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The Black Death 1347. Cholera Epidemics (7) 1800's. Th

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Title: The Black Death 1347. Cholera Epidemics (7) 1800's. Th


1
The Seven Pandemics
2
The Seven Deadly PandemicsPan All Demos
People
  • Peloponnesian Plague 430 BC
  • Antonine Plague 165
  • Plague of Justinian 541
  • The Black Death 1347
  • Cholera Epidemics (7) 1800s
  • The Spanish Flu 1918
  • The Asian Flu 1957-58 and 1968-69

3
Peloponnesian Plague 430 BC /Anthrax
  • Began in Ethiopia
  • At its Height During Athens War With Sparta
  • Fatal After 7-8 Days
  • Killed 33 of the Athenian Population

4
Peloponnesian Plague
  • "As a rule, however, there was no ostensible
    cause but people in good health were all of a
    sudden attacked by violent heats in the head, and
    redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward
    parts, such as the throat or tongue, becoming
    bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid
    breath."
  • "These symptoms were followed by sneezing and
    hoarseness, after which the pain soon reached the
    chest, and produced a hard cough. When it fixed
    in the stomach, it upset it and discharges of
    bile of every kind named by physicians ensued,
    accompanied by very great distress."
  • "In most cases also an ineffectual retching
    followed, producing violent spasms, which in some
    cases ceased soon after, in others much later."

5
  • "Externally the body was not very hot to the
    touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish,
    livid, and breaking out into small pustules and
    ulcers. But internally it burned so that the
    patient could not bear to have on him clothing or
    linen even of the very lightest description or
    indeed to be otherwise than stark naked. What
    they would have liked best would have been to
    throw themselves into cold water as indeed was
    done by some of the neglected sick, who plunged
    into the rain-tanks in their agonies of
    unquenchable thirst though it made no difference
    whether they drank little or much."

6
  • "Besides this, the miserable feeling of not being
    able to rest or sleep never ceased to torment
    them. The body meanwhile did not waste away so
    long as the distemper was at its height, but held
    out to a marvel against its ravages so that when
    they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh
    or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they
    had still some strength in them.

7
  • But if they passed this stage, and the disease
    descended further into the bowels, inducing a
    violent ulceration there accompanied by severe
    diarrhea, this brought on a weakness which was
    generally fatal."

8
  • "For the disorder first settled in the head, ran
    its course from thence through the whole of the
    body, and even where it did not prove mortal, it
    still left its mark on the extremities for it
    settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the
    toes, and many escaped with the loss of these,
    some too with that of their eyes. Others again
    were seized with an entire loss of memory on
    their first recovery, and did not know either
    themselves or their friends."
  • Thucydides

9
Antonine Plague 165 / Smallpox
  • Carried by Roman Soldiers Returning From Campaign
  • 25 Mortality Rate

10
Antonine Plague
  • In 166, during the epidemic, the Greek physician
    and writer Galen traveled from Rome to his home
    in Asia Minor. He returned to Rome in 168 when
    summoned.
  • Galen's observations and description of the
    epidemic, found in the treatise "Methodus
    Medendi", is brief.

11
  • He mentions fever, diarrhea, and inflammation of
    the pharynx, as well as a skin eruption,
    sometimes dry and sometimes pustular, appearing
    on the ninth day of the illness.
  • The information provided by Galen does not
    clearly define the nature of the disease, but
    scholars have generally preferred to diagnose it
    as smallpox.

12
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14
Justinian Plague 541/ Bubonic Plague
  • The disease was first noticed in an Egyptian
    harbor town, which was infected with a huge rat
    problem (as was most of Europe at this time).
  • It then ripped through Alexandria on its northern
    invasion towards Syria and Palestine via ships.
  • 40-60 Mortality Rate

15
  • Procopius wrote "From there it seemed to spread
    all over the world, this catastrophe was so
    overwhelming that the human race appeared close
    to annihilation."
  • The problem with this plague was that no one was
    sure of what caused it.
  • In later years we have found out that the disease
    was caused by bacteria and parasites that used
    rats as hosts. These rats would then infect our
    drinking and eating sources, thus spreading the
    bacteria to hundreds of thousands of people.

16
  • It was written by Procopius that all victims
    appeared to experience similar symptoms.
  • "They had a sudden fever, some while sleeping,
    some while walking, and others while engaged
    without any regard of what they were doing."
  • Soon after, the symptoms would escalate into a
    type of swelling. The abdomen, armpits, thighs,
    and ears were the most common body parts
    affected. The lymph glands were also commonly
    affected. They were called buboes and for this
    part of the body the illness was named.

17
  • Modern scholars believe that the plague killed up
    to 5,000 people per day in Constantinople at the
    peak of the pandemic. It ultimately killed
    perhaps 40 percent of the city's inhabitants. The
    initial plague went on to destroy up to a quarter
    of the human population of the eastern
    Mediterranean.

18
The Black Death /1347 Bubonic Plague
  • Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached
    the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348
    unleashing a rampage of death across Europe
    unprecedented in recorded history. By the time
    the epidemic played itself out three years later,
    anywhere between 25 and 50 of Europe's
    population had fallen victim to the pestilence.

19
  • "The symptoms were not the same as in the East,
    where a gush of blood from the nose was the plain
    sign of inevitable death but it began both in
    men and women with certain swellings in the groin
    or under the armpit. They grew to the size of a
    small apple or an egg, more or less, and were
    vulgarly called tumours. In a short space of time
    these tumours spread from the two parts named all
    over the body. Soon after this the symptoms
    changed and the black or purple spots appeared on
    the arms

or thighs or any other part of the body,
sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little
ones. These spots were a certain sign of death,
just as the original tumour had been and still
remained.
20
  • No doctor's advice, no medicine could overcome or
    alleviate this disease, An enormous number of
    ignorant men and women set up as doctors in
    addition to those who were trained. Either the
    disease was such that no treatment was possible
    or the doctors were so ignorant that they did not
    know what caused it, and consequently could not
    administer the proper remedy. In any case very
    few recovered most people died within about
    three days of the appearance of the tumours
    described above.

A plague victim revealsthe telltale buboe onhis
leg. From a14th century illumination
21
  • The violence of this disease was such that the
    sick communicated it to the healthy who came near
    them, just as a fire catches anything dry or oily
    near it. And it even went further. To speak to or
    go near the sick brought infection and a common
    death to the living and moreover, to touch the
    clothes or anything else the sick had touched or
    worn gave the disease to the person touching.

22
  • "One citizen avoided another, hardly any neighbor
    troubled about others, relatives never or hardly
    ever visited each other. Moreover, such terror
    was struck into the hearts of men and women by
    this calamity, that brother abandoned brother,
    and the uncle his nephew, and the sister her
    brother, and very often the wife her husband.
    What is even worse and nearly incredible is that
    fathers and mothers refused to see and tend their
    children, as if they had not been theirs.
  • Giovanni Boccaccio
  • Italian Writer Who Lived Through the Plague

23
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25
A physician visits a patient with the plague.
Notice how he and others are holding their
noses.
26
Carrying Out the Dead
27
Excavated Mass Graves Dating From the Black Death
in London
28
Cholera7 Separate Pandemics with 6 Occurring
During the 1800s
  • Endemic in India
  • Spread Along Trade Routes
  • Hit Every Continent Except Antarctica
  • Most Recent in 1961

29
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31
Chicago Epidemic
  • In 1849 the disease was brought to the city on
    the emigrant boat John Drew April 29 and raged
    until late October. That year 678 persons died, a
    rate of 2,897 per 100,000. This is the worst
    death rate for any cause since Chicago began
    keeping health statistics.
  • Although the germ theory of disease was still
    unknown, Chicago did undertake a number of
    sanitary improvements which markedly reduced
    cholera and other diseases.
  • The entire city was quarantined.

32
In the 1850's, a piped Lake Michigan water supply
was introduced cutting reliance upon unsanitary
wells and buckets of water from the sewage filled
Chicago River.
33
  • An expanded drinking water tunnel--two miles out
    into the lake was built in 1867 and
    effectively reduced the amount of sewage from the
    river in the water supply.
  • Sewers were constructed starting in 1856 and
    expanded after the cholera epidemic of 1866.

As sanitation efforts increased, the epidemic
decreased.
34
As Cemeteries Filled, Bodies Were Burned Not
Buried
35
Some, looking for a point of origin of the
so-called Spanish influenza that would eventually
take the lives of 600,000 Americans, point to
Monday, March 11, 1918. Company cook Albert
Gitchell (Fort Riley, Kansas) reported to the
camp infirmary with complaints of a "bad cold."
Right behind him came Corporal Lee W. Drake
voicing similar complaints. By noon, camp surgeon
Edward R. Schreiner had over 100 sick men on his
hands, all apparently suffering from the same
malady.
36
The Spanish Flu1918
  • The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as
    the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza
    pandemic that started in the United States,
    appeared in West Africa and France and then
    spread to nearly every part of the globe. It was
    caused by an unusually severe and deadly
    Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1.

37
  • Many of its victims were healthy young adults, in
    contrast to most influenza outbreaks which
    predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or
    otherwise weakened patients.

38
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39
  • The Spanish flu pandemic came in three waves
    (March 1918 to June 1920), spreading even to the
    Arctic and remote Pacific islands.
  • While older estimates put the number of killed at
    4050 million people, current estimates are that
    50 million to 100 million people worldwide died,
    possibly more than that taken by the Black Death,
    and higher than the number killed in World War I.
  • This extraordinary toll resulted from the
    extremely high infection rate of up to 50 and
    the extreme severity of the symptoms.

40
When Hospitals filled in the area, nurses set up
in the Oakland Municipal Auditorium and used it
as a temporary hospital.
41
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44
Street car conductor in Seattle not allowing
passengers aboard without a mask. 1918.
45
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47
  • While possible origins of this influenza were
    debated and investigated, one fact remained
    inescapable it was deadly. Lacking reliable
    medical defenses against influenza, public health
    officials and private citizens poured their
    energies into taking preventative measures.

48
  • The United States Public Health Service faced the
    challenge of educating the public about an
    illness that was largely a mystery.
  • To that end, the Red Cross, Post Office, and
    Federal Railroad administration all did their
    part to assure that instructive posters adorned
    the entire nation.

49
  • Surgeon General Rupert Blue, the nation's Chief
    Public Health Officer, ordered the printing and
    distribution of pamphlets with titles like,
    "Spanish Influenza," "Three-Day-Fever," and "The
    Flu."

50
  • The Colgate company pitched in by placing ads
    detailing twelve steps to prevent influenza.
  • Among the recommendations chew food carefully
    and avoid tight clothes and shoes.

51
  • Alfred Crosby, in "Epidemic and Peace, 1918," his
    definitive history of Spanish influenza, observed
    that if influenza could have been smothered by
    paper, many lives would have been spared.

52
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54
A doctor stationed at Camp Devens, a military
base just west of Boston, writes to a friend, and
fellow physician, of the conditions to be found
there as influenza was making its presence felt.
This epidemic started about four weeks ago,
and has developed so rapidly that the camp is
demoralized and all ordinary work is held up till
is has passed. All assemblages of soldiers taboo.
These men start with what appears to be an attack
of la grippe or influenza, and when brought to
the hospital they very rapidly develop the most
viscous type of pneumonia that has ever been
seen. Two hours after admission they have the
mahogany spots over the cheek bones, and a few
hours later you can begin to see the cyanosis
extending from their ears and spreading all over
the face, until it is hard to distinguish the
coloured men from the white.
55
  • It is only a matter of a few hours then until
    death comes, and it is simply a struggle for air
    until they suffocate. It is horrible. One can
    stand it to see one, two or twenty men die, but
    to see these poor devils dropping like flies sort
    of gets on your nerves. We have been averaging
    about 100 deaths per day, and still keeping it
    up. There is no doubt in my mind that there is a
    new mixed infection here, but what I don't know.
    My total time is taken up hunting rales, rales
    dry or moist, sibilant or crepitant or any other
    of the hundred things that one may find in the
    chest, they all mean but one thing
    here--pneumonia--and that means in about all
    cases death.

56
  • The normal number of doctors here is about 25 and
    that has been increased to over 250, all of whom
    (of course excepting me) have temporary orders--
    "Return to your proper station on completion of
    work"--Mine says, "Permanent Duty," but I have
    been in the Army just long enough to learn that
    it doesn't always mean what it says. So I don't
    know what will happen to me at the end of this.
    We have lost an outrageous number of nurses and
    doctors, and the little town of Ayer is a sight.
    It takes special trains to carry away the dead.
    For several days there were no coffins and the
    bodies piled up something fierce, we used to go
    down to the morgue (which is just back of my
    ward) and look at the boys laid out in long rows.
    It beats any sight they ever had in France after
    a battle.

57
  • An extra long barracks has been vacated for the
    use of the morgue, and it would make any man sit
    up and take notice to walk down the long lines of
    dead soldiers all dressed up and laid out in
    double rows. We have no relief here you get up
    in the morning at 530 and work steady till about
    930 p.m., sleep, then go at it again. Some of
    the men of course have been here all the time,
    and they are tired. I write this in piecemeal
    fashion. It may be a long time before I can get
    another letter to you, but will try.
  • Good-by old Pal,
  • God be with you till we meet again

58
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59
The Asian Flu 1957 1968
  • In 1957, the Ford Motor Co. rolled out its
    infamous Edsel sedan the world was in the midst
    of an escalating Cold War the Soviet Union
    launched the first man-made satellite, Sputnik,
    into orbit and President Eisenhower sent troops
    to Arkansas to protect African-American students
    while a Little Rock high school was being
    integrated.

60
  • In 1957, the world was also in the grip of a
    deadly influenza pandemic, known as the Asian
    flu. Although less severe than the 1918 Spanish
    flu that killed an estimated 50 million people,
    the 1957 Asian flu was ultimately responsible for
    70,000 deaths in the United States and nearly 2
    million deaths worldwide over the next year.

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63
Normal activities were halted in order to
restrict the spread of the flu.
64
Will There Be An Eighth?
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66
Dire case of flu in Hong KongSeptember 23, 2008
  • Primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong have
    been temporarily closed down because of an
    illness with symptoms similar to flu. None of the
    experts can recognize what the virus is just yet.
  • Closing the schools was mainly to stop parents
    worrying, and the schools are being
    disinfected. Experts hope that this will stop the
    illness spreading.
  • People in Hong Kong are worried because they had
    S.A.R.S in 2003, which killed almost 300 people.
    This stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome.

67
Bird Flu
  • Estimates predict 40 of the population will
    become infected.
  • Of those infected approximately 50-55 will
    probably die.

68
Why should we worry?
  • On Sept. 29 2005, David Nabarro the newly
    appointed Senior U.N. System Coordinator for
    Avian and human influenza stated that if an
    outbreak reaches pandemic proportions then expect
    death toll from 5 million to 150 million people.
  • Scientists estimate 1 to 1.2 billion deaths

69
VHA Report 2006 on Hospital Preparedness
  • Disaster Plans are in Place
  • Inadequate Inventories of Critical Supplies
  • No Problem We just get more stuff from the
    manufacturers.
  • Now Where are the Manufacturers?

70
  • Supply chain experts believe that interruptions
    in Asian manufacturing centers due to avian flue
    could severely impact replenishment options here.

71
But Is There Really a Threat?
72
  • In 2007, the number of human cases of avian flu
    dropped rather than rose for the first time --
    from 115 in 2006 to an even more insignificant 86
    in 2007.
  • Frightening headlines warning of a pandemic that
    could kill 150 million people have all but
    vanished.

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74
  • Most of the people who acquire the infection
    were, and still are, bird handlers in continuous
    contact with sick birds.
  • How does this endanger workers in the United
    States? Research like this would typically be
    thrown in the trash if it did not strongly
    support some ulterior purpose.
  • What might that purpose have been?
  • Greed?

75
Who Profited?
  • At 100 per dose, the U.S. used taxpayers
    dollars to purchase some 20 million doses of the
    highly questionable Tamiflu from Gilead Sciences.
  • 20,000,000 x 100 2,000,000,000

76
  • They earned over seven billion dollars worldwide.
  • The president of Gilead Sciences when they
    created the drug was then Defense Secretary
    Donald Rumsfeld.

77
And Tamiflu Isnt 100 Safe
  • Since the purported outbreak of bird flu, the
    Tamiflu vaccine has been linked to the deaths of
    14 Japanese children, some of which suddenly
    jumped out of buildings.
  • Neuropsychiatric incidents in children, including
    seizures, loss of consciousness, and delirium
    were linked to the vaccine.
  • Tamiflu is now banned in Japan.

78
Who Shouldnt Take Tamiflu?
  • Do Not Take
  • if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant,
    or are breast-feeding
  • if you are taking any prescription or
    nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or
    dietary supplement
  • if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or
    other substances
  • if you have kidney problems

79
Heres the Kicker!
  • When Tamiflu is used as directed (twice daily for
    5 days) it can ONLY reduce the duration of your
    influenza symptoms by 1 to 1 ½ days, according to
    the official data.
  • Why on earth would anyone want to take a drug
    that has a chance of killing you, was banned in
    Japan, is loaded with side effects that mimic the
    flu itself, costs over 100, and AT BEST can only
    provide 36 hours of SYMPTOM relief. 

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81
  • President Obama declared the swine flu outbreak a
    national emergency empowering the health
    secretary to suspend federal requirements and
    speed up treatment.
  • His declaration authorized Health and Human
    Services to bypass normal federal regulations so
    health officials could respond more quickly to
    the outbreak.

82
  • As of June 12, 2009, there had been only 145
    deaths in the ENTIRE world from this illness. The
    United States had 27 deaths. Mexico had the
    majority of the deaths at 108.

83
More People Died From the Vaccine Than From the
Flu!
  • CNN and the CDC report that nearly 3,900 people,
    including about 540 children, are believed to
    have died from the H1N1 flu vaccine in the first
    six months of the epidemic.

84
  • In a normal flu season the total number of deaths
    for children is about 100 from the vaccine.

85
Adverse Effects of the Vaccine
  • Guillian-Barre syndrome
  • Brain Disorders
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Immune System Disorders Including Anaphylactic
    Reaction
  • Convulsions
  • 3,587 Miscarriages

86
  • The creators of the vaccine refused to take the
    vaccine.
  • 50 of all health care workers refused to take
    the vaccine.

87
2011 Study Results
  • A shocking report from the National Coalition of
    Organized Women (NCOW) presented data from two
    different sources demonstrating that the 2009/10
    H1N1 vaccines contributed to an estimated 1,588
    miscarriages and stillbirths.  A corrected
    estimate may be as high as 3,587 cases. 

88
  • NCOW also highlights the disturbing fact that
    the CDC failed to inform their vaccine providers
    of the incoming data of the reports of suspected
    H1N1 vaccine related fetal demise. 

89
August 2, 2010
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has
    approved vaccines for the 2010 to 2011 flu season
    that protect against 3 strains of influenza,
    including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine flu virus.

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