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WATER RESOURCES IN TAMIL NADU

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Title: WATER RESOURCES IN TAMIL NADU


1
WATER RESOURCES IN TAMILNADU PREAPARED BY
S.PRABHAVARAJAN, LECTURER
2
INTRODUCTION
  • Water is a vital natural resource which
    forms the basis of all life. Water is a key
    resource in all economic activities ranging from
    agriculture to industry. With ever increasing
    pressure of human population, there is serves
    stress and on water resources.

3
PROPERTIES OF WATER RESOURSES
  • One molecule of water consists of two
    hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom. This
    composition is expressed by the familiar
    chemical formula H2O.
  • The molecule has a bent shape and they make a
    bond angle of 104.5.
  • A water molecule acts like a small rod
    with a positive charge at one end and negative
    charge at the other end and hence is known as
    dipole.

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5
How does ice remain in the solid state at 0c
  • The strongly hydrogen bonding between the
    water molecules result in association of molecule
    and molecular weight and hence melting point ,
    increase . This keeps ice in the solid state up
    to 0c.
  • When the crystal structure of ice breaks, the
    liberated molecules becomes associated with
    each other so strongly that they pack together
    more closely than in the ice crystal itself. As
    a consequence , ice becomes less dense than water
    and float on it.

6
  • When one gram of water freezes,80 calories of
    heat are released and when one gram of water
    vapour liquefies,about seven time that energy,or
    540 calories,are released.
  • Since most of the surface of the earth is
    occupied by water

7
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
  • In the hydrological cycle, the factors which
    control the process of evaporation and
    evapotranspiration are temperature, humidity, and
    win.
  • It is a continuous process going on day and
    night from the ocean surface, ground surface.
    Inland waters(like lakes and stream),and plant
    and animal surfaces.
  • Rising in the atmosphere this water forms
    clouds that float around in gaseous or droplet
    form.

8
  • Contn.
  • Water returns to the earth in the forms of
    preciptation ,most of which takes place over
    the ocean and a little in the land surfaces.

9
  • Rainfall in the land surface may have
    following fates
  • It may percolate through the soil and becomes
    a part of ground water regime.
  • Accumulate in a pond,lake,or reservoir as
    inland surface water.
  • Flow down to the ocean in the form of
    streamtaken up by plants and animalor
    evaporate.

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11
WATER RESOURCES-INDIAN SCENARIO
  • Need for water conservation
  • Average annual rainfall - 1170mm.
  • Area -
    3290 lakh hectares.
  • Out of total preciptation
  • 41(10,02,040lakh)lost as evaporation and
  • transpiration.
  • 40(9,77,600lakh)lost as run off.
  • 10(2,44,400lakh) is retained as soil
    moisture.
  • 9(2,19,960lakh)seeps in for recharging
    ground water

12
TAMIL NADU WATER BUDGET
CATEGORY 1985 1985 2000 2000 2025 2025
Surface water Ground water Surface water Ground water Surface water Ground water
Domestic/live stock 16.70 16.70 28.70 28.70 40.00 40.00
Industries 10.00 10.00 30.00 30.00 120.00 120.00
Thermal power 2.70 2.70 3.30 3.30 4.00 4.00
Miscellaneous 40.60 40.60 58.00 58.00 116.00 116.00
Subtotal 40 30 80 40 1990 90
Irrigation 320 150 420 210 510 260
Subtotal 360 180 500 250 700 350
Total 540 540 58.00 58.00 1,050 1,050
13
  • Experts opine that there would be no
    underground water by 2025 in Rajasthan if the
    present rate of indiscriminate utilization
    continues.
  • Annually ,1/3rd of the area in the country is
    drought hit while some areas struggle/suffer with
    natural calamities like flood.
  • Even 30 of the available water is not
    efficiently used whereas most of the waters are
    wasted into the sea.

14
WATER RESOURSES MANAGEMENT
  • Water Resources Management is an
    international, multidisciplinary forum for the
    publication of original contributions and the
    exchange of knowledge and experience on the
    management of water resources.
  • In particular, the journal publishes
    contributions on water resources assessment,
    development, conservation and control,
    emphasizing policies and strategies.
  • Contributions examine planning and design of
    water resource systems, and operation,
    maintenance and administration of water resource
    systems.

15
GLOBAL WARMING USES
  • The present global population of 6.185 billion
    is expected to rise to 8.303 billion by the year.
  • Current water demand of about 6,650 km3 to
    produce plant food is expected to rise to 9,000
    km3 by 2025.
  • At present,the demand for water is growing by
    2.4 per year.

16
COMPETING WATER USES
17
  • Total water use in the world has increased
    from
  • 1000km3y-1 in 1940 to
  • 4130km3y-1 in 1990 to
  • 5000km3y-1 in 2000 to
  • 6650km3y-1 in 2002 to
  • 9000km3y-1 in 2020 to projected.
  • At least one fifth of the worlds people lack
    access to safe drinking water

18
WORLD WATER USAGE IN DIFFER PARTS OF THEWORLD
19
  • According to an estimate, the daily per
    capital demand for water of Tamil nadu was 600
    gallons in 1990 which increased to 2700 gallons.
  • Impending water deficit problem
  • Reclamation of sewage and waste water.
  • Development of ground water sources and surface
    storage.
  • Long range forecasting of rain making.
  • Transfer of surplus water and desalination of sea
    water.

20
DISTRUBUTION OF POPULATION AND WATER
RESOURCES
21
THREATS OF WATER RESOURCES
  • Climate change causes change in frequencies
    of droughts and floods.
  • Depletion of aquifers caused by
    over-consumption as a result of population
    growth.
  • Pollution and contamination by sewage,
    agricultural and industrial runoff.

22
CONCLUSION
  • According to a report Water Management Need
    for Public Awarness, by the Indian Water
    Resourses Society, in 1995, by 2025 TNs water
    requirement per year will be 1050 cubic
    kilometer.
  • This estimate is a matter of serious concern
    for the country.

23
  • This total amount of utilizable fresh water
    resourses available per year in India is about
    1150 cubic kilometer. By 2025 TNs total water
    demand will be about 92 of the total available
    water .
  • This study bases the country-level estimates of
    natural renewable water resources mainly on
    climate and hydrological data sets for the last
    decades of the twentieth century. They are
    representative of the average flows of the last
    25 to 50 years.

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