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TEXTILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

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Title: TEXTILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS


1
TEXTILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Presented by Vishal Kumar Kushwaha
(141050004)

2
  • Textile Manufacturing is one of the Largest
    Industrial Consumers of Water
  • Environmental Technology Best Practice Program,
    guide Code EG98, Water Use in TextileDyeing and
    Finishing states that
  • the water consumption is
  • 150-200 kg/kg of product

3
Reducing the Water
Consumption in
Textile Mills
Reducing the water consumption REDUCE WASTEWATER
GENERATED INCREASE THE COST EFFECTIVENESS.
  • In the Guide called as A Step Towards Cleaner
    Production,
  • Susan Barclay and Chris Buckley states that
  • Within any process, there are five main aspects
    that should be taken into account when
    considering the implementation of waste
    minimisation.
  • raw materials used and other input materials
    such as water
  • the type of technology,
  • the manner is which the process is executed,
  • the products that are formed, and
  • the wastes and emissions that are generated.

4
The Textile Mill Studied
  • The Textile Mill studied
  • is one of the major mills in Turkey
  • has a capacity of 20 000 ton denim fabric per
    year
  • includes Cotton Fiber Production, Dyeing,
    Sizing and Finishing

8
5
The Textile Mill Studied
  • The production is 24 hours a day 3 shifts/day
  • The water consumption of 2000 m3/day
  • Chemical consumption of 1000 ton/month
  • Over 100 chemicals used
  • It has own WWTP and Co-generation Units

9
6
Production Flow
COTTON FIBER PRODUCTION
DYING PROCESSES
WEAVING
SIZING PROCESSES
FINISHING PROCESSES
150-200 kg of water/kg of product
7
Dyeing Processes
  • Dyeing Machine includes the equipment which is
    used for preparation and softening processes.
  • The flow chart for Dyeing Processes in the Mill

Preparation
Dyeing
Back-Washing
Softening
Pre-Washing
Water consumed in these processes is about 40
of the total water used through this whole
production line of the Mill
8
NEW TECHNIQUES
9
WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION STUDY
Through out the study
PROCESS REVIEWING
DETERMINING THE WATER USAGE IN DYING PROCESS
ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION
OPTIONS
ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CHOSEN
OPTIONS
10
WATER CONSUMPTION REDUCTION STUDY
  • Brain storms with the managers of the selected
    Textile Mill / Site Visits
  • Literatural Reviews
  • European Integrated Pollution Prevention and
    Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best
    Available Techniques (BAT) for the Textiles
    Industry was accepted as main reference
    document.

11
WATER CONSUMPTION
REDUCTION STUDY
  • Rerouting the Rope-Guide
  • Counter-Current Washing in Back-washing

12
Rerouting the Rope-Guide
  • What is Rope-Guide?
  • Different Dyeing recipes exist for Different
    Denim Products.
  • Each recipe has its own application method in
    the Textile Mill.
  • There are four Dyeing Machines in the Mill,
    which includes
  • Preparation, Pre-washing, Dyeing and
    Back-washing Units in different numbers of
    their application tanks.
  • Therefore, there are some differences of
    applications of different Dyeing recipe.
  • To adjusting the following Dyeing recipe
    application to the Dyeing machine, Rope-Guide is
    used in the Mill.

13
Rerouting the Rope-Guide
  • Rope guide is fixed to the rope which will be
    going through the Dyeing processes, and it
    determines the route of the rope which will be
    dyed.
  • Rerouting is to change the route of the
    rope-guide in an environmental friendly way,
    which provides reduction of water consumption.

Preparation Tank
Pre-washing 1
Pre-washing 2
Pre-washing N
Dyeing 1
Dyeing 2
Dyeing N
Back-washing 1
Back-washing 2
Back-washing N
Route of Rope-Guide (Dyeing Recipe A)
Water Flow
14
Rerouting the Rope-Guide Materials and Methods
  • 5 dyeing recipes (X, Y, Z, W, U) in different
    dyeing machines
  • Application Frequency within the period of the
    study
  • 30 of the number of the total dyeing recipe
  • Rerouting is applicable
  • Rerouting alternatives were determined and
    application conditions were examined and
    application was achieved.
  • Water saving was determined.
  • The effect of varying dyeing time was observed.
  • The duration of dyeing can be changed between 165
    min and 1000 min.

15
Fresh water feeding tank
Dying Machines 3 and 4
Dying Tank used as washing tank
Washing Tank
Washing Tank
Fresh water feeding tank
Fresh water
Dying Machines 1 and 2
Q
q
Q/2
Q/2
Dying Tank used as washing tank
Washing Tank
Washing Tank
16
Rerouting the Rope-Guide Reduction in Water
Consumption
  • According to data obtained from the facility for
    the three months, in which the rerouting has
    taken place, the percentage of those types of
    dyeing recipes are determined as 30 of the
    total production.
  • Preparation, dying, washing and softening
    processes are defines rope dyeing processes by
    the facility.

Amount of consumed water in rope dyeing process(L) Washing water consumption (new method) (L) Washing water consumption (old method) (L) Difference (L) Reduction in total (X,Y,Z,W,U) water consumption ()
X 110872 56000 63800 7800 7,0
Y 93479 25000 40600 15600 16,7
Z 265683 41000 51000 10000 3,8
W 156767 85500 93300 7800 5,0
U 163750 92000 99800 7800 4,8
Total 790551 299500 348500 49000 6,2
17
Rerouting the Rope-Guide Reduction in Water
Consumption
March-April-Mai total water use for rope dying
processes
Amount of consumed water (L)
March 42475000
April 28191000
Mai 31736000
Total 102402000
Water consumed in three months for X,Y,Z,W,U type
dyings (30 of total consumption) can be
calculated as follow 102402000 L 0.3
30720600 L Water reduction amount in three
months is equal to 30720600 L 0.062
1,904,677 L
18
Rerouting the Rope-Guide Conclusion
  • Within the selected five specific type of dying
    the effect of the method was investigated. By
    investigating this effects, it was obviously seen
    that water saving can be achieved.
  • The effect of duration of dying on water saving
    was also investigated
  • when there is an additional freshwater feeding
    tank to the washing tank there is not significant
    effect of duration of dying on the water saving
    percentage.

19
Counter-Current Washing
in Textile Industry
  • The more important consideration is to achieve
    the required washing efficiency by using less
    amount of rinsing water.
  • The counter-current washing principle is the
    most common and efficient one among those
    techniques.

20
Counter-Current Washing
in Textile Industry
Counter-current washing is often practiced by
introducing raw water into the last wash of the
washing series. The wastewater is then
circulated from the last step to the next
preceeding step and so on up the line. The
cleanest product is washed with the cleanest
water and and the most contaminated product is
washed with dirtiest water. The system leads to
huge savings in water use.
Material Flow
Water Flow
21
Counter-Current Washing
in Textile Industry
Typical water savings obtained by counter-current
washing
Number of washing tank Water saving ()
2 3 4 5 50 67 75 80
Source(US EPA, 1995) Source(US EPA, 1995)
Since preparation and dying processes are
typically continuous, counter-current washing can
be used to great advantage for water conservation
in washing processes. The principle of
counter-current washing in textile industry is
simple and usually not expensive or difficult to
implement.
22
Counter-Current Washing
in Textile Industry
  • Sillanpää states that the one of the developed
    techniques is the split flow counter current
    washing which is the variation of counter-current
    washing.
  • Because the various reasons for each industry,
    the counter-current washing was modificated and
    called as split flow counter current washing

Filtrate System Saving in water ()
Direct counter-current 50-80
Split flow counter-current 40-65
Source Sillanpää, 2005 Source Sillanpää, 2005
Fresh water
Washing 3
Washing 4
Washing 2
Washing 1
Product Flow
23
Counter-Current Washing
in Textile Industry
  • Reasons for using split flow counter current
    washing
  • The company uses cotton as raw material.
  • According to Textile Sector Environmental Report
    in opposition of dying of synthetic raw
    materials, counter-current washing applications
    are not common in cotton dying. The cotton fiber
    pollution is the main reason for that.
  • For the last washing tank, from which water is
    sent to the previous, the cotton fiber pollution
    is minimum. Therefore using filter is a solution
    and does not create a clogging problem.
  • But for the washing tanks before the last tank,
    the fiber pollution is a problem, because the
    cotton lets its fiber in a suspended situation in
    these tanks at most. For this reason, it is
    thought that the filter clogging would be a big
    problem if direct counter-current washing were
    applied.

Fresh water
Washing 4
Washing 3
Washing 2
Washing 1
Filter
Product Flow
24
Counter-Current Washing in Textile Industry
Materials and Methods
  • 3 dyeing recipes (A, B, C) were selected.
  • Two methods of washing was applied.
  • Normal Flow Washing (old system)
  • Split flow counter current washing (new system)

Fresh water
Q
F/3 F/3 F/3
Fresh water
F
Q/4 Q/4
Q/4 Q/4
2
3
4
1
4
2
1
3
Filter
Product Flow
Product Flow
25
Counter-Current Washing A Type recipe
Fresh water
  • Each washing tank is 1000 L
  • 500 min washing period
  • Retention time is 10 minute for each tank
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 300 L/min

300 L/min
100 L/min
100 L/min
100 L/min
3
1
2
Product Flow
Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type
A
  • Each washing tank is 1000 L
  • 115 min washing period
  • Retention time is 10.8 for first two and 5.4
    min.
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 185 L/min

Fresh water
92,5 L/min
92,5 L/min
185 L/min
b
Washing 1
Washing 2
Washing 3
Filter
c
a
Product Flow
Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type
A
26
Counter-Current Washing B Type recipe
  • First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are
    1000 L.
  • 330 min washing period
  • Retention time is 30 min for first tank where it
    is 18 min for others.
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 275 L/min

275 L/min
55 L/min
55 L/min
55 L/min
55 L/min
55 L/min
5
3
4
11
2
Wastewater
Wastewater
Product Flow
Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type
B
  • First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are
    1000 L.
  • 330 min washing period
  • Retention time is 39 min for first tank and
    24.3 min for 2,3,4 and 6 min for WT 5.
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 165 L/min

Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type
B
27
Counter-Current Washing C Type recipe
  • First washing tank is 1600 L, RT 30.7 minutes
  • the other WT 1600 L with RT19.2 minutes
  • 330 min washing period
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 260 L/min

Flow diagram for old system washing of dying type
C
  • First washing tank is 1600 L, where others are
    1000 L.
  • 115 min washing period
  • Retention time is 47 min for first tank and
    29.6 min for 2,3,4 and 7.5 min for WT 5.
  • Flowrate of freshwater is 135 L/min

Flow diagram for new system washing of dying type
C
28
Counter-Current Washing A Type recipe
Results for each tank in dying type A, old system
Results for each tank in dying type A, new system
Dying Type A Old System Washing Tank 2 (2) Washing Tank 3 (3)
TSS (mg/L) 196 44
TDS (mg/L) 2348 1760
Color (Pt-Co) 6920 3320
Turbidity(NTU) 690 389
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 870 680
COD (mg/L) 1002 400
Conductivity (?s/cm) 3470 2760
pH 11,1 10,62
Dying Type A New System Washing Tank 2 (c) Filter Inlet (Washing tank 3) (a)
TSS (mg/L) 322 34
TDS (mg/L) 5198 882
Color (Pt-Co) 9060 2515
Turbidity(NTU) 726 354
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 1874 310
COD (mg/L) 1372 264,5
Conductivity (?s/cm) 8660 1221
pH 11,8 9,5
Pollution concentration is less in last washing
tanks for new system where it is more in 2nd
washing tank.
29
Counter-Current Washing B Type recipe
Results for each tank in dying type B, old system
Results for each tank in dying type B, new system
Dying Type B Old System (1) (5)
TSS (mg/L) 206 26
TDS (mg/L) 13456 688
Color (Pt-Co) 8600 4750
Turbidity(NTU) 360 543
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 3300 220
COD (mg/L) 3740 238
Conductivity (?s/cm) 17850 969
pH 12,03 9,75
Dying Type B New System 1 (f) 5 (a)
TSS (mg/L) 546 22
TDS (mg/L) 24134 558
Color (Pt-Co) 22300 935
Turbidity(NTU) 1709 209
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 6960 178
COD (mg/L) 4823 102
Conductivity (?s/cm) 30400 893
pH 12,17 9,08
30
Counter-Current Washing C Type recipe
Results for each tank in dying type C, old system
Results for each tank in dying type C, new system
Dying Type C Old System (1) (5)
TSS (mg/L) 54 35
TDS (mg/L) 2688 908
Color (Pt-Co) 2280 1330
Turbidity(NTU) 138 282
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 1150 440
COD (mg/L) 511 125
Conductivity (?s/cm) 4200 1366
pH 11,12 10,18
Dying Type C New System 1 (f) 5 (a)
TSS (mg/L) 108 14
TDS (mg/L) 3592 632
Color (Pt-Co) 2860 715
Turbidity(NTU) 251 94
Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) 1548 240
COD (mg/L) 650 87
Conductivity (?s/cm) 6470 954
pH 11,81 9,48
31
Counter-Current Washing Reduction in Water
Consumption
Old System water consumption (L/min) New System water consumption (L/min) Reduction in water consumption ()
Type A 300 185 38
Type B 275 165 40
Type C 260 135 48
32
Conclusion for the Presentation
  • All the processes in the Textile Mill were
    investigated to identify the water conservation
    opportunities.
  • As well as the Literatural Review, after some
    site visits to the facility the processes were
    detected and the possible changes especially
    related to the water consuming processes were
    determined.
  • Possible water use reduction techniques were
    detected.
  • The techniques were applied in the facility.

33
Conclusion for the Presentation
  • The water conservations obtained through the
    techniques of Rerouting the Rope-Guide and
    Split Flow Counter Current were determined in
    the application base.
  • For counter-current washing, the washing water
    were analysed to compare the character of it,
    with the literatural knowledge.
  • Future Work
  • Determination of the total effect of this water
    conservation applications on the water
    consumption of the facility.

34
Thank You for your Attention and Interest on
Cleaner Production !!!
VISHONAL
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