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Home Food Preservation Safety is Priority


Drying - early Romans, Native Americans. Salted, cured & then nitrates to keep color ... Clarence Birdseye - late 1800's-quick freezing. Preserving Food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Home Food Preservation Safety is Priority

Home Food Preservation Safety is Priority 1
Sharon Hoelscher Day Area Extension Agent, Family
Consumer Sciences
AZEHA - May 2009
Microbes Need
  • Food
  • Correct temperature
  • Moisture
  • Microbes
  • Food
  • Freezing
  • Drying
  • Canned

Preserving Food
History - Fresh only Drying - early Romans,
Native Americans Salted, cured then nitrates
to keep color Frozen - ice houses Fermented -
beer in 10,000 BC, wine Pickled - 1500s - new
foods new world 1810 - Napoleon and his
army First canned foods in tin cans Clarence
Birdseye - late 1800s-quick freezing
Preserving Food
1920s -Killed Clostridium botulinum at 212
degrees F Canning Vegetables in the Home,
1909, USDA Scientific research during WWII
Home canning processes for low-acid foods,
1946, USDA 1999 national survey 27 canned
food at home Decreased until recent years
Resurgence, but fewer skills
Science-Based Food Preservation
Research is our base University of Georgia -
National Center for Home Food Preservation  Unive
rsity of Arizona Cooperative Extension Inform
and educate staff and volunteers
Food Preservation Safety Concerns C. botulinum
Salmonella Yeasts Molds B. Campylobacter
causes more foodborne illness than Salmonella,
Listeria or E. coli O157H7
Dried Foods
  • Processes for appearance
  • Sugar
  • Sulfites
  • Doneness test
  • Long term storage
  • Pasteurize
  • insects
  • Fruits
  • Grapes
  • Vegetables
  • Herbs
  • Spoilage bacteria
  • Mold

Long Term Storage
  • Grains, Beans - Reduced oxygen
  • Packets to absorb oxygen
  • Vacuum pack
  • Dry products only on shelf
  • Pasta
  • Dried fruit
  • Lower Temperatures increase storage time!

Beef or Venison Jerky
  • E. coli 0157H7 bacteria
  • Journal of the American Medical Association
    (JAMA) about deer jerky
  • Salmonella
  • NM, AZ, UT - air drying does not have enough
    moisture to kill salmonella outside dries too
  • No dry cure method has been proven safe
  • Pre-cook
  • Hot Marinade

Beef or Venison Jerky
  • Partially freeze meat to make slicing easier
  • No more than 1/4 thick
  • Bring strips and marinade to a boil and boil for
    5 minutes
  • Dehydrator or oven preheated to 140ºF
  • Dry 10 - 20 hours
  • Dry until a test piece cracks but does not break
    when it is bent
  • Post drying pasteurizing
  • 10 minutes in an oven preheated to 275ºF

  • Easy
  • Little equipment
  • Cost for storage
  • Quality or preferences
  • Tray freeze w/o sugar
  • Low sugar
  • Sugar or syrup for quality
  • Does not kill bacteria
  • Blanching for quality not safety
  • Moisture vapor proof packaging
  • Freezer at 0 degrees F or lower

To germinate and produce toxin, the spores need
the following conditionsAnaerobicLow acid (pH
gt 4.6)40oF to 120oFRelatively high moisture
Botulism Food Poisoning
growth (multiplies)
spore (germinates)
waste materials and toxins
Spore is harmless except for babies
Acidity (pH) 4.6 or below Water Activity
(Aw) 0.95 or below 0.85 or below for S.
aureus Atmosphere Oxygen present
Chemicals Nitrite nitrate
Prevent C. botulinum growth
Acidity (pH) measurement Test brine pH
using a pH meter. Drain brine from solids in a
colander. Blend solids in a blender or food
processor. Test pH of solids using a pH
meter. If both solids and brine is at or below
4.6 pH, then the food will not support growth of
Prevent C. botulinum growth
Symptoms usually appear within 12 to 72
hoursDigestive upset (in some cases)Blurred,
double visionDifficulty swallowing, speaking and
breathingPossible death from suffocation
Botulism Food Poisoning
The botulinum toxin, one of deadliest known,
causes botulism food poisoning.1 mg can kill
655 tons of mice.Food can contain toxin without
showing signs.Antitoxin is available, but there
is slow recovery. Permanent nerve damage
Botulism Food Poisoning
  • What are the signs of spoilage you look for in
    canned foods?

  • There are five main guidelines that can help us
    assure that our home canned/ processed food items
    are safe to eat.

Guideline 1 Processing Temperature
Temperature needed to kill bacteria
  • Boiling water
  • Kills most molds and air-borne bacteria in high
    acid foods
  • Steam under pressure
  • Kills anaerobic organisms like those that cause
    botulism in low acid foods

Temperatures for Preserving Foods
  • 240 to 250F
  • 212F
  • 180 to 250F
  • Canning low acid vegetables, meat, and poultry in
    a pressure canner
  • Temperature water boils at sea level.
  • Canning temperature for acid fruits. Time
    required to kill these decreases as temperatures

Temperatures for Preserving Foods
  • 95F
  • 50 to 70F
  • 32 to 40F
  • -10 to 32F
  • Maximum storage temperature for canned foods.
  • Best storage temperatures for canned and dried
  • Cold temperatures permit slow growth of some
    bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
  • Freezing temperatures stop growth of
    microorganisms, but some survive. Freezer at 0 F

Processing Temperature
  • High acid foods such as fruits and pickles use
    the boiling water bath method
  • Low acid foods such as meats and vegetables use
    the pressure canned method

High Acid
4.6 PH
Low Acid
Food must have equilibrium pH 4.6 within 24
Acidification of Tomatoes
  • To ensure safe acidity in whole, crushed, or
    juiced tomatoes, add
  • For Quarts
  • two tablespoons of bottled lemon juice
  • or ½ teaspoon of citric acid per quart of
  • For Pints
  • one tablespoon of bottled lemon juice
  • or ¼ teaspoon of citric acid.
  • Acid can be added directly to the jars before
    filling with product.
  • Add sugar to offset acid taste, if desired.
  • Four tablespoons of a 5 acidity vinegar per
    quart may be used instead of lemon juice or
    citric acid. However, vinegar may cause
    undesirable flavor changes.

What about Salsa?
  • Use only scientifically tested recipes
  • The only changes you can safely make
  • Substitute bottled lemon juice for vinegar
  • Change the amount of spices and herbs
  • Reduce the number of hot peppers

What about Salsa?
  • Do NOT
  • Use a recipe that is from the friend of a friend
    of a friend or from your favorite relative
  • Change thickness by adding more tomatoes, corn
    starch, etc.
  • Add more vegetables
  • Leave out added acid
    (vinegar/lemon juice)

What if you do have a favorite recipe you like?
  • Make and serve it fresh
  • Make and freeze
  • Process in a pressure canner
  • Use the processing time for green peppers which
    is 35 minutes at 15 lbs pressure

Q Is my __________ safe to eat even though I
didnt use a science-based recipe?A
Cooperative Extension cannot recommend any
canning process that is not research based. And,
when in doubt, throw it out.Q I dont want to
throw it out, will it kill me?A If the Acidity
is at or below 4.6 PH in the innermost portion of
food, it will not support botulism. We can not
tell by just looking at the food. And, when in
doubt, throw it out.
Guideline 2 Correct Processing Time
  • This is scientifically calibrated

Processing Time
  • Scientifically Determined
  • As altitude increases add
  • More Time or More Pressure

Find Your Altitude
  • 1001-2000 ft 11 psig
  • Glendale - Elevation 1071 feet 
  • Phoenix Elevation 1135 feet
  • Chandler- Elevation 1243 feet 
  • Mesa- Elevation 1248 feet 
  • 2001-4000 ft 12 psig
  • Tucson - Elevation 2643 feet 
  • 4001-6000 ft 13 psig
  • Payson- Elevation 5157 feet 
  • 6001-8000 ft 14 psig
  • Show Low- Elevation 6415 feet
  • Flagstaff- Elevation 7015 feet

Time Chart for TomatoesWater Bath Method
  • US Geological Survey elevation search
  • http//geonames.usgs.gov
  • Domestic name - add city state
  • Elevation

Time Chart for TomatoesPressure Canning Method
Guideline 3Proper Lid Seal
A Sealed Jar Alone does not Mean a Safe Jar
Guideline 4 Use Current Tested Canning Recipes
  • National Home Food Preservation Center - UGA
  • So Easy to Preserve - book DVD
  • Updated USDA Complete Guide
  • Ball Blue Book - 2006

NCHFP Recipes
  • Mango salsas and chutney
  • Spicy jicama and watermelon rind relishes
  • Mango relish
  • Tomatillo relish
  • Pickled jicama
  • Sweet pickles with Splenda
  • Jams/jellies with tropical fruits
  • Hot pepper sauces
  • Lemon curd/butter
  • http//www.uga.edu/nchfp/index.html

Other NHFPC Research
  • Microbial profiles of selected fresh herbs and
    whole spices used in home preparation of flavored
    vinegars, salsas, oils.
  • Supports the use of a chlorine wash to reduce
    loads prior to flavoring vinegars.
  • Effect of pressure canner size on heat
    penetration in stewed tomatoes.
  • 6 qt and 8 qt cooker, 17 qt canner.
  • 15 psig, due to controls on the 6 and 8 qt
    cookers as sold.
  • Microwave blanching for freezing vegetables.
  • Accuracy of metal can recommendations for
    community canneries.
  • Accuracy and testing issues with dial gauges for
  • Survival and outgrowth of C. botulinum in
    garlic/oil products.

NCHFP Self Study
  • Pickling, Freezing, Drying drafted
  • Jellies and Jams coming
  • Four current modules with pre-post tests
  • Intro to Food Preservation
  • Intro to Home Canning
  • Canning Acid Foods
  • Canning Low Acid Foods
  • Completion certificate
  • http//www.uga.edu/nchfp/index.html

Resources for Consumers EducatorsVideo
ClipsRecipesSo Easy to Preserve bookSlide
showsGraphics http//www.uga.edu/nchfp/index.ht
mlor foodpreservation.com
Guideline 5Use Up-to-date, Safe Canning Methods
  • Pressure Canner
  • -Dial-Type Gauge
  • -Weighted Gauge
  • Boiling Water Bath Canner

Unsafe Canning Method
  • Oven Canning
  • Microwave
  • Open Kettle Canning
  • Steam Canner
  • Not approved by USDA

  • Ive done it this way for years!!

Please give me your name so I can look for you in
the Obituaries!
Sorry! Youre not safe!
Follow Instructions Exactly
Major Canning Sins
  • Making up your own canning recipes
  • Adding extra starch, flour or thickener
  • Adding extra onions, peppers, chili, etc
  • Using oven instead of water bath
  • Not making altitude adjustment
  • Not venting pressure canner first
  • Not checking pressure gauge annually
  • Failure to acidify tomatoes
  • Cooling pressure canner under cool water
  • Cooling hot pack before canning

Minor Canning Sins
  • Using mayonnaise jars for fruit
  • Use of paraffin on regular jams and jellies
  • Cooling too slowly after removing jars by
    stacking jars too close together
  • Storing food longer than recommended
  • From Charlotte Brennand, Utah State University
    Emeritus Food Safey Specialist

Signs of Spoilage
  • Bulged lid
  • Spurting liquid
  • Off color, flavor, and odor
  • When it doubt, throw it out!!
  • Sometimes nothing shows!!

University of Arizona Cooperative Extension
  • Master Consumer Advisors
  • Maricopa County 602.827.8200
  • Pima County 520.626,5161
  • cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/fcs/
  • cals.arizona.edu/extension/
  • List of all county offices

Mark your calendar
  • Safe Food 2010 Safe Food from Field
    to Table
  • Mid July 2010
  • Sponsored by the University of Arizona
    Cooperative Extension
  • New research, multi-discipline sessions
  • Exhibitors
  • Tours

Happy Canning!
  • Sharon Hoelscher Day
  • Shday_at_cals.arizona.edu
  • Area Extension Agent, Family Consumer Sciences
  • University of Arizona Cooperative Extension
  • 5/2009
  • Adapted from presentation by Kathleen Riggs, Utah
    State University Extension and resources from the
    National Home Food Preservation Center in Georgia
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