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Lesson 7 The Glorious Whitewasher


... her eyes brimming with tears of agony and gratitude. ... 1) The blooms/blossoms are so beautiful! ( Difference: where there is blossom, there is fruit. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lesson 7 The Glorious Whitewasher

Lesson 7 The Glorious Whitewasher
  • By Mark Twain

Teaching Plan
  • Time 10 periods
  • Arrangement
  • Introduction (1 period)
  • Textual learning (6 periods)
  • Exercises (3 periods)
  • Duty Report (3 times)

Learning Objectives
  • Appreciate the style of Mark Twain.
  • Portray the inner mind through scenery
  • Get familiar with nautical terms.
  • Get familiar with rhetoric devices, such as
    metaphor, hyperbole, metonymy, comparison and
    contrast, parallelism, irony, and etc.
  • Master the uses of key words and expressions be
    brimming with, survey and examine, pomp and
    circumstance, up a stump, let on, put sth in a
    new light, in good repair, bankrupt, covet, be
    obliged to do, etc.
  • Master important grammar subjunctive mood,
    absolute structure and etc.

Background Information
  • The author Mark Twain (pseudo name of Samuel
    Clemens, 1935-1910) American humorist and local
    color novelist. His novels include The Gilded
    Age, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures
    of Huckleberry Finn, Life on the Mississippi. His
    famous short stories include The Million Pound
    Bank-Note, Running for Governor and etc.

More about Mark Twain
  • ?Love story of Mark Twain Fall in love at
    first sightMark fell in love with his future
    wifeOlivia Landdon when he happened to see her
    picture in her brothers necklace picture box.
    Then he obtained a recommendation letter from an
    old friend of Olivias father. Then the two got
    married and lived a happy life ever since.

  • All you need in this life is ignorance and
    confidence then success is sure.
  • There are several kinds of story, but only one
    difficult kindthe humorous. The humorous story
    is American, the comic story is English, and the
    witty story is French. The humorous story depends
    upon the manner of the telling the comic and
    witty story depends upon the matter.

Short Summary of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer revolves around the
    youthful adventures of the novel's schoolboy
    protagonist, Thomas Sawyer, whose reputation
    precedes him for causing mischief and strife. Tom
    lives with his Aunt Polly, half-brother Sid, and
    cousin Mary in the quaint town of St. Petersburg,
    just off the shore of the Mississippi River. St.
    Petersburg is described as a typical small-town
    atmosphere where the Christian faith is
    predominant, the social network is close-knit,
    and familiarity resides.
  • Unlike his brother Sid, Tom receives "lickings"
    from his Aunt Polly ever the mischief-maker,
    would rather play hooky than attend school and
    often sneaks out his bedroom window at night to
    adventure with his friend, Huckleberry Finn ? The
    town's social outcast. Tom, despite his dread of
    schooling, is extremely clever and would normally
    get away with his pranks if Sid were not such a

Pre-study reading Opening of Chapter One
  • TOM!"
  • No answer.
  • "TOM!"
  • No answer.
  • "What's gone with that boy, I wonder? You TOM!"
  • No answer.
  • The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
    looked over them about the room then she put
    them up and looked out under them. She seldom or
    never looked through them for so small a thing as
    a boy they were her state pair, the pride of her
    heart, and were built for "style," not service --
    she could have seen through a pair of stove-lids
    just as well. She looked perplexed for a moment,
    and then said, not fiercely, but still loud
    enough for the furniture to hear
  • "Well, I lay if I get hold of you I'll --"
  • She did not finish, for by this time she was
    bending down and punching under the bed with the
    broom, and so she needed breath to punctuate the
    punches with. She resurrected nothing but the
  • "I never did see the beat of that boy!"
  • She went to the open door and stood in it and
    looked out among the tomato vines and "jimpson"
    weeds that constituted the garden. No Tom. So she
    lifted up her voice at an angle calculated for
    distance and shouted
  • "Y-o-u-u Tom!

  • There was a slight noise behind her and she
    turned just in time to seize a small boy by the
    slack of his roundabout and arrest his flight.
  • "There! I might 'a thought of that closet. What
    you been doing in there?"
  • "Nothing."
  • "Nothing! Look at your hands. And look at your
    mouth. What is that truck?"
  • "I don't know, aunt."
  • "Well, I know. It's jam -- that's what it is.
    Forty times I've said if you didn't let that jam
    alone I'd skin you. Hand me that switch."
  • The switch hovered in the air -- the peril was
    desperate --
  • "My! Look behind you, aunt!"
  • The old lady whirled round, and snatched her
    skirts out of danger. The lad fled on the 
    instant, scrambled up the high board-fence, and
    disappeared over it.

About this lesson
  • This lesson is an excerpt taken from the 2nd
    chapter of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Summary
    of this chapter Tom was punished by Aunt Polly
    to whitewash the fence. Instead of doing the job
    by himself, Tom tricked the neighborhood boys
    into completing his entire chore by pretending to
    love whitewashing and made other boys covet the
    labor. As a result, he had not only finished
    whitewashing the fence for 3 times, but also
    bankrupted the other boys. Besides, he had
    discovered a great law of human actionin order
    to make a man covet a thing, it is only necessary
    to make the thing difficult to attain.

Textual Organization
  • Part 1 (para. 1-3) Tom had to work on Saturday
    and he felt melancholy, but he came up with a
    brilliant idea.
  • Part 2 (para. 4-28) Tom succeeded in trapping
    Ben Rogers and other boys into whitewashing.
  • Part 3 (para. 29-31) Tom checked his spoils and
    had discovered a great law of human action.

Pre-study Questions
1. Why the title is The Glorious Whitewasher?
How glorious is Tom?
  • He had not only finished whitewashing the fence
    for 3 times,
  • but also bankrupted the other boys
  • Besides, he had discovered a great law of human
    actionin order to make a man covet a thing, it
    is only necessary to make the thing difficult to

2.What is the style of this excerpt?
  • Humorous
  • Use big words, e.g. glorious, issue, melancholy,
    expedition, etc.
  • Comparison and contrast. (e.g.worldly
    wealthmarbles, bits of toys and trash)
  • Figures of speech/rhetoric language hyperbole
    (the far-reaching continent of unwhitewashed
    fence make a world of fun of him, etc.)
    metaphor, metonymy (Big MissouriBen Rogers) and
  • Irony. (e.g. But of course youd druther
    workwouldnt you? Of course you would! Para. 12)

Style Local colorism
  • Local color
  • Non-standard English the childrens English and
    the blacks English
  • Colloquialism slang and informal language
  • Vivid depiction of the country life along the
    Mississippi River.
  • Mark Twain is the first American writer to
    introduce colloquialism into American literature.

Textual Analysis
  • Paragraph 1
  • Main idea a cheerful Saturday morning in summer.
  • Key words phrases for creating the cheerful
    mood bright, brimming with life, song, music,
    cheer, spring, bloom, fragrance, blossoms

Language points
  • 1. brim
  • n. the top edge of a cup, bowl etc. with regard
    to how full it is.
  • e.g. The wine is full to the brim of the goblet,
    which is against the wine culture.
  • adj. brimful
  • e.g. The youths are brimful with enthusiasm.
  • vi. be brimming with (tears, happiness,
    confidence) be full of
  • e.g. When Leon was valiantly fighting against the
    corrupted police office , Mathilda escaped with
    the plant, her eyes brimming with tears of agony
    and gratitude. (a Luc Besson film Leon the

Brainstorming how to say cry in different
Here we go!
  • Connection with The Use of Force Tears of defeat
    blinded her eyes (Lesson 3 P41).
  • Other expressions shed tears, burst into tears,
    burst out crying, be reduced to tears, be full of
    tears, cry ones eyes out, etc.
  • Any more??

2. issue
  • v. produce
  • e.g. issue an order/statement/newspaper, etc.
  • In this sentence, it means come out, flow out
  • Paraphrase the sentence Every person felt like
    singing, and those who had a young heart would
    let the music flow out from their lips. (pay
    attention to the sound effect of issue)

Chinese version
Is it a good translation? Do you have a better
My version
  • ?????????????,??????????????????????

3. bloom and blossom
  • Both words can be used as verb and noun.
  • n. e.g.
  • 1) The blooms/blossoms are so beautiful!
    (Difference where there is blossom, there is
    fruit. The trees that produce blossoms may bear
    fruits. But for bloom, not necessarily so).
  • 2) The apple tress come into blossoms. (in
    bloomin blossombe flowering)
  • 3) College students are in the bloom of their
    youth, absorbing knowledge and setting the stage
    for a promising future.

Verb blossom
  • v. 1) New industries can blossom over night if we
    find an outlet for their products.
  • ??????????????, ????????????
  • 2) The little brat has blossomed/bloomed into an
    elegant lady. ????????????????

Paragraph 2
  • Main idea In face of the huge work, Tom was
    seized by melancholy.
  • Analysis how to achieve the contrast with the
    cheerful mood in the first paragraph?
  • Key words survey, melancholy, hollow burden,
    sigh, discouraged.

Language points
  • 1. survey vt n. (different in stress, the same
    rule governing increase, record, etc.)
  • v.
  • e.g. They surveyed the room at large, examining
    the various articles of use or beauty.
    (difference between survey and examine survey
    to examine sth. as a whole examine to look at
    sth. closely and carefully in order to find out
    sth. Page 123, exercise VI, A )
  • n.
  • e.g. The survey of the current unemployment rate
    is somewhat discouraging.
  • Phrases survey of public opinions, survey of the
    market, etc.

2. melancholy
Hamlet Prince of Melancholy
  • Do you know the play Hamlet?
  • A story of revenge
  • Oedipus complex
  • To be, or not to be, it is a question

How to use melancholy?
  • adj. n.
  • e.g. Hamlet is called the Prince of
    Melancholyhe is melancholy because he is
    pondering whether to revenge his dead father on
    his uncle Claudius or not.
  • adj. melancholic

  • as melancholy as a cat
  • as poor as a church mouse
  • as cunning as a fox
  • as happy as a lark
  • as mild as a lamb
  • as nimble as a squirrel
  • as blind as a bat/raven
  • as large as life
  • as cool as a cucumber

3. Paraphrase Sighing discouraged
  • Heaving a sigh, he put the brush into the
    whitewash for a while, and painted the upmost
    part of the fence, gave it another touch, and
    made one more repetition. He compared the tiny
    whitewashed fence with the vast part that
    remained undone. Frustrated, he sat down on a
    wooden box.

Paragraph 3
  • Main idea
  • Tom thought about the fun he could have had, and
    came up with a brilliant idea.

Language points
  • 1.multiply increase in times
  • 1) four basic ways of calculation add, subtract,
    divide and multiply
  • e.g. Three multiplied by 5 is 15.
  • 2) A quotation from the Bible I will greatly
    multiply your sorrow and your conception. In pain
    you shall bring forth children your desire shall
    be for your husband and he shall rule over you.
    Biblical story the Garden of Eden

Garden of Eden
2. trip vi/vt
  • e.g. The stone poses a tripping hazard youd
    better remove it in case that someone should trip
    over it.
  • During the football match, he deliberately
    stretched his feet and tripped me up. He deserved
    a yellow card!

3. burn
  • The very thought of it burnt him like fire he
    suffered from the idea acutely.
  • Link
  • My face was burning with it (Lesson 3 The Use
    of Force)
  • collocations
  • be burning with a desire
  • be burning to do sth, synonymous with be
    itching to do, be dying to do

  • ??????????,????????,?????,???????????(??,??)
  • (hint burn, absolute structure)

Got it!
  • The uncontrollable desire for food burning within
    me, I ignored all propriety and poured out my
    complaints without feeling ashamed. (????)

4. straitened
  • Adj. poor, of poverty, poverty-stricken
  • Phrase in desperate straits in economical
  • Sentence paraphrase He got outpure freedom
  • He took out all his possessions and examined
    them, with which he might trade with other boys
    and ask them to work for him for a while. But
    they were far from enough to get half an hours
    absolute freedom from work.

5. burst upon
  • An idea burst upon sb. sb. gets an idea suddenly
  • Similar expressions
  • An idea burst upon sb.
  • An idea occurs to sb.
  • An idea flashes into ones mind.
  • An idea hits/strikes/seizes sb.
  • Sb. comes up with an idea.

Paragraph 4
  • Main idea Ben Rogers personated a steamboat.
  • Any language barrier?

Nautical terms
  • heave in sight come into sight (usu. used to
    describe the stately manner of a ship. When used
    to describe a person coming into sight, humorous
    effect is obvious).
  • Starboard the right-hand side of a ship
  • Larboard the left-hand side of a ship
  • Round to stop against the wind
  • Draw 9 feet of waters the depth of the ship
    under the water is 9 feet,??9???
  • Hurricane deck also called promenade deck, the
    upper deck
  • Spring line a line led from a vessels quarter
    to her cable so that by tightening or slacking it
    she can be made to lie in any desired position

Why Mark Twain is so familiar with such terms?
  • Mark Twain had been a pilot for many years.
  • Trace back
  • In Lesson 5 I Have Written My Last Story,
    Maugham states that the characters are
    constituted out of the various sides of a
    writers own personality, and if a character is
    to have life, it must be at least in some degree
    a representation of the writer himself.

Link Audio Text
  • http//www.pku.edu.cn/study/novel/tom/etom01.htm

Language points
  • 1. personate act, play
  • e.g. Charlie Chaplin once personated Hitler in
    the movie Great Dictator in a dramatic way.
  • n. personator actor, actress or cheat

2. slacken
  • v. slow
  • e.g. The modern city dwellers should slacken
    their pace at times to relieve pressure.
  • Adj. slack
  • slack season/peak season slack business, etc.
  • Suffix -en widen, quicken, shorten, broaden,

3. ponderously
  • Adv. heavily and awkwardly synonym laboriously
  • root ponder v. think
  • e.g. A statesman should ponder his words when he
    delivers a speech.
  • He is pondering over/upon an issue.
  • Adj. ponderous
  • e.g. a ponderous speech (laborious and dull)

4. pomp and circumstance
  • Meaning solemn and splendid ceremonial show,
    esp. on a public or official occasion. In this
    context, it means affected grandeur

Cultural Notes
  • The composer Edward Elgar (1857-1934) composed
    Pomp and Circumstance march, which is
    inevitably used for high school graduation and is
    often played at college and university graduation
    ceremonies in the USA.
  • e.g. It is hard to imagine a graduation ceremony
    without Pomp and Circumstance.
  • The election of Students Union members was held
    with pomp and circumstance, nothing less than a
    presidential election.

Graduation ceremony
Paragraph 528 Dialogue
  • Main idea Tom succeeded in tricking the
    neighborhood boys into whitewashing.
  • Tactics Tom used
  • 1) ????leave sb. at large in order to apprehend
    him afterwards/letting the enemy off in order to
    catch him
  • 2) ??????Let the small fish go and catch the big
    fish later.

Features of the dialogue
  • Colloquial
  • humorous
  • ----going a-swimming go swimming (p115, para.12)
  • sub-standard English aint druther, etc.
  • ----would druther work would rather work
  • ----aint be not, have not (characteristic of
    black English)
  • ----it wouldnt hardly do it wouldnt do. (p116,
  • ----awful particular awfully particular (p116,
  • ----its got to be done very careful carefully
    (p116, para.23)
  • ----subjunctive mood Id let you, if you was me,
    Tom. (p116, para.24)
  • ----If you was to tackle this fence(p116,
  • was were
  • ----lemme let me (para.2425)

Language points
  • 1. stump
  • n. the base of a cut-down tree, the end of sth.
  • e.g. the stump of cigar a pencil stump
  • collocation up a stump be in difficulties/dilemm
    a be between the sea and the devil
  • vt. pose a difficulty
  • e.g. 1) The police were stumped about the motive
    behind the murder.
  • 2) The Sphinx Riddle stumped many
    people until Oedipus Rex solved it.
  • What creature walks on four legs in the morning,
    on two at noon, and on three at night?
  • ----Man, who creeps in infancy, walks upright in
    manhood, and supports his steps with a staff in
    old age.

2. contemplate
  • vt.
  • 1)observe thoughtfully look at sth. quietly and
  • 2)Another sense mediate on envisage
  • e.g. contemplate the difficult operation
    contemplate reforming the Medicare system

3. put the thing in a new light
  • Sentence paraphrase His words gave new
    dimensions to the issue.
  • Or his words provided a new perspective for the
  • e.g. We should see the situation in the changed

4. consent
  • n. approval
  • e.g. 1) Romeo and Juliets parents refused to
    give consent to their marriage.
  • 2)He was chosen by common consent to make a
    speech at the meeting as the representative of
    our team.
  • v. agree
  • e.g. The teacher would not consent to cancel the
    final exams.

5. alter, change, vary and modify
5. differences of alter, change, vary and modify
  • alter implies the making of a difference in some
    particular respect without suggesting loss of
  • Change implies making either an essential
    difference often amounting to a loss of original
    identity or a substitution of one thing for
  • Vary stresses a breaking away from sameness,
    duplication or exact repetition.
  • Modify suggests a difference that limits,
    restricts or adapts to a new purpose.
  • Practice page125, item D

6. distinguish consider, deem, regard, account
and reckon
These verbs refer to holding opinions or views
that are based on evaluation.
  • Consider suggests objective reflection and
  • e.g. She is considered an intelligent woman.
  • He considers success of little importance.
  • Deem is more subjective through its emphasis on
    judgment as distinguished from contemplation
  • e.g. The faculty deems the essay to be by far the
    best one submitted.
  • Regard often implies a personal attitude
  • e.g. I regard your apology as the end of the
    matter. Account and reckon in this sense are
    rather literary in flavor and imply calculated
  • Account? reckon?????????????????,?????????????
  • e.g. I account no man to be a philosopher who
    attempts to do more. (John Henry Newman).
  • e.g. I cannot reckon you as an admirer.
    (Nathaniel Hawthorne).

Paragraph 2931
  • Main idea Tom, rolling with wealth now, checked
    his spoils and discovered a great law of human

Language points
  • 1. munch and nibble
  • (Earlier Ben was nibbling his apple, but when Tom
    got it, he was munching it.)
  • Difference
  • nibble eat with small bites
  • munch chew or eat audibly or with pleasure
  • Nibbletr. e.g. nibble a cracker.
  • e.g. If you start compromising too early...
    they nibble you to death. ???????,?????????????
    (In this sentence, nibble means to wear away or
    diminish bit by bit)

Why apples are so covetable?
  • Apples for the village kids are very desirable.
    And the children would water for delicious food.
    Thats why when Tom was thinking about the fun
    the other boys could have, he describe them as
    delicious expeditions (meaning very pleasant

2. Big words and phrases
  • trade buy in rolling in wealth
  • analysis such terms pose a sharp contrast
    whitewashing the fence becomes a desirable
    business coveted by all, and Tom managed his
    business successfully and got rich eventually.

3. Distinguish slaughter, massacre, butchery,
and genocide
  • Slaughter extensive and ruthless killing as in a
    battle or massacre.
  • Massacre implies casual, random and wholesale
    slaying, esp. of those not in a position to
    defend themselves.
  • Butchery adds to slaughter the implication of
    exceeding cruelty and complete disregard of the
    suffering of the victims.
  • Genocide the systematic and planned
    extermination of an entire national, racial,
    political or ethnic group. (e.g. the
    near-genocide of American Indians). syn race
    murder, racial extermination

Consist of
  • A is composed of BCD.
  • A consists of BCD
  • BCD constitute A.
  • BCD comprise A.
  • A includes B and C.

  • e.g. The United Kingdom consists of/is composed
    of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
  • England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
    constitute the UK.
  • The UK includes England and Wales.

Important grammar
  • Johnny Miller bought in for a dead rat and a
    string to swing it with.
  • A piece of blue bottle to look through.
  • key point the prepositions at the end of each
    sentence shouldnt be omitted.
  • e.g. The Clarks havent decided yet which
    hotel_____. TEM 1998
  • A. to stay B. is to stay
  • C. to stay at D. is for staying
  • key C

  • Writing write a paragraph to express your mood
    through scenery description. (homework)
  • Translate the first 2 paragraphs (be original and
    avoid copying!) (homework)
  • Paraphrase the key sentences.
  • Exercises in the textbook.

Further Exploration
  • Finish the whole novel and write a reading
  • Mark Twain is the Lincoln of Our Literature.
    ---Do you agree with this judgment? Why and why
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