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XML Extensible Markup Language


XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. ... apos; ' apostrophe " ' quotation mark. XML(Table) XPath - Finding Information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: XML Extensible Markup Language

XML (Extensible Markup Language
  • XML is a markup language.
  • XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language.
  • The XML standard was created by W3C to provide
    an easy to use and standardized way to store
    self-describing data (self-describing data is
    data that describes both its content and its

Communication Between Application
XML is nothing by itself. XML is more of a
"common ground" standard. The main benefit of XML
is that you can use it to take data from a
program like MSSQL (Microsoft SQL), convert it
into XML, then share that XML with a slough of
other programs and platforms What makes XML truly
powerful is the international acceptance it has
received. Many individuals and corporations have
put forth their hard work to make XML interfaces
for databases, programming, office application,
mobile phones and more.
Applications of XML
  • Cell Phones - XML data is sent to some
    cell phones. The data is then formatted by the
    specification of the cell phone software designer
    to display text or images, and even to play
  • File Converters - Many applications have
    been written to convert existing documents into
    the XML standard. An example is a PDF to XML
  • VoiceXML - Converts XML documents into an
    audio format so that you can listen to an XML

Free XML Viewer
  • Internet Explorer 6.0 supports viewing XML files.
  • You can download IE 6.0 from Microsoft's Website.
    Internet Explorer 6.0 has special color coding
    the make XML documents easier to read.
  • Firefox XML Viewer Firefox has some of the same
    features as Internet Explorer. You can download
    Mozilla's Firefox from Mozilla.com.
  • Free XML Editors
  • There are many free XML editors available for
    download on the internet. Here are a few we have
    found useful
  • XML Cooktop
  • XML Mind Standard Edition
  • Pete's XML Editor

XML Syntax
  • XML Code
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-15"?gt
  • ltclass_listgt
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtLenardlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtA-lt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • lt/class_listgt

XML code.
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-15"?gt
  • This line with special symbols and attributes is
    what is referred to as the XML declaration. It
    simply states what version of XML you are using
    and the type of encoding you are using
  • XML Tag
  • The XML tag is very similar to that of the HTML
    tag. Each element is marked with an opening tag
    and a closing tag.
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt

XML Elements
  • They contain the opening and closing tags, child
    elements, and data.
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • XML Attribute
  • An attribute appears within the opening tag of
    an element.
  • ltstudent active"true"gt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt

XML Attribute Quotation Usage
  • The types of quotes that you use around your
    attribute values is entirely up to you. Both the
    single quote (') and the double quote (") are
    perfectly fine to use in your XML documents.
  • ltstudent nicknameRob "The Dog''gt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • ltstudent group"Pete's Pandas"gt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt

XML Comment Syntax
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-15"?gt
  • lt!-- Students grades are updated bi-monthly --gt
  • ltclass_listgt
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtLenardlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtA-lt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • lt/class_listgt

  • XML Commenting out XML
  • To temporarily remove some XML code from your XML
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-15"?gt
  • ltclass_listgt
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtRobertlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtAlt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • lt!--
  • ltstudentgt
  • ltnamegtLenardlt/namegt
  • ltgradegtA-lt/gradegt
  • lt/studentgt
  • --gt
  • lt/class_listgt

XML Prolog
  • The prolog is an optional component of the XML
    document. If included, the prolog must be appear
    before the root element. A prolog consists of two
    parts the XML declaration and the Document Type
    Declaration (DTD). Depending on your needs, you
    can choose to include both, either, or neither of
    these items in your XML document.
  • lt!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
  • "http//www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitio

  • !DOCTYPE - Tell the XML processor that
    this piece of code defines the Document Type
  • html - Specifies the root element of the
    XML document. Here our example is an HTML file,
    which has lthtmlgt as the root element.
  • PUBLIC - Specifies that this a publicly
    available DTD.
  • "-//W3C//D..." - The definition of the
    public document. Describing this is beyond the
    scope of this tutorial.
  • "http//www.w3.org/..." - The physical
    location of the DTD. Notice how this DTD resides
    on w3's servers.

XML Nesting
  • When an element appears within another element,
    it is said that the inner element is "nested".
    The term nested can be related directly to the
    word "nest". If an element is nested within
    another element, then it is surrounded,
    protected, or encapsulated by the outer element
  • Example A
  • ltphonebookgt
  • ltnumbergt
  • ltnamegt
  • lt/numbergt
  • lt/namegt
  • lt/phonebookgt

Example B
ltphonebookgt ltnumbergt ltnamegt
lt/namegt lt/numbergt lt/phonebookgt All elements
are closed in the order that they were opened.
Those elements which were opened first are closed
last. Example B is what example A must look like
to be a well-formed XML document.
  • XML was designed to be a very robust markup
    language that could be used in many different
    applications. However, with XML being able to
    communicate between so many different platforms,
    there is one problem that tends to occur.
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-15"?gt
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltbodygt
  • ltpgtWelcome to my Health Resourcelt/pgt
  • lt/bodygt
  • ltbodygt
  • ltheightgt6ftlt/heightgt
  • ltweightgt155 lbslt/weightgt
  • lt/bodygt
  • Two very different elements that want to use the
    same name body. The solution to this problem is
    to create XML Namespaces,

XML Namespaces
  • XML Documents Valid Versus Well-Formed
  • In XML, there are three ways to measure a
    document's validity valid, well-formed, and
  • One Root Element - The XML document may
    only have one root element. See our Root Element
    Lesson for more information.
  • Proper Nesting - XML elements must be
    closed in the order they are opened. See our
    Nesting Lesson for more information.
  • Well-Formed Entities - Any entities that
    are referenced in the document must also be
    well-formed. See our Entity Lesson for more

Broken XML Code
  • ltemailgt
  • lttogtMr. Garcia
  • ltbodygtHello there! How are we today?lt/togt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/emailgt
  • Well-Formed XML Code
  • ltemailgt
  • lttogtMr. Garcialt/togt
  • ltbodygtHello there! How are we today?lt/bodygt
  • lt/emailgt
  • The error in the first example wasThe document
    suffers from improper nesting. The body element
    was opened inside the to element, yet body was
    not closed before the to element was closed!

XML Tree The great benefit about XML is that the
document itself describes the structure of data.
inventory is the root element.
XML - The Tree Structure
Structure of an XML Document
Tree Structure
ltrootgt ltchildgt ltsubchildgt.....lt/subchildgt
lt/childgt lt/rootgt
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Entity References
If you place a character like "lt" inside an XML
element, it will generate an error because the
parser interprets it as the start of a new
element. ltmessagegtif salary lt 1000
thenlt/messagegt ltmessagegtif salary lt 1000
thenlt/messagegt There are 5 predefined entity
references in XML lt lt less than gt gt
greater than amp ampersand apos '
apostrophe quot " quotation mark
XPath - Finding Information
XPath is the solution to finding information in
an XML document. XPath uses expressions to find
elements, attributes, and other information in
your XML. If you have an XML document that
contained a bunch of your favorite books, each
with author children elements, you can use a one
line XPath expression to find all the authors of
your favorite books! The most common place people
might see XPath expressions are in XSLT
(Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation).
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
Structure of an XML Document
  • XML is Used to Create New Internet Languages
  • A lot of new Internet languages are created with
  • Here are some examples
  • XHTML the latest version of HTML
  • WSDL for describing available web services
  • WAP and WML as markup languages for
    handheld devices
  • RSS languages for news feeds
  • RDF and OWL for describing resources and
  • SMIL for describing multimedia for the web

SMIL 2.0 XML for Web Multimedia
  • SMIL stands for Synchronized Multimedia
    Integration Language
  • SMIL is pronounced "smile"
  • SMIL is a language for describing audiovisual
  • SMIL is easy to learn and understand
  • SMIL is an HTML-like language
  • SMIL is written in XML
  • SMIL presentations can be written using a
  • SMIL is a W3C standard

  • Although plug-ins and media players have the
    ability to show many different types of media
    with varying support for interaction, only SMIL
    offers the ability to define the presentation in
    the form of text as a script. This feature could
    be called media composition.
  • Also, SMIL offers accessibility options and
    powerful features not present in other media

What Can SMIL Do?
Implementing SMIL
  • Common SMIL implementations
  • Internet or Intranet presentations.
  • Slide show presentations.
  • Presentations which link to other SMIL
  • Presentations which have Control buttons
    (stop, start, next, ...)
  • Defining sequences and duration of
    multimedia elements.
  • Defining position and visibility of
    multimedia elements.
  • Displaying multiple media types such as
    audio, video, text
  • Displaying multiple files at the same time.
  • Displaying files from multiple web servers.
  • Currently, SMIL's most widespread usage is with
    MMS. MMS (Multimedia Messaging System) is a
    mobile device technology

  • Guidelines and Rules
  • SMIL documents look a lot like HTML. SMIL files
    need to be written according to the following
  • SMIL documents must follow the XML rules of
  • SMIL tags are case sensitive.
  • All SMIL tags are written with lowercase
  • SMIL documents must start with a ltsmilgt tag
    and end with a lt/smilgt closing tag.
  • SMIL documents must contain a ltbodygt tag
    for storing the contents of the presentation.
  • SMIL documents can have a ltheadgt element
    (like HTML) for storing metadata information
    about the document itself, as well as
    presentation layout information.

  • ltsmilgt
  • ltheadgt
  • ltlayoutgt
  • ...
  • lt/layoutgt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • ...
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/smilgt

Image to our presentation
  • ltsmilgt
  • ltheadgt
  • ltlayoutgt
  • ltroot-layout width"300" height"300"
  • background-color"white"/gt
  • ltregion id"cows" top"0" left"0"
  • width"300" height"197"/gt
  • lt/layoutgt
  • lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • ltimg src"cows.jpg" region"cows"/gt
  • lt/bodygt
  • lt/smilgt

  • Copy and paste this URL, "http//html.tucows.com/d
    esigner/basictut/example1.smil" into your SMIL
    parser, i.e., RealPlayer, QuickTime, for an
    example of the SMIL presentation created

Multiple Regions
   We placed the new region, "text", 200 pixels
from the top and 50 pixels from the left so that
it's centered in our presentation.
  • Below is a table with the possible values we can
    give to the fit attribute.

  • We want to make the tucows.gif image fit
    perfectly within the region, so we would add
    fit"fill" to the text region. Below is an

Time Control
  • You can also control how long you want a certain
    piece of media to be display for by using the
    "dur" attribute. This attribute takes a numerical
    value in seconds with the letter "s" after the
    number. For example, lets say we want the cows to
    be displayed for 10 seconds and the rest of the
    images for only 5. We would add "dur"10s"" to
    the cow's img tag and "dur"5s"" to the rest of
    the img tags. Below is what our code would look

  • This should display the TUCOWS text image,
    then the HTML text image during a span of 10

SMIL for phones
  • MMS uses SMIL to define the layout of multimedia
  • SMIL was adopted because it was a well-defined,
    standard language to describe the layout and
    timing of the content inside MMS messages.
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