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SECURITY PERS Best Practices and an Assessment

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Title: SECURITY PERS Best Practices and an Assessment


1
SECURITY PERS Best Practices and an Assessment
PRISM 2006
  • Tom Roark, Technical Services Manager
  • Mississippi Public Employees Retirement System

2
The Session Game Plan….
  • The Big Question about Security
  • An Opportunity (Problem)
  • An Undesirable Surprise
  • Change/Upgrade Strategy
  • Security Assessment
  • Best Practices and Lessons Learned

3
Security - The Big Question
  • Is there a way to totally secure your computing
    devices and data sources?

4
Security The Answer
  • The only way to completely secure any computer
    device or data source is to disconnect it from
    the network and place it in a locked vault where
    no one has the key. In this case, the data would
    be completely secure but totally inaccessible.

5
Free Stuff
  • A wise person learns from his/her own mistakes
    and experiences.
  • An even wiser person learns from others mistakes
    and experiences.

6
An Opportunity (Problem)
  • We were receiving 800 diskettes a month to
    collect Wage and Contribution Data
  • Along with the diskettes we were also receiving a
    signed paper Form 8 as an official submission
    document
  • Both the diskette and paper Form 8 were submitted
    to PERS via regular mail
  • It was the year 2002 and PERS was still using a
    DOS based application. (The application was
    developed in Foxpro 2.0 (Foxpro 2.0/1990))

7
Our Assignment
  • Upgrade the application from a DOS based platform
    to a Windows based platform
  • Move from diskette submission via regular mail to
    secure electronic submission via the internet
  • Eliminate the paper Form 8 required
  • Distribute the new application via the internet

8
The Solution
  • Upgraded to Visual Foxpro 5.0
  • Decided to use FTP to transfer data files
  • Since FTP was not a secure protocol, we
    researched and discovered a FREE Secure FTP
    client and server software solution
  • Researched and integrated an FTP Activex control
    into our Visual Foxpro application. This provided
    for a seamless submission to PERS via FTP
  • Eliminated the paper Form 8 by including a
    special data line in the transferred file
  • Provided a download link on our web site to
    distribute the new software (unpublished, login
    required)

9
Distribution Configuration
10
Submission Configuration (Secure FTP)
11
Bomb (New State Security Policy)
NO MORE FTP ALLOWED
12
Go to Plan B (we had no plan B)
  • Researched using an allowed protocol (HTTP) to
    transfer the data files and at the same time keep
    as much of our previously completed work as
    possible. We found an HTTP activex control for
    Foxpro.
  • Since HTTP is not secure without SSL and PERS was
    not yet SSL enabled and savvy, we researched and
    found a file encryption activex control that
    could be used to secure the data files prior to
    transfer via HTTP (DES, 3DES, AES encryption)
  • We also decided to transfer the data files to
    PERS web server via an unpublished URL which
    required a login for added security
  • We researched and wrote PERL scripts to transfer
    the files from our web server to our inside FTP
    server and then immediately delete the files from
    the web server for another layer of security
  • We also found a real plus to plan B in that it
    removed the secure FTP client and server software
    requirement

13
Submission Configuration (Plan B HTTP/FTP)
14
PERS Best Practices
  • Always communicate with your ISP on projects that
    could be impacted by your dependence on them.
  • Make sure any future plans you have will not be
    hindered by any future plans they have.

15
An Undesirable Surprise Monday Morning 700 am
4/1/2002
  • This really happened…
  • Dont let it happen to you!!!!!!

16
(No Transcript)
17
www.pers.state.ms.us was hacked
  • Gained Administrator access to server
  • Replaced the Root structure of PERS web site with
    hacked pages
  • Changed Administrator passwords and locked us out
    of our own servers
  • It was NOT an April Fools Joke!!!!

18
What did we do??????
  • We panicked like most IT staff where
  • The web server was deployed by a third party
  • Web site was developed by another third party
  • MIS staff had minimal web server experience
  • Backups were done infrequently
  • We started rebuilding our web server

19
Solving the Web server problem
  • Rebuilt the server from the ground up
  • Renamed administrator account
  • Put Complex Password on administrator account
  • Disabled the Guest account
  • Used netscape best practices on web server
    configurations
  • As an interim protective strategy we installed
    and configured a desktop firewall on the web
    server
  • Implemented a new backup strategy for our web
    server

20
The Interim Configuration
21
PERS Best Practices
  • Dont EVER leave an administrator password
    blank!!!! Due Diligence
  • Take ownership in products delivered by 3rd party
    companies
  • Play a vital role in all installations/deployments
    . Make sure your understand everything
  • Have computing standards in place and make sure
    any installations/deployments done by 3rd parties
    meet your standards
  • Make sure every computer asset you have has added
    security beyond that of an OS (Firewall, AV,
    etc…)
  • Make sure you have an adequate backup strategy
  • Have documented server build procedures (Disaster
    Recovery for WHEN it happens)

22
The straw that broke the camels back
23
Time to Make Some Changes
  • We did some serious evaluations and took an
    honest inventory at where we were
  • 3 years ago an honest inventory indicated that
    PERS was
  • Using a basically unprotected web site
  • Old Version of Netscape Suitespot Web Server
  • Using an outdated backup technology
  • Very Slow Network
  • Outdated Servers and Desktops
  • Using Windows NT 4.0 on desktops and servers
  • Using Novell 5.1 (File and Print sharing)
  • Using Office 97
  • Exchange 5.0
  • SQL Server 6.5
  • Norton Anti-Virus 6 or 7
  • No web security
  • No spy-ware/mal-ware security
  • No email security
  • No Desktop/Server/Backoffice software maintenance
    agreements
  • Uncontrolled user environment

24
Time to Make Some Changes
  • Did some research about available products and
    possible upgrade paths
  • Set some goals, objectives and priorities
  • Decided on a change strategy
  • Got to work and started making changes

25
Change Strategy Pyramid
26
Hardware - Network and Firewall Upgrade What it
was like…
  • Outdated Slow Network (10mb half duplex hubs and
    an unsupported core LANPLEX (SPOF))
  • Multiple protocol network (TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, etc…)
  • No DMZ or Service Network for exposed servers
    (www.pers.state.ms.us)
  • Software firewall on Windows NT with 2 interface
    cards, inside and outside

27
Hardware - Network and Firewall Upgrade What we
did…
  • Purchased 10/100/1000 MB Ethernet
    state-of-the-art full duplex switches
  • Purchased 10/100/1000 MB Ethernet nics for
    servers
  • Researched and Purchased a firewall appliance
    with multiple functionalities including Intrusion
    Detection/Prevention, Content Filtering, AV, VPN,
    FW
  • Made sure our firewall appliance had multiple
    interface capabilities, minimum of three (inside,
    outside, service)

28
The Current Configuration
29
Service Network Configuration
30
Hardware - Network and Firewall Upgrade PERS Best
Practices
  • Firewalls
  • Use Appliances for firewalls
  • Identify SPOFs and implement a fault tolerant
    strategy in case of failure (Cluster, spare, next
    business day maintenance contract)
  • Implement a service network or DMZ zone for
    exposed servers
  • Use a different network segment on each firewall
    interface
  • Eliminate path from exposed/outside servers to
    inside servers/network. (i.e. Implement pulls
    from inside instead of pushes from
    outside/service network.)
  • Restrict Administration access to firewall to
    internal specified machines and users, NO
    external configuration allowed
  • Lock down firewall rules to interfaces and
    entities, make them as tight as you can get them
  • Disable all services not being used on firewall
  • Configure any alerts to go to a firewall
    administrators email group
  • Lock down VPNs to pass traffic to proxies so
    that rules must be created to allow exact data,
    not just anything
  • Lock down smtp to ISP relays only or equivalent,
    dont allow smtp from universe
  • Network
  • Only patch network drops actually being used to a
    switch port
  • Require user/password security to administrater
    your switches
  • Disable all services not being used on your
    switches
  • Keep your network switches and firewall up to
    date with patches

31
Hardware Desktops/Servers/Backups/Other What it
was like….
  • Old outdated equipment
  • Servers and desktops didnt even meet minimum
    requirements for new OSs
  • Several different models adapters and monitor
    types
  • 10 MB desktop nics/100 MB server nics
  • Old Slow Scanners
  • Very old backup solution

32
Hardware Desktops/Servers/Backups/Other What we
did…
  • We upgraded our desktops, servers, backups, etc…
  • Standardized on equipment manufacture
  • Standardized on server type across the board
  • Standardized on desktop type across the board
  • Standardized on monitor types
  • Standardized on network access with 10/100/1000
    MB nics
  • Standardized on scanner types
  • Implemented a D2D2T high speed backup solution
    (Really Good Decision)

33
D2D2T Backup Solution
  • Before D2D2T
  • 4 Backup Servers
  • 8 Tape drives with 5 tape auto-changers each
    (DLT)
  • 4 Racks of space
  • Slow 100 MB Network
  • 12-16 Hour Backup window (incremental on some)
  • Very Problematic
  • After D2D2T
  • 2 Backup Servers
  • 2 High Speed Tape Cache Systems (1.5 TB each)
  • 2 Tape drives and no auto-changers necessary
    (LTO-2)
  • 1 Rack of space
  • Fast Gigabit Network
  • 5 Hour Backup window
  • 1-2 Hour Offline tape copy

34
D2D2T Backup Solution
35
Hardware Desktops/Servers/Backups/Other PERS
Best Practices
  • Purchase similar equipment where possible in
    order to have standardization and swappable parts
    in case of emergencies
  • Use hardware RAID disk configurations on all
    servers
  • Place all servers on UPSs
  • Implement UPS power failure graceful shutdowns
  • Configure equipment with more resources than
    software minimum requirements
  • Disable unnecessary devices on desktops (USB,
    diskette, etc…)
  • Implement a D2D2T backup strategy
  • Standardize, Standardize, Standardize !!!!!!!!

36
Picture of server room
37
Desktop and Server OS What it was like…
  • Windows NT4 sp6
  • Users could do almost anything, uncontrolled
    environment
  • Users could run any .exe
  • Users could make all types of desktop preference
    changes
  • Had Control Panel access
  • Minimal group policy usage
  • Many different configurations
  • Take 1 days to completely rebuild a pc from the
    ground up
  • The bottom line is we had inconsistent, unstable,
    problematic and unsecured configurations

38
Desktop and Server OS What we did…
  • Implemented an enterprise agreement for desktop
  • Implemented software assurance for servers
  • Windows XP sp2
  • Windows Server 2003 sp1
  • Made good use of Active directory GPO….
  • Minimize the number of different configurations
    as much as possible
  • Implemented the use of Ghost images for builds.
    We can have a pc completely rebuilt in less than
    an hour

39
Desktop and Server OS PERS Best Practices
  • Standardize configurations
  • Minimize the number of different configurations
    as much as possible
  • Implemented Disk quotas per user
  • Segregated MIS and Business user home directories
  • Rename administrator accounts and deleted
    descriptions
  • Disable guest accounts
  • Delete other windows help accounts
  • Disable all unnecessary services
  • Control drive mappings with group policy and/or
    login scripts
  • Implement user time restrictions
  • Documented desktop and server builds
  • Used Microsoft Security Baseline Analyzers (MBSA)
    and followed recommended best practices
  • Made copies of all software and build procedures
    and placed offsite for disaster recovery
  • Control the desktop experience for backgrounds,
    screen savers, colors, etc…
  • Use AD GPO….

40
Desktop and Server OS PERS Best Practices AD GPO
  • Configure Active Directory according to your
    organizations structure
  • Implement global policies and then implement
    departmental policies
  • No Control Panel Access
  • Standard Background
  • Standard screen savers with password protected
    Resume
  • Standard Color Scheme
  • Standard Start Menu View and settings
  • Redirected Start Menus
  • Redirected My Documents
  • Run only allowed Windows Applications !!!!!!

41
Back Office Applications What it was like…
  • No Web Security
  • No Mail Security
  • Netscape Suite Spot Server
  • SQL Server 6.5
  • Exchange Server 5.0
  • Microsoft Office 97
  • Adobe 4.0
  • Flash (???)
  • Java (1.???)
  • Anti Virus 6.0 - 7.0
  • Legato (4.???)
  • No spyware or malware
  • No Web IDE

42
Back Office Applications What we did…
  • We upgraded to….
  • Symantec Web Security
  • Symantec Mail Security with Brightmail
  • IIS 6.0
  • SQL Server 2000/2005
  • Exchange Server 2003
  • Microsoft Office 2003
  • Adobe (latest)
  • Flash (latest)
  • Java (latest)
  • Antivirus 10.0 with spyware/malware
  • Arcserve 11.5
  • Dreamweaver and Coldfusion

43
Back Office Applications PERS Best Practices…
  • Standardize on network file locations for all
    users for Word, Powerpoint, Excel, etc…
  • Standardize on other settings as much as possible
    (auto archive, empty deleted items, empty
    temporary internet files on exit, etc…)
  • Lets look at a couple of items in more detail
    (Web Security, Mail Security)

44
Back Office Applications Web Security - What it
was like...
  • Had each user read and sign an internet security
    policy
  • Lock in IP address with DHCP reservation
  • Create a firewall user entity matching the DHCP
    IP address
  • Add the firewall entity to the internet access
    group
  • Users could browse anywhere in the world, NO
    restrictions
  • Users could log into any computer on PERS network
  • Basically our web security consisted of allowed
    or not allowed web access
  • Whenever supervisors wanted an access listing for
    a particular user, I had to browse through TONS
    of firewall logs.
  • Any sites that I wasnt sure of their content, I
    actually had to go to the site to determine its
    content
  • I eventually wrote a program to parse the logs
    and give a report for a specific IP address

45
Web security Configuration
46
Guess what happened one weekend ???
  • Someone was looking at things they were not
    supposed to be looking at ???
  • From the Executive Directors assistants
    workstation

47
Back Office Applications Web Security What we
did/Best Practices…
  • Implemented a web security proxy server (Symantec
    Web Security) with automatic content filtering,
    reporting features and that was Active Directory
    aware
  • Configure internet browsers connection settings
    via active directory group policy to use a proxy
    server
  • Used AD GPO to prevent users from changing
    browser proxy settings
  • Configure your proxy to require logins. This
    reminds the users they are being monitored
  • Set up denied categories such as sex, games,
    gambling, etc…
  • Set up filtering on all allowed categories
  • Set up some allowed sites lists for state
    government sites for non-internet users
  • Implemented an autolock policy for repeated
    violations
  • Do NOT allow temporary overrides for content
    filtering
  • Make sure users can only login to the network on
    their workstation
  • As a Result…..
  • We were able to create one firewall entity and
    rule for the web security proxy server only
  • Eliminated individual firewall configuration by
    using a product that integrated with our windows
    active directory
  • Eliminated searching through firewall logs for
    violations
  • Eliminated DHCP IP address reservations
  • Eliminated foxpro program to parse firewall logs
    for an individual sites visited because product
    had reporting features by user
  • Stopped spyware that doesnt use IE proxy settings

48
Web security Configuration
49
Back Office Applications Email Security - What it
was like...
  • File system AV on email server
  • No spam detection, getting all types of garbage
  • Exchange 5.0 which even allowed .exe file
    attachments
  • Firewall allowed smtp traffic (email) from
    universe
  • No access remotely via the web (secure or
    unsecured), directors and managers wanted it
  • Basically, we had no email security

50
Email Security Configuration
51
Back Office Applications Email Security - What we
did...
  • Upgraded to exchange 2003 (SP2), skipped 5.5 and
    2000
  • Implemented Symantec Mail Security (SMS) for
    Exchange 2003 with spam and AV protection for the
    email database
  • Started adding BAD words to SMS match lists
  • Used real time black lists (RBL) of know spammers
  • Created Blank subject/sender filters
  • Reconfigured firewall to allow email from ISP
    relays only, not the universe (cut down on
    internal state attacks)
  • After a year or so of fighting manual match list
    maintenance, we upgraded to SMS with Brightmail
    technology subscription (WOW!!!!)
  • Configured suspect spam threshold and began
    routing suspect spam email to a spam catcher
    email account that we are monitoring
  • Configured whitelist for bank clients, etc…
  • Used exchange baseline analyzers and followed
    best practices recommendations
  • Implemented SSL webmail and only allow the
    firewall to connect

52
Email Security Configuration
53
Back Office Applications Email Security PERS
Best Practices...
  • Implement a computer usage policy that has an
    email usage section.
  • Require users to sign the computer usage policy
    agreement page and keep in personnel files
  • Use an anti-spam, anti-virus, spyware/malware
    aware product on your email server
  • Use Blank subject/sender filtering rules as well
    as any others deemed necessary
  • Restrict attachment types
  • Use whitelist for important customers that should
    not go through the email filtering process
  • When implementing a webmail solution over the
    internet, use SSL (https)
  • Only give secure webmail privileges to users that
    need it
  • Implemented Mailbox quotas per user

54
Business Applications What it was/is like…
  • Using Foxpro 2.0 to develop small miscellaneous
    applications
  • Small applications were everywhere in our
    directory structure, no organization
  • Using no longer supported forteg3 OOP language
    for LOB application
  • No adhoc reporting for users
  • Had 2 environments, Test and Production

55
Business Applications What we did… and Plan to
do…
  • Upgraded to Visual Foxpro for small apps and
    adhoc reporting
  • Upgraded to Visual Studio for API small apps
  • Plan to upgrade LOB application from forteg3 to a
    new development platform (java, .net, ???)
  • Plan to implement some type of adhoc reporting
    for users (Data warehouse, BI)

56
Business Applications PERS Best Practices
  • Have multiple environments, three if possible
    (Test, User Acceptance Test and Production)
  • Have a designated directory structure for
    applications
  • Implement good organization with a one to one
    correlation between the source code and user
    accessible application
  • Use as few development platforms as possible
  • Standardize and stick with the standard
  • Have procedures and follow them as much as
    possible

57
Users What it was like…
  • Users were changing colors and you could not see
    certain things
  • Users would change display resolutions and font
    sizes
  • All type of cursors, backgrounds, screen savers,
    gremlins, etc…
  • Browsers were being taken over by spyware
  • Systems would respond slow and/or erratically
  • Users were constantly complaining of computer
    problems (email garbage, etc…..)

58
Users What we did…
  • Implemented a new business policy and decided to
    upgrade the users every 3-5 years (Just Kidding)
  • Implemented standards via AD GPO
  • Took away the ability to do anything they wanted
  • Provided training and education

59
Users PERS Best Practices
  • Involve the users in the upgrades
  • Have them test and signoff that everything is
    working properly before the upgrades are
    implemented in production
  • Educate your users on the new changes in security
  • Train your users on the new aspects of the
    upgrades (OS, Office, etc..)

60
Quick Summary
61
Security Assessment
  • We decided to wait until most of our upgrades
    were in place before we had our assessment
    performed
  • We inquired about Homeland security money and
    were able to have the assessment done at no
    expense to PERS
  • We got bids from three different companies and of
    course selected one
  • We met with the selected vendor and agreed on an
    assessment strategy
  • Our strategy was to perform an assessment on a
    subset of our network instead of the entire
    network. However, we made sure our subset had one
    of each type of machine/device configuration in
    the assessment (multiple environments scenario)
  • We also decided to keep the assessment very quit
    to all personnel in order to try and get an
    accurate picture of where we really were. Very
    few people new the assessment was being
    performed.
  • The assessment took about 3 months total

62
Security Assessment
  • The vendor assessed 10 different categories and
    identified three levels of risk factor within
    each category
  • High Risk, a severe security problem that could
    cause loss of service or immediate access to
    critical severs and file systems
  • Medium Risk, less severe problem and by itself
    would not be an issue, but remediation would
    provide incremental improvements in security
  • Low Risk, a vulnerability that is either very
    rare or would require significant skill to
    exploit or the potential exposure would be minimum

63
Security Assessment
  • At first, several of the technical services staff
    posed questions after seeing unusual activity in
    logs and on administrator email notifications
  • After a couple of days, the vendor had to ask for
    an administrator account to get access
  • They had to ask how to get to our web server in
    the service network
  • Initially, they said everything looks real
    good!!!!
  • At the end of the assessment, the vendor said we
    have performed assessments on 10-15 state
    agencies and approximately 50 other entities in
    Mississippi and that PERS was one of the best
    they had seen.
  • They also mentioned that the assessment will
    sometimes not be a fair indicator of an
    agencies overall security status because just a
    few missing patches will warrant a low score in a
    category and drive the overall rating down

64
Security Assessment
  • PERS Overall score was a 2.5 out of a possible
    4.0
  • However, PERS knew that because of legacy systems
    that not yet been upgraded, some of our internal
    hosts and database assessments would receive
    lower scores.
  • The vendor asked PERS if we were sure we wanted
    older servers/OSs/etc.. scanned since we were
    planning to upgrade them
  • What every security manager wants to hear…
  • Pileum was unable to compromise the PERS network
    through the available open services

65
Security Assessment Graph
66
Security Assessment Recommendations
  • The only way to completely secure any computer
    device or data source is to disconnect it from
    the network and place it in a vault where no one
    has the key. In this case, the data would be
    completely secure but totally inaccessible.
    Therefore, there is a risk that must be assumed
    with any computing device or data source that is
    made accessible via network connections. It
    should be a security managers goal to minimize
    and be aware of the security risks, but not to
    assume that they can or will ever be eliminated
    completely.

67
Security Assessment Recommendations
  • PERS investigate all High risk or critical
    vulnerabilities and their remedies
  • Review our security policies and procedures and
    how they are enforced
  • Have ongoing assessments quarterly
  • Implement an effective patch management solution
  • Implement a Windows event log management system

68
Going Forward PERS plans too…
  • Maintain software maintenance agreements on all
    software
  • Finish our remaining planned upgrades
  • Upgrade to SQL Server 2005 across the board
  • Upgrade to Windows Server 2003 on legacy Systems
  • Implement IE and other GPO settings
  • Upgrade LOB application to current technologies
  • Implement Self Service via the web
  • Implement Security Assessment recommendations
  • Implement a patch management solution

69
Final Thoughts… Remember !!!!!!!
  • A wise person learns from his/her own mistakes
    and experiences.
  • An even wiser person learns from others mistakes
    and experiences.
  • Visit the PRISM website at www.prism-assoc.org
    and download this presentation if you find any of
    this information helpful
  • Take one of my business cards and shoot me an
    email or give me a call if you would like to
    discuss something in more detail
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