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FOOD PYRAMID

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Title: FOOD PYRAMID


1
FOOD PYRAMID
2
1940's 1950's
As the men returned from World War II during the
1940s and early 1950s, the focus of America was
on the family. Mom, Dad, and children had
defined roles. Dad worked outside the home,
earning a living income for the family.
Education and opportunities for the children were
emphasized. Mom stayed at home, and was the
homemakerdoing the cleaning, laundry, child
nurturing, and cooking. Girls were required to
take Home Economics courses in school, to prepare
them for this lifelong role.
The Daily 4 Food Guide was developed by
dietitians. It was memorized and used by women
to prepare nutritious meals for the family.
Meats group
Dairy group
Families followed this pattern for about 20 years
or so, and life was good

but times change!
Bread cereals group
Fruit Vegetables group
3
Since those post-war families valued education
and advancement for their children, both boys and
girls were encouraged to go to college. For the
first time in history, large numbers of women
were graduating from college with degrees, and
felt the need to use that investment. With women
wanting to work outside the home, the traditional
roles in the family were challenged. This brought
about a great deal of social change related to
food! Think about
Was family mealtime and bonding affected?
Were men expected to help cook? Who was going to
teach them? Did they want to learn?
Were traditional family holidays affected?
How were restaurants affected?
Have grandmas stopped baking cookies for the
grandchildren?
4
Families werent the only thing changing. By the
1980s, the Daily 4 Food Guide had been used by a
great many people for thirty years. It was time
to evaluate its success.
More change...
Several health issues in America seemed to be
directly related to diet heart disease, some
types of cancer, eating disorders, and obesity.
It appeared time for change. The Daily 4 Food
Guide was replaced with The Food Pyramid.
5
The big differences...
between the Daily 4 Food Guide and The Food
Pyramid
1. A pyramid was used instead of a circle.
The circle had given the impression that all 4
groups were equally important, while a pyramids
foundation is definitely more important than the
upper sections. The breads and cereals group was
then placed in the bottom section showing its
value in the diet. 2. Fruits and vegetables
were split into 2 groups. 3. A section was
added at the top of the pyramid, not as a new
group, but as a reminder NOT to eat heavily from
these types of foods.
Added fats sugars
Dairy
Meats
Fruits
Vegetables
Breads Cereals
6
Another 20 years or so passes by, until the year
2005. At that time, yet another evaluation was
made of the nations dietary habits and related
health issues. Unfortunately, our health
condition had not improved as much as hoped.
Life style changes and the influences of
advertising were taking their toll on our health.
In fact, one major health problem linked to diet
had even increased!.
OBESITY
This condition nearly tripled in those last 20
years, contributing to increases in diabetes and
continuing high levels of heart disease. Our
diets were making us a nation at risk! What is
your ideal body weight? http//www.halls.md/ideal-
weight/body.htm
7
With both parents working, Americans had become a
country of busy, busy peopletoo busy to take
the time and effort to cook nutritious meals.
The fast food industry grew rapidly
Supersized portions of food were marketed, with
3 very unhealthy attributes
  • High calorie content
  • High fat content
  • High sodium (salt) content

In addition, when we did have time at home we
spent it on the couch, rather than in physical
activity.
8
So once again, the experts in nutrition took
the food pyramid, and revised it. To send a new
message, they basically pushed it over on its
side to form vertical blocks !
A stairway was added to the side, to represent
exercise, and groups were slightly rearranged.
9
The New Food Pyramid was adopted ! It
still had 5 food groups. There is a narrow yellow
stripe that represents oils. It is not actually
considered a food group.
10
Breads Cereals group...
All foods in the breads and cereals group
originate from grains. Can you name a grain and
the food made from it?
WHEAT/FLOUR
and foods made from flour Including PASTA
POPCORN
CORN/CORNMEAL
OATS
BARLEY
RYE
RICE
HOPS
11
Breads cereals group...
You need a minimum of 6 ounces from this group
each day!
A measurement of one medium or ¾ cup will
usually equal 1 ounce from this group.
12
Breads cereals group...
FIBER is another dietary contribution from the
foods in this group. It is that non-soluble
substance that cleans the digestive tract.
Foods from this group provide the main nutrient
Vitamin B!
An increase of fiber in the diet may prevent some
types of cancer.
Each of the B vitamins has a name and a number
assigned to it.
STARCHES are the type of carbohydrate found in
nearly all the foods in this group.
The primary function of the B vitamins is ENERGY!
13
Fruit group...
CAN YOU NAME SOME OF THE SOURCES FROM THIS GROUP?
½ cup
FRUITS HAVE A HIGH NATURAL SUGAR CONTENT. These
sugars are carbohydrates.
½ cup
½ cup
You need a total of 1 ½ cups from this group each
day. Before fruits and vegetables were divided
into two groups, people neglected to eat fruits
very often because they cost more.
14
Vegetable group...
Can you name some sources from this group?
Some vegetables are considered fruits, because
they are the fruit of the vine. Tomatoes are
an example. First the plant blooms, and the bloom
is followed by the fruit. As a food, however,
tomatoes are considered a vegetable because of
their naturally low sugar content.
½ cup
½ cup
½ cup
Every day, you need a
.. a total of 1 ½ cups
15
Fruits vegetables serving size...
Can you measure it in a cup? If so, ½ cup equals
one usual serving amount. The key, however, is
NOT to exceed 1 ½ cups total each day!
Eating 1 medium fruit or vegetable equals one, ½
cup serving. Aim for an amount to equal 1 ½ cups
daily!
16
What size of fast food French Fries would equal a
½ cup serving? So, what size would constitute
your entire recommended daily allowance of
vegetables?
17
Fruit vegetable nutrients...
Vitamin A is found in dark green and deep yellow
fruits and vegetables. Vitamins, especially
Vitamin A regulates body processes.
Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits and
vegetablesall high in citric acid.
Vitamin C has several other functions. It
cements body cells together (a deficiency would
be characterized by easy bruising). It also
maintains a healthy immune system (a deficiency
characterized by frequent colds and illnesses).
18
Fruit vegetable carbohydrates...
Both categories of carbohydrates are present in
fruits and vegetablesstarches and sugars.
Starches
Sugars
Fruits and vegetables, although they have many
things in common, rate separate groups on the
pyramid. People used to eat only vegetables
because they cost less. Now we are asked to eat
fruits also due to their high fiber content.
Vegetables
Fruits
19
Dairy.Dairy.Dairy.
Can you list some sources from the dairy group?
24 ounces in 24 hours! If youre drinking
milk, each serving is often 8 ounces (1 cup
or ½ pint).
20
Dairy.Dairy.Dairy.
Calcium is the main nutrient from this
groupbuilding and maintaining bones and teeth!
A pregnant or nursing woman needs additional
calcium. The developing baby will strip the
calcium from the mothers skeleton if necessary,
leaving her bones and teeth fragile or decaying.
This leaves her vulnerable to osteoporosis later
on in life.
21
Meats Group...
The main nutrient of this group is protein.
Protein builds tissue and muscle. Exercising
will tone existing muscle, but additional protein
would be needed in the diet to make new muscle
tissue.
22
Cheese is a double duty food! It can be counted
as both a meat and dairy group serving due to
its high calcium and protein content.
Meats Group...
Fish/seafood
There are many foods in this group that are not
considered meat. They all, however, have a
high protein content. Can you name some sources?
Legumes
Nuts
Beef, pork, venison, lamb
Poultry
Eggs
do not exceed a total of 6 ounces per day! (3
oz. is about the size of a deck of cards.)
23
We love it so much, in fact, that we eat far too
many servings each day. For that reason, this
group appears as a narrower group on the pyramid
as a reminder to eat less!
AMERICANS LOVE MEAT!...and its relatively
inexpensive for us in the Midwest United States
compared to what the rest of the world pays for
it (because we have pastures and can raise our
own animals).
Too many foods from this group raise our
cholesterol levels. Cholesterol is a waxy,
saturated fat produced naturally in the liver
and found in the food we eatespecially meat
group foods. Too much cholesterol in our
bloodstream can lead to heart disease.
24
Cholesterol is bad?
Not all of it. Cholesterol is produced naturally
in the liver. HDL cholesterol (high-density
lipoproteins) is actually good cholesterol It
is an excess amount of LDL cholesterol
(low-density lipoproteins) that is bad for you.
The HDL cholesterol picks up excess LDL
cholesterol and returns it to the liver. But if
the LDL levels are very high, these particles
build up and cling to the inside of artery walls.

To keep a healthy heart and arteries, you either
have to raise the HDL levels or lower the LDL
levels. We can lower LDL levels with diet
decreasing the amount of saturated fat intake
from the meats group.
25
There are some foods that do not fit on the
food pyramid either because the risks of eating
these foods outweighs the benefits, OR because
they contain little or no nutrients.
Condiments foods not normally eaten alone, but
are added to other foods to accent the flavors.
Be careful, condiments are flavorful, but often
add fats and sugars in the diet that are not
naturally found in the food.
Coffee, soda, tea, and alcohol have no nutrients,
and certain types are high in calories and the
chemical stimulant caffeine. Practice caution!
Added fats butter, sour cream, salad dressings,
mayonnaise, oil,
Added sugars frosting, syrup, sugar on cereal,
whipped toppings
26
The narrow, yellow section of the food pyramid is
NOT a food group!
OILS
Oils are fats that are liquid at room
temperature, and come from different plants and
from fish. Some common oils are canola oil
corn oil cottonseed oil olive oil safflower
oil soybean oil sunflower oil walnut oil
sesame oil A number of foods are naturally high
in oils, like nuts olives some fish avocados
Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise,
certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or
squeeze) margarine.
Because oils contain essential (mandatory for
survival) fatty acids, there is an allowance for
oils in the food guide. These essential fatty
acids, sometimes called Omega 3 fatty acids,
reduce inflammation and help prevent heart
disease and arthritis. Oils are also a major
source of vitamin E.
AVOID SOLID FATS! They are solid at room
temperature, like butter and shortening. Solid
fats come from many animal foods and can be made
from vegetable oils through a process called
hydrogenation. Some common solid fats are
butter beef fat (tallow, suet) chicken fat
pork fat (lard) stick margarine shortening
While consuming some oil is needed for health,
oils still contain calories. In fact, oils and
solid fats both contain about 120 calories per
tablespoon. Therefore, the amount of oil consumed
needs to be limited.
27
A NEW ADDITION TO THE PYRAMID...
EXERCISE!
The addition of the stairs on the side of the
pyramid, turns this food pyramid into a
FOOD FITNESS PYRAMID! Every
individual should participate in a minimum of 30
minutes of exercise, above and beyond normal
daily activity levels.
28
FOOD PYRAMID
The End
29
  • Preparing individuals for life and work
  • Strengthening families
  • Empowering communities
  • Created by Barbara L. Swarthout, Family
    Consumer Sciences teacher at Elkhorn High School
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