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Topic 13 Modern Christianity


Calvinism vs. Arminianism. Hard-line Calvinist predestination TULIP (p. 177) ... Arminianism Jacob Arminius: Dutch Reformed theologian; opposed strict ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic 13 Modern Christianity

Topic 13Modern Christianity
  • 17th century
  • 18th century
  • 19th century
  • 20th century

I. The 17th Century
  • Religious conflicts
  • Thirty Years War (1618-48)
  • Protestants vs. Catholics
  • Began with Defenestration of Prague Protestant
    protesters tossed 2 Catholic royal advisors out
    of window fell in dung pile.
  • War engulfed Europe.
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Agreed to quit fighting.
  • Granted religious freedom for Catholics,
    Lutherans, Calvinists (not Anabaptists).
  • French persecution
  • Protestantism was outlawed in 1685.
  • Huguenots (French Reformed) were persecuted
    terribly many fled.

I. The 17th Century
  • Developments in English Protestantism
  • Puritans
  • Group in Anglican Church which thought Anglican
    reform did not go far enough many were
    influenced by Calvinism.
  • Wanted to purge Anglican church of remaining
    Catholic trappings.
  • Wanted to purge society of immorality (heavy
    drinking, gambling, frivolous games, etc.).
  • Separatists
  • Radical Puritans who withdrew from Anglican
    Church (gave up on reform from within).
  • Set up separate churches to implement reforms.

I. The 17th Century
  • B. Developments in English Protestantism cont.
  • Persecution by James I many fled
  • 1620 Plymouth Colony Separatists
  • 1630 Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritans
  • Baptists emerged out of Separatist movement
  • John Smyth Separatist pastor
  • Fled to Amsterdam influenced by Anabaptists.
  • 1609 adopted believers baptism first
    English-speaking Baptist church.
  • Thomas Helwys
  • 1612 led part of group back to London first
    Baptist church on English soil.
  • Booklet outlining Baptist principles believers
    baptism general atonement (Christ died for all
    people) religious freedom for all separation of
    church and state etc..
  • 5. Act of Toleration (1689) ended persecution
    granted toleration to most dissident groups.

I. The 17th Century
  • Controversy in Reformed Church Calvinism vs.
  • Hard-line Calvinist predestination TULIP (p.
  • T Total depravity
  • U Unconditional election
  • L Limited atonement
  • I Irresistible grace
  • P Perseverance of the saints
  • Arminianism Jacob Arminius Dutch Reformed
    theologian opposed strict Calvinist
    predestination wanted more room for human free
  • Christ died for all (general atonement).
  • Grace can be accepted or rejected by anyone.
  • Believers can fall from grace.

I. The 17th Century
  • Arminianism vs. Calvinism cont.
  • 3. Synod of Dort (1618-19)
  • Rejected Arminianism.
  • Affirmed 5-point Calvinism.
  • Influence
  • Presbyterians / Reformed Calvinistic
  • Methodists Arminian
  • Baptists mixed

I. The 17th Century
  • The Enlightenment
  • Age of Reason
  • Scientific knowledge based on observation and
  • Natural law world operates by laws of nature,
    like a machine.
  • Deism rational religion, consistent with reason
  • Lord Herbert of Cherbury father of Deism
    blended religion and Enlightenment rationalism.
  • Major tenets of Deism
  • God created universe to operate by laws of
  • Skeptical of miracles.
  • Rejected idea of Trinity.
  • Jesus not divine, but a great moral teacher.
  • Questioned inspiration of Bible.
  • Most of the founding fathers of U. S. A. were

II. The 18th Century
  • Three evangelical movements reacting against
    Protestant rationalism (i.e., emphasis on dry,
    intellectual doctrine).
  • Pietism Germany 3 key leaders
  • Philipp Jakob Spener founder
  • Sought revival of Lutheran Church.
  • Needed religion of heart as well as head.
  • Organized small groups for prayer and Bible
  • Wrote Pia Desideria (1675) primary source for
    Pietist principles.
  • August Hermann Francke
  • Professor at Univ. of Halle.
  • Turned Halle into Pietist training center.
  • Count Zinzendorf
  • Sheltered Moravian refugees on his estate.
  • Organized into Pietist community.
  • Became Moravian Church (1727) sent missionaries
  • Stressed emotional conversion personal
    relationship with Christ.

II. The 18th Century
  • Methodism England
  • Founded in England by John Wesley (and Charles)
  • Students at Oxford nicknamed methodists
  • Mission to Georgia contact with Moravians
  • Conversion (1738)
  • Moravian Church service in London.
  • I felt my heart strangely warmed.
  • Preaching
  • Sought revival within Anglican Church.
  • Necessity of personal conversion and sanctified
  • Preached outdoors to large crowds.
  • Methodist Church separated in 1795.
  • America
  • Methodism grew rapidly.
  • Circuit riders like Francis Asbury.

II. The 18th Century
  • C. First Great Awakening Colonial America
  • Jonathan Edwards
  • Congregationalist pastor in Mass. began
    insisting on necessity of emotional conversion
  • Led great revival in 1734-35 hundreds of
  • Many learned theological works.
  • George Whitefield
  • Traveling evangelist from England formerly
    associated with Wesley (broke over Calvinism
    Wesley was Arminian).
  • Famous for outdoor preaching.
  • Several tours of colonies.
  • Results
  • Growth in church membership.
  • Division over emotional excesses.
  • Helped unify colonies prepared for Revolution.

III. The 19th Century
  • Second Great Awakening
  • Charles Grandison Finney
  • Techniques of revival meetings (new measures).
  • Protracted meetings advertising praying for
    sinners by name anxious bench etc.
  • Many imitators churches grew.
  • Founded Oberlin College first coed college in
  • Frontier revivalism
  • Traveling evangelists followed settlers
  • Camp meetings settlers came from miles
    around camped for weeks.
  • Results
  • Church growth, esp. Baptists, Methodists,
  • Movements aimed at social evils temperance in
    alcohol use, poverty relief, abolition of slavery.

III. The 19th Century
  • B. Modern missions movement
  • William Carey
  • English Baptist cobbler self-educated.
  • 1792 published call to take gospel to world.
  • Baptist Missionary Society sent Carey to India.
  • Adoniram and Ann Judson
  • Congregationalist missionaries to India became
    Baptist en route no support.
  • Friend, Luther Rice, returned and organized
    Baptist support.
  • Triennial Convention (1814) Baptist
    organization for mission support.
  • Results
  • By end of century, most denominations had mission
  • Missionaries around the world Africa, Asia,
    Central and South America.

III. The 19th Century
  • Slavery issue
  • Abolitionist movement divided churches as well as
    the nation.
  • Many northern preachers decried evils of slavery,
    called for abolition.
  • Many southern preachers defended slavery.
  • Many denominations formally split into Northern
    and Southern bodies.
  • Southern Baptist Convention formed in 1845 when
    Triennial Convention refused to appoint
    missionaries who owned slaves.

III. The 19th Century
  • Liberalism and Fundamentalism
  • Both were reactions to Modernism.
  • New sciences challenging religion.
  • Darwins theory of evolution geology
    archaeology historiography etc.
  • Varied Christian reactions some embraced modern
    thought others rejected it.

III. The 19th Century
  • Liberalism and Fundamentalism cont.
  • Liberal Protestant theology
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher
  • Father of Liberal theology.
  • Essence of Christianity is feeling of absolute
    dependence on God specific doctrines are
  • Liberal theology
  • Universal Fatherhood of God God is Father of
    all people.
  • Innate goodness of man task of religion is to
    tap that goodness and develop it.
  • Kingdom of God is being achieved through progress
    of Christian culture.
  • Historical criticism of Bible (higher
  • Studied Bible with same methods as other
    literature written by human authors, influenced
    by their culture, etc.
  • Documentary hypothesis of Pentateuch multiple
    authors, evolved over several centuries (Julius
  • Two-source theory of Gospels Mark and Q used by
    Matt. and Lk.
  • Questioned historical/scientific accuracy of

III. The 19th Century
  • Liberalism and Fundamentalism cont.
  • Fundamentalism
  • Conservative reaction against modern science
    (evolution), Liberal theology, and biblical
  • Five fundamentals of the faith (cannot be
  • Inerrancy of the Bible (verbal inspiration)
  • Virgin birth of Jesus
  • Substitutionary atonement (or satisfaction
  • Physical, bodily resurrection of Jesus
  • Visible second coming of Christ (premillennial)
  • Catholic anti-modernism
  • Syllabus of Errors (1864) condemned various
    modernisms liberalism, socialism, modern
    science, biblical studies, democracy, freedom of
    thought, and religious liberty.
  • Vatican Council I (1870) declared papal
    infallibility .

IV. The 20th Century
  • Social Gospel movement
  • Applied power of gospel to social problems
    stemming from Industrial Revolution poverty
    poor working/living conditions child labor etc.
  • Walter Rauschenbusch German Baptist pastor in
    slums of NYC saw poverty at its worst
    challenged churches to organize against it.
  • A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917)
  • Building Kingdom of God takes more than
    conversion of individuals.
  • Churches must also work to transform social
    structures to get rid of systemic injustice.
  • Advocated legislation to force better wages,
    working conditions, housing ban child labor etc.

IV. The 20th Century
  • B. Neo-orthodoxy
  • Optimism of Liberal theology was shattered by
    horrors of WW I (and Holocaust WW II).
  • Neo-orthodoxy was a theological movement which
    returned to a more traditional style of theology.
  • Emphasized depth of human sin and need for divine
  • Remained open to modern science and biblical
  • Father of Neo-orthodoxy was Karl Barth
  • Commentary on Romans,1918.
  • Most influential theologian of 20th century.
  • Helped organize Confessing Church movement
    which opposed Nazism.

IV. The 20th Century
  • Vatican Council II (1962-65)
  • Convened by Pope John XXIII.
  • Opened Catholic church to modern world.
  • Examples of some measures
  • Declared right of religious freedom.
  • Allowed Mass in vernacular.
  • Encouraged more participation of laity.
  • Encouraged critical Bible study.
  • Declared openness to dialogue with other
    denominations etc.
  • Ecumenical movement
  • Seeks cooperation and unity among Christian
  • World Council of Churches (1948) sponsors Bible
    translation (RSV NRSV) coordination of mission
    work dialogue over doctrinal differences etc.

IV. The 20th Century
  • Evangelicalism
  • Conservative movement less rigid than
  • Theological emphases
  • Authority of Bible
  • Saving death of Christ
  • Personal conversion experience
  • Personal evangelism
  • Effective use of radio and TV.
  • Most visible advocate is Billy Graham.

IV. The 20th Century
  • Pentecostalism (sometimes called charismatic
  • Movement that emphasizes experience of being
    filled by Holy Spirit (like early church on
    Pentecost in Acts 2).
  • Manifested in overt signs tongue-speaking
    prophecy healing body movements (swaying,
    hand-lifting, dancing, falling down, etc.).
  • Origin in Azusa Street Revival Los Angeles
  • Rapid growth in last quarter of century, esp. in
    Latin America and other Third-World countries.
  • Appeal emotional services racial, ethnic,
    social, gender inclusiveness.

Where in the World Are the Christians?