Title: Extra Dimensions: From Colliders to Cosmology
1Extra Dimensions From Colliders to Cosmology
 Large Extra Dimensions (Primordial Black Holes)
 Universal Extra Dimensions (KK Bino)
 Warped Extra Dimensions (KK ?R )
Collider signals DM properties
Thanks to T. Tait!
J. Hewett
Michell Symposium 2007
2KaluzaKlein tower of particles
 E2 (pxc)2 (pyc)2 (pzc)2 (pextrac)2
(mc2)2
In 4 dimensions, looks like a mass!
pextra is quantized n/R
Tower of massive particles
Large radius gives finely separated KaluzaKlein
particles
Small radius gives well separated KaluzaKlein
particles
Small radius
Large radius
3Large Extra Dimensions
ArkaniHamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali, SLACPUB7801
 Motivation solve the hierarchy problem by
removing it!  SM
fields confined to 3brane 
Gravity becomes strong in the bulk
Gauss Law MPl2 V? MD2? , V? Rc ?
MD Fundamental scale in the bulk TeV
4KaluzaKlein Modes in a Detector
Indirect Signature
Missing Energy Signature pp ? g Gn
Vacavant, Hinchliffe
JLH
5Graviton Exchange Modified with Running
Gravitational Coupling
 Insert Form Factor in
 coupling to parameterize
 running
 MD2 1q2/t2M2 1
 Could reduce signal!
t?
1
SM
0.5
D34 M 4 TeV
JLH, Rizzo, to appear
6Constraints from Astrophysics/Cosmology
Cullen, Perelstein Barger etal, Savage etal
 Supernova Cooling
 NN ? NN Gn can cool supernova too rapidly
 Cosmic Diffuse ? Rays
 NN ? NN Gn ???
 ?? ? Gn ? ??
 Matter Dominated Universe
 too many KK states
 Neutron Star Heat Excess
 NN ? NN Gn
 becomes
trapped in neutron star halo  and heats
it 
Hannestad, Raffelt Hall, Smith

Fairbairn
Hannestad, Raffelt
7Astrophysical Constaints MD in TeV
Hannestad, Raffelt
 ?
2 3 4 5  Supernova Cooling 9
0.66 0.01  Cosmic Diffuse ?rays
 Sne
28 1.65 0.02  Sne Cas A 14
1.2 0.02  Neutron Star 39
2.6 0.4  Matter Dominated Universe 85 7
1.5  Neutron Star Heat Excess 700 25
2.8 0.57
Low MD disfavored for ? 3
Can be evaded with hyperbolic manifolds
 Starkman, Stojkovic, Trodden
8Black Hole Production _at_ LHC
Dimopoulos, Landsberg Giddings, Thomas
 Black Holes produced when ?s gt M
 Classical Approximation space curvature
ltlt E
E/2
b lt Rs(E) ? BH forms
b
E/2
Geometric Considerations ?Naïve ?Rs2(E),
details show this holds up to a factor
of a few
9Black Hole event simulation _at_ LHC
10Decay Properties of Black Holes (after Balding)
 Decay proceeds by thermal emission of Hawking
radiation
n determined to ?n 0.75 _at_ 68 CL for n26 from
TH and ? This procedure doesnt work for large n
At fixed MBH, higher dimensional BHs are hotter
?N? 1/?T? ? higher dimensional BHs emit fewer
quanta, with each quanta having higher energy
Multiplicity for n 2 to n 6
Harris etal hepph/0411022
11pT distributions of Black Hole decays
Provide good discriminating power for value of
n Generated using modified CHARYBDIS linked to
PYTHIA with M 1 TeV
12Production rate is enormous!
Determination of Number of Large Extra Dimensions
1 per sec at LHC!
JLH, Lillie, Rizzo
13Primordial Microscopic Black Holes
 Produced in highenergy collisions in early
universe  Rapid growth by absorption of matter from
surrounding plasma
Empty Bulk
Mass density determined by TI
Excluded
 Demand
 Black Holes not overclose the universe
 Must not dominate energy density during BBN
Thermalized Bulk
Conley, Wizansky
14Universal Extra Dimensions
Appelquist, Cheng, Dobrescu
 All SM fields in TeV1, 5d, S1/Z2 bulk
 No branes! ? translational invariance is
preserved  ? treelevel conservation
of p5  KK number conserved at treelevel
 broken at higher order by boundary
terms  KK parity conserved to all orders, (1)n
 Consequences
 KK excitations only produced in pairs
 Relaxation of collider precision EW constraints
 Rc1 300 GeV!
 Lightest KK particle is stable (LKP) and is Dark
Matter candidate  Boundary terms separate masses and give SUSYlike
spectrum
15Universal Extra Dimensions Bosonic SUSY
Spectrum looks like SUSY !
 Phenomenology looks like Supersymmetry
 Heavier KK particles cascade down to LKP
 LKP Photon KK state
 appears as missing ET
 SUSYlike Spectroscopy
 Confusion with SUSY if discovered _at_ LHC !
Chang, Matchev,Schmaltz
16How to distinguish SUSY from UED I
 Observe KK states in ee annihilation
 Measure their spin via
 Threshold production, swave
 vs pwave
 Distribution of decay products
 However, could require CLIC
 energies...
JLH, Rizzo, Tait Datta, Kong, Matchev
17How to distinguish SUSY from UED II
Datta, Kong, Matchev
 Observe higher level (n 2) KK
 states
 Pair production of q2q2, q2g2, V2 V2
 Single production of V2 via (1) small KK number
breaking couplings and (2) from cascade decays of
q2
Discovery reach _at_ LHC
18How to distinguish SUSY from UED III
 Measure the spins of the KK states _at_ LHC
Difficult!  Decay chains in SUSY and UED
Form charge asymmetry
Works for some, but not all, regions of parameter
space
Smillie, Webber
19Identity of the LKP
 Boundary terms (similar to SUSY softmasses)
 Induced _at_ looplevel (vanish _at_ cutoff)
 Determine masses couplings of entire KK tower
 ?1 ?2 ?3
 Smallest corrections to U(1) KK state
 NLKP is eR(1)
 ?M 1/R gt v
 LKP is almost pure Bino KK B?(1)
BinoWino mass matrix, n1
20Thermal Production and Freeze Out
 Assume LKP in thermal equilibrium in early
universe  Falls out of equilibrium as universe expands
 Below freezeout, density of LKP WIMPS per
comoving volume is fixed
For 1 TeV KK, Tf 40 TeV
21Coannihilation
 eR(1) may substantially affect relic density if
it is close in mass to B(1)  eR(1) has same interaction efficiency
 freezeout temp is unaffected
 eR(1) left after freezeout
 Eventually eR(1) ? e(0) B(1)
 Net relic density of B(1) is increased
22Relic Density
 ? scaled mass splitting between eR(1) and B(1)
 ? 0.05
 0.01
 ?h2 0.11 ? 0.006 yields for R
1 flavor 5 flavors
B(1) alone
5d range of 600900 GeV
6d range of 425625 GeV
Tait, Servant
23More Complete Calculations
WMAP
? 0.01 solid 0.05 dashed
Quasidegenerate KK quarks and gluons
Quasidegenerate KK eL(1)
Kong, Matchev
Burnell, Kribs
24Add Gravity in the Bulk
mG1 gt mB1
mG1 lt mB1
KK graviton decays into B(1) (mWG KK scale from
relic density without graviton)
SuperWIMPS!
Feng, Rajaraman, Takayama
Shah, Wagner
25Direct Detection of LKP
Tait, Servant
26Localized Gravity Warped Extra Dimensions
Randall, Sundrum
Bulk Slice of AdS5 ?5 24M53k2 k curvature
scale
Naturally stablized via GoldbergerWise
Hierarchy is generated by exponential!
27KaluzaKlein Modes in a Detector SM on the brane
Number of Events in DrellYan _at_ LHC
For this same model embedded in a string theory
AdS5 x S?
Unequal spacing signals curved space
Davoudiasl, JLH, Rizzo
28KaluzaKlein Modes in a Detector SM off the brane
Fermion wavefunctions in the bulk decreased
couplings to light fermions for gauge graviton
KK states

gg ? gn ? tt _at_ LHC
gg ? Gn ? ZZ _at_ LHC
Lillie, Randall, Wang
Agashe, Davoudiasl, Perez, Soni
29Issue Top Collimation

gg ? gn ? tt
g1 4 TeV
g1 2 TeV
Lillie, Randall, Wang
30Warped Extra Dimension with SO(10) in the bulk
 Splits families amongst 16 of SO(10) with
different Z3 charges Baryon symmetry in bulk  Lightest Zodd particle, ?R KK state, is stable
Boldface particles have zeromodes
Gives correct relic density for wide range of
masses
Agashe, Servant
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32Cosmic Ray Sensitivity to Black Hole Production
No suppression
Ringwald, Tu
Anchordoqui etal
33Summary of Expt Constraints on MD
Anchordoqui, Feng Goldberg, Shapere