement from the WCF
  • God, from all eternity, did by the most wise and
    holy counsel of His own will, freely, and
    unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass yet
    so, as thereby neither is God the author of sin,
    nor is violence offered to the will of the
    creatures nor is the liberty or contingency of
    second causes taken away, but rather established.
  • Note that, while it affirms Gods sovereignty
    over all things, the Confession also asserts that
    God does not do evil or violate human freedom.
    Human freedom and evil are under Gods

Grace is Gods Unmerited Favor
  • Grace is the unmerited favor of God. The
    doctrines of election and predestination should
    drive home the point that God's favor is totally
    unearned by us. It is solely God's free choice to
    elect or not elect, not ours. God's grace
    emphasizes the fact that salvation is not the
    result of human endeavor.

Ephesians 111
  • Verse eleven says that "we have obtained an
    inheritance, having been predestined according to
    His purpose who works all things after the
    counsel of His will." We are made heirs in Christ
    because God made it so. We have been predestined
    to this by God. God's plan is not determined by
    our will, but by God's will. It is very clear
    from Ephesians 1 that God has freely chosen
    certain sinners to be saved and that He made
    this choice before the foundation of the world.
    But Ephesians 1 is not the only place that
    teaches this truth. It is taught in many other
    passages as well.

More Scriptural Examples
  • "For many are called, but few are chosen."
    (Matthew 2214)
  • "Unless the Lord had shortened those days, no
    life would have been saved but for the sake of
    the elect, whom He chose, He shortened the days."
    (Mark 1320)
  • "Will not God bring about justice for His elect
    who cry to Him day and night, and will He delay
    long over them?" (Luke 187)
  • "And He was saying, 'For this reason I have said
    to you, that no one can come to Me unless it has
    been granted him from the Father.'" (John 665)
  • "When the Gentiles heard this, they began
    rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord
    and as many as had been appointed to eternal life
    believed." (Acts 1348)

Romans 829-30
  • "For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined
    to become conformed to the image of His Son, so
    that He would be the firstborn among many
    brethren and these whom He predestined, He also
    called and these whom He called, He also
    justified and these whom He justified, He also
    glorified." (Romans 829-30)

Romans 911-12, 117
  • "For though the twins were not yet born and had
    not done anything good or bad, so that God's
    purpose according to His choice would stand, not
    because of works but because of Him who calls, it
    was said to her, 'THE OLDER WILL SERVE THE
    YOUNGER.'" (Romans 911-12)
  • "What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not
    obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it,
    and the rest were hardened" (Romans 117)

1 Corinthians 127-29
  • "But God has chosen the foolish things of the
    world to shame the wise, and God has chosen the
    weak things of the world to shame the things
    which are strong, and the base things of the
    world and the despised God has chosen, the things
    that are not, so that He may nullify the things
    that are, so that no man may boast before God."
    (1 Corinthians 127-29)

God Has Chosen You for His Own Purpose
  • "But we should always give thanks to God for you,
    brethren beloved by the Lord, because God has
    chosen you from the beginning for salvation
    through sanctification by the Spirit and faith in
    the truth." (2 Thessalonians 213)
  • "Who has saved us and called us with a holy
    calling, not according to our works, but
    according to His own purpose and grace which was
    granted us in Christ Jesus from all eternity," (2
    Timothy 19)

Chosen By the Foreknowledge of God
  • "For this reason I endure all things for the sake
    of those who are chosen, so that they also may
    obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and
    with it eternal glory." (2 Timothy 210)
  • "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who
    reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus,
    Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are
    chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the
    Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to
    obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His
    blood May grace and peace be yours in the
    fullest measure." (1 Peter 11-2)

1 Peter 39-10
  • "Not returning evil for evil or insult for
    insult, but giving a blessing instead for you
    were called for the very purpose that you might
    inherit a blessing. For, 'THE ONE WHO DESIRES
    DECEIT.'" (1 Peter 39-10)

Election in Conclusion
  • Election is a free and gracious gift of the Lord.
    A person is saved only because God chose that
    person to be His child. You are born again to
    newness of life, not according to your will, but
    according to God's will. Your heart should be
    overflowing with humility, praise, and
    thanksgiving to God for your salvation. Not even
    in the least bit can you claim any credit for
    your salvation. Apart from the elective and
    regenerative intervention of God, salvation would
    be impossible. We would be justly and eternally
    condemned for our sins.

Quote from R.C. Sproul
  • On Predestination/Election
  • The combination was too much for me. Gerstner,
    Edwards, the New Testament professor, and above
    all the Apostle Paul, were too formidable a team
    for me to withstand. The ninth chapter of Romans
    was the clincher. I simply could find no way to
    avoid the Apostles teaching in that chapter.
    Reluctantly, I sighed and surrendered, but with
    my head, not my heart. OK, I believe this stuff,
    but I dont have to like it!

What is Limited Atonement?
  • Limited atonement (or definite atonement or
    particular redemption) is a doctrine accepted in
    some Christian theological traditions. It is
    particularly associated with the Reformed
    tradition and is one of the five points of
    Calvinism. The doctrine states that Jesus
    Christ's substitutionary atonement on the cross
    is specifically designed for the elect only. Some
    find this too hard and have tried to say it is
    only efficacious for those who are predestined
    unto salvation and its primary benefits are not
    given to all of humanity but rather just
    believers. It is sufficient for the salvation of
    all, but efficient only for the elect.

Limited Atonement Historically
  • The doctrine of the limited scope (or extent) of
    the atonement is intimately tied up with the
    doctrine of the nature of the atonement. It also
    has much to do with the general Calvinist view of
    predestination. Calvinists advocate the
    satisfaction theory of the atonement, which
    developed in the writings of Anselm of Canterbury
    and Thomas Aquinas. In brief, the Calvinistic
    refinement of this theory, known as penal
    substitution, states that the atonement of Christ
    pays the penalty incurred by the sins of menthat
    is, Christ receives the wrath of God for sins and
    thereby cancels the judgment they had incurred.

More on Limited Atonement
  • The doctrine of Limited Atonement (or Particular
    Redemption) is probably the most controversial of
    the doctrines of grace and most difficult to
    accept by many believers. Limited Atonement
    states that Christ's redeeming work was intended
    to save the elect only, and actually secured
    salvation for them. His death was the
    substitutionary endurance of the penalty of sin
    in the place of certain specified sinners.

Limited Atonement (cont)
  • In addition to putting away the sins of His
    people, Christ's redemption secured everything
    necessary for their salvation including faith
    which unites them to Him. The gift of faith is
    infallibly applied by the Spirit to all for whom
    Christ died, therefore guaranteeing their

Scriptural Support
  • Exodus 421, 144, 8, 17
  • Deuteronomy 230, 94-7, 294
  • Joshua 1119
  • 1 Samuel 225, 314
  • 2 Samuel 1714
  • Psalm 10525
  • Proverbs 158, 26, 289
  • Isaiah 5311
  • Jeremiah 247
  • Matthew 121, 1125-27, 1310-15, 44-46, 1513,
    2028, 2214, 2422
  • Luke 815, 1323, 1942
  • John 521, 637, 44, 65, 842-47, 1011, 14,
    26-28, 1149-53, 1237-41, 131, 18, 1516, 172,
    6, 9, 189, 37
  • Acts 239, 1348, 1827, 199
  • Romans 910-26, 115-10
  • 1 Corinthians 118-31, 214
  • 2 Corinthians 214-16, 43
  • Galatians 13
  • Ephesians 21-10
  • Colossians 213
  • 2 Thessalonians 29-14
  • 2 Timothy 220, 25
  • Titus 214
  • Hebrews 13, 14, 29, 16 (cp. Galatians 329,
    428-31), 928
  • 1 Peter 28
  • 2 Peter 27
  • 1 John 46
  • Jude 1, 14
  • Revelation 138, 178, 15-18, 2127.

Purpose of Christ
  • The first thing to consider is the purpose of
    Christ's death. Hebrews 109 says that Jesus came
    to do the will of the Father. So it follows that
    the purpose of His death was to accomplish the
    Father's will. But what was the Father's will in
    the death of Christ? It was shown from Scripture
    in the preceding point of the Doctrine of
    Unconditional Election that it was the purpose of
    the Father to choose some for salvation, not make
    salvation a potential for all based on the
    exercise of free will, which is totally corrupted
    and depraved by sin.

Purpose of Christ (cont.)
  • If, then, Christ came to fulfill the purpose of
    the Father and it was not the purpose of the
    Father to elect some to salvation rather than
    all then it logically follows that it was not
    the purpose of Christ to die for all men.

Isaiah 53 10-12
  • In the covenant of grace, the Father chose a
    people, Christ promised to die for them, and the
    Spirit pledged Himself to apply salvation to
    their hearts. In Isaiah 5310-12 it says
  • "But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting
    Him to grief if He would render Himself as a
    guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He
    will prolong His days, and the good pleasure of
    the LORD will prosper in His hand.

Isaiah 53 10-12 (cont.)
  • As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will
    see it and be satisfied by His knowledge the
    Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many,
    As He will bear their iniquities. Therefore, I
    will allot Him a portion with the great, and He
    will divide the booty with the strong because He
    poured out Himself to death, and was numbered
    with the transgressors yet He Himself bore the
    sin of many, and interceded for the

Christ Foresaw
  • Christ foresaw the suffering and agony that He
    would have to endure, and yet, He was content
    with it, for He realized that by His death,
    everyone for whom He died would be redeemed from
    sin. Now if Christ died for all men, and some for
    whom He died ended up going to hell anyway, then
    Christ could not have foreseen the suffering and
    agony of His soul and been satisfied.

Limited in Purpose, Not in Value
  • He would have been disappointed because His
    efforts would not have been sufficient to save
    everyone for whom He died. Therefore, the
    atonement Christ made for the sins of His people
    was limited in purpose not in its value, but in
    its purpose, for it was designed for the elect of

Matthew 121
  • The second point to consider is that the purpose
    of the death of Christ was to save His people
    from their sins. That is clearly stated for us in
    Matthew 121
  • "She will bear a Son and you shall call His name
    Jesus, for He will save His people from their
  • This passage did not say that He would save the
    whole world, nor did it say that He should try to
    save His people but that He would save His
    people from their sins.

Luke 1910
  • If that was the prophecy given concerning the
    birth of Jesus Christ and the purpose for which
    He came, we must surely know that which was
    determined by the Father was fulfilled by His
    faithful Son. Luke 1910 supports this point
  • "For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save
    that which was lost."
  • If that then was His purpose He accomplished
    that very thing.

Romans 828-30
  • Thirdly, the purpose of Jesus' death was to bring
    the elect to glory. Romans 828-30 says
  • "And we know that God causes all things to work
    together for good to those who love God, to those
    who are called according to His purpose. For
    those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to
    become conformed to the image of His Son, so that
    He would be the firstborn among many brethren
    and these whom He predestined, He also called
    and these whom He called, He also justified and
    these whom He justified, He also glorified."

John 172,9
  • In John 17 is the prayer of intercession made by
    the Lord Jesus. In verse 2 He prayed, "Even as
    You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to
    all whom You have given Him, He may give eternal
    life." Note that eternal life was not for all
    men, but those that were given to Him by the
  • In verse 9 He continues "I ask on their behalf
    I do not ask on behalf of the world, but of those
    whom You have given Me for they are Yours".

Accomplished Everything He Intended
  • It would not be reasonable that Christ would
    limit His prayers to those given to Him by the
    Father, and at the same time die for all men,
    knowing very well that many would not be saved.
    He prayed for those for whom He died, and He died
    for those given Him by the Father. His purpose
    then was not to save the entire human race, for
    if that had been His purpose He would have
    accomplished it. Christ is the Almighty and
    accomplishes everything He intends to do. It was
    His purpose to save only the elect of God, and
    His purpose was fulfilled.

John 1010-11, 28
  • Christ died for His sheep, and because of this
    none can be lost. In John 1010-11 He said,
  • "The thief comes only to steal and kill and
    destroy I came that they may have life, and have
    it abundantly. I am the good shepherd the good
    shepherd lays down His life for the sheep."
  • And in verse 28 He continues
  • "I give eternal life to them, and they will never
    perish and no one will snatch them out of My

John 1028 Hebrews 1012
  • Notice that He does not offer them eternal life
    in John 1028 . Jesus died for the sheep, and He
    gives eternal life to everyone for whom He died.
    Christ did not come to attempt to save men He
    came to redeem His people.
  • He purged their sins and then sat down on the
    right hand of His Father. (Hebrews 1012)

John 316
  • As was stated at the beginning, there are many
    who find this doctrine hard to accept and so
    object to it. Nonetheless it is truth that is
    taught in the Word of God. There are many
    objections that are raised, and this class will
    only deal with some of the main ones. One of the
    first things objectors usually refer to is the
    use of the word "world" in the Scriptures, and
    the first passage that is always read is John
  • "For God so loved the world, that He gave His
    only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him
    shall not perish, but have eternal life."

John 316 (cont.)
  • John 316 simply states that the design of God's
    love, that all who believe in Christ should be
    saved by Him. These believers in their
    unregenerate state are scattered abroad among the
    Gentiles as well as among the Jews, and so are
    fitly described by the word "world." Of course,
    there are those who reject this explanation. They
    may look to Acts 1118 for support
  • "When they heard this, they quieted down and
    glorified God, saying, 'Well then, God has
    granted to the Gentiles also the repentance that
    leads to life."

John 316 (cont.)
  • But does this mean that every Gentile has been
    granted repentance, and that every Gentile will
    be saved? Of course not. What this passage shows
    is that repentance has been granted to the
    Gentiles it simply means that all those of God's
    elect among the Gentiles shall be given
    repentance unto salvation. The Jews are not the
    only ones to be granted this gift. Jews as well
    as Gentiles have been given repentance, and so it
    is the same in John 316. It does not have
    reference to every person in the world, but it
    has reference to men of all nations.

Revelation 59
  • A passage that illustrates this point well is
    found in Revelation 59
  • "And they sang a new song, saying, 'Worthy are
    You to take the book and to break its seals for
    You were slain, and purchased for God with Your
    blood men from every tribe and tongue and people
    and nation.'"

Revelation 59 (cont)
  • This helps us to understand, in this context,
    what is meant by the use of the word "world". It
    means people of every tribe, tongue, and people
    that Christ's death was not restricted to the
    Jews, but that it was for members of the entire
    human race scattered throughout the earth.

Did Christ Die for the World?
  • There are several other examples. In John 77 the
    word "world" is used to distinguish unbelievers
    from believers. In John 129 the word "world" is
    used of a special people. Romans 1115 uses it to
    distinguish Gentiles from Jews, and thus so in
    passages such as John 316 and 127, 1 John 21
    and 2 -- it is used of all the elect of God.
    Hebrews 29 says, "But we do see Him who was made
    for a little while lower than the angels, namely,
    Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned
    with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God
    He might taste death for everyone."

Hebrews 210-12
  • At this point someone may say, "This is
    Scriptural proof that Christ died for all men."
    But the context will explain what it means. "For
    it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things,
    and through whom are all things, in bringing many
    sons to glory, to perfect the author of their
    salvation through sufferings. For both He who
    sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all
    from one Father for which reason He is not
    ashamed to call them brethren, saying,

Hebrews 210-12 (cont)
    PRAISE.'" (Hebrews 210-12)
  • When read in context it can be seen that the
    passage has reference to sons it has reference
    to the church it has reference to the brethren
    it has reference to those who are the children of
    God. So this passage could be understood to say
    that "Christ has experienced death for every
    son," for every one that was given to Him by the

2 Peter 21
  • What about 2 Peter 21?
  • "But false prophets also arose among the people,
    just as there will also be false teachers among
    you, who will secretly introduce destructive
    heresies, even denying the Master who bought
    them, bringing swift destruction upon
  • It must be made clear that these false teachers
    are unsaved.

2 Peter 222, Jude 19, Romans 89
  • They are compared to dogs and pigs, not to sheep
    (2 Peter 222).
  • Such people are described in Jude 19 "devoid of
    the Spirit." If a person does not have the Spirit
    of God within, he is not a child of God (Romans
  • He may appear to be saved and even become a
    member or an officer in the church, but
    eventually, in one way or another, he will deny
    the Lord.
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