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Physical Properties

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a. nearly all sediments are derived from continental crust ... Conglomerate or Breccia (depends on rounding) Gravel 256 mm. Boulder. Consolidated Rock ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Properties


1
Physical Properties of Sediments
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SOURCES OF SEDIMENT 1. Crust a. nearly all
sediments are derived from continental
crust b. small fraction is from oceanic crust
from volcanic ash c. rocks of the crust - 3
types igneous rocks - formed by the
crystallization of magma sedimentary rocks
formed from sediments sedimentary
rocks and sediments cover about 90 of all
crust metamorphic rocks
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  • CLASSIFICATION
  • Physical properties -descriptive classification
  • Grain Size (or fossil size) (The most significant
    property)
  • i. nominal diameter
  • ii. sieve diameter
  • iii. Sedimentation diameter
  • iv. Standard diameter (fall diameter)
  • b. Composition (of the individual grains)
  • i. minerals
  • ii. Fossils
  • c. Particle Shape SF c/v(ab)
  • SF for sphere 1 and 0.7 for natural sediments

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d. Specific Gravity and velocity i. gravity
ranges from 2.6 to 2.8 ii. fall velocity of a
grain with fall diameter an SG of
2.65 e. Cohesiveness (association between
type and size) i. illite, kaolinite, and
montomorillonite are the most minerals
causing particles to stick together ii. No clear
boundary between cohesive and not cohesive
but clay is more cohesive than silt f.
Gradation (variation in particle size with
respect to direction) i. particle size ii.
particle weight g. Sorting and packing i. Poor
to well sorting ii. Cubic, tetragonal, and
rohmbohedral h. Consolidation (process of
compaction with time)
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2. Genetic (based on their origin) a.
Terrigenous - derived mainly from continents
most of these are found near continents i.
materials eroded from the continents ii.
volcanogenic--products of volcanoes iii.
glacial- glaciers grind up rock b. Biogenous -
produced by living organisms (mostly
skeletal material produced by plankton i.
calcareous- skeletal materials made of
CaCO3 a) foraminifera (protozoans, forming
calcite) b) coccolithophores (algae, forming
calcite) c) pteropods (planktonic
molluscs) d) benthic animals (e.g., corals,
clams)
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ii. siliceous (skeletal materials made of opal)
a) diatoms (algae) b) radiolarians
(protozoans) iii. phosphatic - fish debris iv.
organic matter (petroleum reserves) c.
Hydrogenous (minor) - precipitated from
seawater i. manganese nodules and crusts -
mostly Fe oxides ii. hydrothermal - metal rich
deposits iii. salts (evaporite deposits) d.
Cosmogenous - sediments from outer space - very
rare i. interplanetary dust constantly rains on
the Earth ii. occasionally large asteroids or
comets impact the Earth
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Porosity, Permeability, and Saturation
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Total and effective porosity of various sediments
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Permeability
Permeability Is a measure of the capacity of
a rock to transmit fluid It depends on
Connected void, grain size, grain shape, and
packing Darcy law ? (Q/A) (u) (dL/p1-p2)
Facts Unit is L square Horizontal
permeability Vertical permeability
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  • Common Diagenetic Changes in Sediments
  • Process Results Depth Effect
  • Compaction Mech rearrangement Shallow Reduce
    porosity
  • of grains
  • Cementation Intergranular calcite shallow
    Consolidation
  • and silica overgrowths moderate Reduce
    Porosity
  • Clay Precipit. Illite, Kaolinite coating same
    slight decrease in porosity
  • Clay Dehyd. Loss water Moderate slight
    increase in porosity
  • Dissolution Leaching of calcite Moderate
    Segnif. increase cement in porosity

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Saturation
Saturation Is the amount of fluid in a rock It
is a percentage of the pore space Porosity,
permeability, and saturation can be measured in
the lab and by tertiary methods.
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