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Extra Dimensions: From Colliders to Cosmology

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Extra Dimensions: From Colliders to Cosmology. Large Extra Dimensions (Primordial ... Issue: Top Collimation. Lillie, Randall, Wang. gg gn tt. g1 = 2 TeV. g1 = 4 TeV ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Extra Dimensions: From Colliders to Cosmology


1
Extra Dimensions From Colliders to Cosmology
  • Large Extra Dimensions (Primordial Black Holes)
  • Universal Extra Dimensions (KK Bino)
  • Warped Extra Dimensions (KK ?R )

Collider signals DM properties
Thanks to T. Tait!
J. Hewett
Michell Symposium 2007
2
Kaluza-Klein tower of particles
  • E2 (pxc)2 (pyc)2 (pzc)2 (pextrac)2
    (mc2)2

In 4 dimensions, looks like a mass!
pextra is quantized n/R
Tower of massive particles
Large radius gives finely separated Kaluza-Klein
particles
Small radius gives well separated Kaluza-Klein
particles
Small radius
Large radius
3
Large Extra Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali, SLAC-PUB-7801
  • Motivation solve the hierarchy problem by
    removing it!
  • SM
    fields confined to 3-brane

  • Gravity becomes strong in the bulk

Gauss Law MPl2 V? MD2? , V? Rc ?
MD Fundamental scale in the bulk TeV
4
Kaluza-Klein Modes in a Detector
Indirect Signature
Missing Energy Signature pp ? g Gn
Vacavant, Hinchliffe
JLH
5
Graviton Exchange Modified with Running
Gravitational Coupling
  • Insert Form Factor in
  • coupling to parameterize
  • running
  • MD-2 1q2/t2M2 -1
  • Could reduce signal!

t?
1
SM
0.5
D34 M 4 TeV
JLH, Rizzo, to appear
6
Constraints from Astrophysics/Cosmology
Cullen, Perelstein Barger etal, Savage etal
  • Supernova Cooling
  • NN ? NN Gn can cool supernova too rapidly
  • Cosmic Diffuse ? Rays
  • NN ? NN Gn ???
  • ?? ? Gn ? ??
  • Matter Dominated Universe
  • too many KK states
  • Neutron Star Heat Excess
  • NN ? NN Gn
  • becomes
    trapped in neutron star halo
  • and heats
    it

Hannestad, Raffelt Hall, Smith
-
Fairbairn
Hannestad, Raffelt
7
Astrophysical Constaints MD in TeV
Hannestad, Raffelt
  • ?
    2 3 4 5
  • Supernova Cooling 9
    0.66 0.01
  • Cosmic Diffuse ?-rays
  • Sne
    28 1.65 0.02
  • Sne Cas A 14
    1.2 0.02
  • Neutron Star 39
    2.6 0.4
  • Matter Dominated Universe 85 7
    1.5
  • Neutron Star Heat Excess 700 25
    2.8 0.57

Low MD disfavored for ? 3
Can be evaded with hyperbolic manifolds
- Starkman, Stojkovic, Trodden
8
Black Hole Production _at_ LHC
Dimopoulos, Landsberg Giddings, Thomas
  • Black Holes produced when ?s gt M
  • Classical Approximation space curvature
    ltlt E

E/2
b lt Rs(E) ? BH forms
b
E/2
Geometric Considerations ?Naïve ?Rs2(E),
details show this holds up to a factor
of a few
9
Black Hole event simulation _at_ LHC
10
Decay Properties of Black Holes (after Balding)
  • Decay proceeds by thermal emission of Hawking
    radiation

n determined to ?n 0.75 _at_ 68 CL for n2-6 from
TH and ? This procedure doesnt work for large n
At fixed MBH, higher dimensional BHs are hotter
?N? 1/?T? ? higher dimensional BHs emit fewer
quanta, with each quanta having higher energy
Multiplicity for n 2 to n 6
Harris etal hep-ph/0411022
11
pT distributions of Black Hole decays
Provide good discriminating power for value of
n Generated using modified CHARYBDIS linked to
PYTHIA with M 1 TeV
12
Production rate is enormous!
Determination of Number of Large Extra Dimensions
1 per sec at LHC!
JLH, Lillie, Rizzo
13
Primordial Microscopic Black Holes
  • Produced in high-energy collisions in early
    universe
  • Rapid growth by absorption of matter from
    surrounding plasma

Empty Bulk
Mass density determined by TI
Excluded
  • Demand
  • Black Holes not overclose the universe
  • Must not dominate energy density during BBN

Thermalized Bulk
Conley, Wizansky
14
Universal Extra Dimensions
Appelquist, Cheng, Dobrescu
  • All SM fields in TeV-1, 5d, S1/Z2 bulk
  • No branes! ? translational invariance is
    preserved
  • ? tree-level conservation
    of p5
  • KK number conserved at tree-level
  • broken at higher order by boundary
    terms
  • KK parity conserved to all orders, (-1)n
  • Consequences
  • KK excitations only produced in pairs
  • Relaxation of collider precision EW constraints
  • Rc-1 300 GeV!
  • Lightest KK particle is stable (LKP) and is Dark
    Matter candidate
  • Boundary terms separate masses and give SUSY-like
    spectrum

15
Universal Extra Dimensions Bosonic SUSY
Spectrum looks like SUSY !
  • Phenomenology looks like Supersymmetry
  • Heavier KK particles cascade down to LKP
  • LKP Photon KK state
  • appears as missing ET
  • SUSY-like Spectroscopy
  • Confusion with SUSY if discovered _at_ LHC !

Chang, Matchev,Schmaltz
16
How to distinguish SUSY from UED I
  • Observe KK states in ee- annihilation
  • Measure their spin via
  • Threshold production, s-wave
  • vs p-wave
  • Distribution of decay products
  • However, could require CLIC
  • energies...

JLH, Rizzo, Tait Datta, Kong, Matchev
17
How to distinguish SUSY from UED II
Datta, Kong, Matchev
  • Observe higher level (n 2) KK
  • states
  • Pair production of q2q2, q2g2, V2 V2
  • Single production of V2 via (1) small KK number
    breaking couplings and (2) from cascade decays of
    q2

Discovery reach _at_ LHC
18
How to distinguish SUSY from UED III
  • Measure the spins of the KK states _at_ LHC
    Difficult!
  • Decay chains in SUSY and UED

Form charge asymmetry
Works for some, but not all, regions of parameter
space
Smillie, Webber
19
Identity of the LKP
  • Boundary terms (similar to SUSY soft-masses)
  • Induced _at_ loop-level (vanish _at_ cut-off)
  • Determine masses couplings of entire KK tower
  • ?1 ?2 ?3
  • Smallest corrections to U(1) KK state
  • NLKP is eR(1)
  • ?M 1/R gt v
  • LKP is almost pure Bino KK B?(1)

Bino-Wino mass matrix, n1
20
Thermal Production and Freeze Out
  • Assume LKP in thermal equilibrium in early
    universe
  • Falls out of equilibrium as universe expands
  • Below freeze-out, density of LKP WIMPS per
    co-moving volume is fixed

For 1 TeV KK, Tf 40 TeV
21
Co-annihilation
  • eR(1) may substantially affect relic density if
    it is close in mass to B(1)
  • eR(1) has same interaction efficiency
  • freeze-out temp is unaffected
  • eR(1) left after freeze-out
  • Eventually eR(1) ? e(0) B(1)
  • Net relic density of B(1) is increased

22
Relic Density
  • ? scaled mass splitting between eR(1) and B(1)
  • ? 0.05
  • 0.01
  • ?h2 0.11 ? 0.006 yields for R

1 flavor 5 flavors
B(1) alone
5d range of 600-900 GeV
6d range of 425-625 GeV
Tait, Servant
23
More Complete Calculations
WMAP
? 0.01 solid 0.05 dashed
Quasi-degenerate KK quarks and gluons
Quasi-degenerate KK eL(1)
Kong, Matchev
Burnell, Kribs
24
Add Gravity in the Bulk
mG1 gt mB1
mG1 lt mB1
KK graviton decays into B(1) (mWG KK scale from
relic density without graviton)
Super-WIMPS!
Feng, Rajaraman, Takayama
Shah, Wagner
25
Direct Detection of LKP
  • LKP nucleon scattering

Tait, Servant
26
Localized Gravity Warped Extra Dimensions
Randall, Sundrum
Bulk Slice of AdS5 ?5 -24M53k2 k curvature
scale
Naturally stablized via Goldberger-Wise
Hierarchy is generated by exponential!
27
Kaluza-Klein Modes in a Detector SM on the brane
Number of Events in Drell-Yan _at_ LHC
For this same model embedded in a string theory
AdS5 x S?
Unequal spacing signals curved space
Davoudiasl, JLH, Rizzo
28
Kaluza-Klein Modes in a Detector SM off the brane
Fermion wavefunctions in the bulk decreased
couplings to light fermions for gauge graviton
KK states
-
gg ? gn ? tt _at_ LHC
gg ? Gn ? ZZ _at_ LHC
Lillie, Randall, Wang
Agashe, Davoudiasl, Perez, Soni
29
Issue Top Collimation
-
gg ? gn ? tt
g1 4 TeV
g1 2 TeV
Lillie, Randall, Wang
30
Warped Extra Dimension with SO(10) in the bulk
  • Splits families amongst 16 of SO(10) with
    different Z3 charges Baryon symmetry in bulk
  • Lightest Z-odd particle, ?R KK state, is stable

Bold-face particles have zero-modes
Gives correct relic density for wide range of
masses
Agashe, Servant
31
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32
Cosmic Ray Sensitivity to Black Hole Production
No suppression
Ringwald, Tu
Anchordoqui etal
33
Summary of Expt Constraints on MD
Anchordoqui, Feng Goldberg, Shapere
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