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Creating Hydrologic Information Systems

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Time series from gages in Kissimmee Flood Plain. 21 gages measuring water surface elevation ... Kissimmee River. June 1, 2003. Weather and Hydrology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creating Hydrologic Information Systems


1
Creating Hydrologic Information Systems
  • David R. Maidment
  • Utah State University
  • 9 February 2004

2
ArcIMS Website http//emrcims.uwrl.usu.edu uses
data stored in an ArcGIS geodatabase
3
Watershed Information System
  • GIS map data on watersheds, lakes, gages,
    streams, dams,.
  • GIS surface data on terrain, land cover,
    precipitation
  • Monitoring point information on streamflow, water
    quality, climate

USGS gage
4
Real Time Weather Data
5
Nexrad Radar
0609 PM MST Sun Feb 8th 2004
6
Nexrad Data from NOAAPort
About 3 minutes between measurement and local
delivery of information
NOAAPort
http//www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/radar/
7
Unidata Weather Data
  • Unidata is part of UCAR (Universities Corporation
    for Atmospheric Research)
  • Unidata ingests data from NOAAPort and other
    sources
  • Unidata streams weather data continuously to
    about 180 US universities
  • Data received by a local data manager (LDM)
  • USU has an LDM

8
Weather and Hydrology
  • Weather Information
  • Continuous in space and time
  • Combines data and simulation models
  • Delivered in real time
  • Hydrologic Information
  • Static spatial info, time series at points
  • Data and models are not connected
  • Mostly historical data
  • Challenges for Hydrologic Information Systems
  • How to better connect space and time?
  • How to connect space, time and models?
  • How to connect weather and hydrology?

9
Hydrologic Information System
A hydrologic information system is a combination
of geospatial and temporal hydrologic data and
hydrologic models that supports hydrologic
practice, science and education
10
Arc Hydro
Water Resources
  • Arc Hydro is customized version of ArcGIS for
    water resources data

11
Arc Hydro Hydrography
12
Arc Hydro Hydrology
13
Arc Hydro Components
14
Arc Hydro Framework Data Model
15
Arc Hydro Framework For South Florida
Basins
Waterbody (NHD)
Hydro Points
National Hydrography Dataset, NHD
16
Nexrad over South Florida
  • Real-time radar rainfall data calibrated to
    raingages
  • Data received each 15 minutes
  • 2 km grid
  • Stored by SFWMD in Arc Hydro format

17
Nexrad data in Arc Hydro
Attribute series
Display as a temporal layer in ArcGIS Tracking
Analyst
18
ArcGISTracking Analyst
Displays data in space and time
Fecal Coliform in Galveston Bay 1995-2001
Tracking Analyst Demo
19
Attribute Series
Map Features
Attribute Series A map attribute that is a time
series for each feature
20
Time and Space in GIS
Time Series
Feature Series
t3
t2
Value
t1
Time
Raster Series
Attribute Series
Value
t3
t2
t1
t1
t2
t3
y
x
21
Time Series and Temporal Geoprocessing
DHI Time Series Manager
Time Series
Feature Series
t3
t2
Value
t1
Time
Raster Series
Attribute Series
Value
t3
t2
t1
y
x
ArcGIS Temporal Geoprocessing
22
Time series from gages in Kissimmee Flood Plain
  • 21 gages measuring water surface elevation
  • Data telemetered to central site using SCADA
    system
  • Edited and compiled daily stage data stored in
    corporate time series database called dbHydro
  • Time series downloaded from dbHydro and stored
    for all gages as Arc Hydro Attribute Series

23
Arc Hydro Attribute Series
Map features have a time varying attribute
HydroID 2906
Feature Class (HydroID)
Attribute Series Table (FeatureID)
24
Raster Series
Ponded Water Depth Kissimmee River June 1, 2003
25
Weather and Hydrology
  • NetCDF describes atmospheric and water properties
    varying continuously in (x,y,z,t)
  • GIS describes the physical landscape,
  • Vector GIS has spatially discrete features
    (point, line area)
  • Raster GIS is spatially continuous (in 2D)
  • How do we connect the water with the water
    environment

26
Arc Hydro Attribute Series
TSDateTime
Feature Class (point, line, area)
TSValue
FeatureID
TSType
TSType Table
27
NetCDF Data Model (developed at Unidata for
distributing weather data)
Time
Dimensions and Coordinates
Value
Space (x,y,z)
NetCDF describes a collection of variables whose
values are stored at coordinate points in the
(x,y,z,t) dimensions
Variables
Attributes
28
NetCDF File for Weather Model Output of Relative
Humidity (Rh)
dimensions lat 5, lon 10, time
unlimited variables latunits
degrees_north longunits
degrees_east timeunits hours since
1996-1-1 data lat 20, 30, 40, 50,
60 long -160, -140, -118, -96, -84, -52,
-45, -35, -25, -15 time 12 rh
.5,.2,.4,.2,.3,.2,.4,.5,.6,.7,
.1,.3,.1,.1,.1.,.1,.5,.7,.8,.8,
.1,.2,.2,.2,.2,.5,.7,.8,.9,.9,
.1,.2,.3,.3,.3,.3,.7,.8,.9,.9
.0,.1,.2,.4,.4,.4,.4,.7,.8,.9
rh (time, lat, lon)
29
Relative Humidity Points
30
Interpolate to Raster
GeoTiff format, cell size 0.5º
31
Zoom in to the United States
32
Average Rh in each State
Determined using Spatial Analyst function Zonal
Statistics with Rh as underlying raster and
States as zones
33
Model Builder in Arc 9
Relative Humidity Analysis Model
Model Builder Demo
34
GIS Preprocessors for Hydrologic Models
Interface
GIS
Model 1
Database
Model 2
Model 3
35
Geographically Integrated Hydrologic Modeling
Systems
Interfacedata models
GIS
HMS
Geo Database
Arc Hydro data model
RAS
WRAP
36
Regional Storm Water Modeling Program and Master
Plan for San Antonio
City of San Antonio
37
San Antonio Regional Watershed Modeling System
Geospatial Data City, County SARA, other
Bring the models together
Modeling System
Rainfall Data Rain gages Nexrad
Calibration Data Flows Water Quality
Floodplain Management
Capital Improvement Planning
Water quality planning
Integrated Regional Water Resources planning
Flood Forecasting
38
Regional Watershed Modeling System Case Study
Salado Creek watershed
Components
  • Arc Hydro Geodatabase
  • for whole watershed
  • HEC-HMS hydrology model
  • for whole watershed
  • HEC-RAS hydraulic model
  • for Rosillo Creek

Bexar County
Rosillo Creekwatershed
39
Arc Hydro and HEC-HMS
HEC-HMS Hydrologic Model
Arc Hydro Schematic Network
Calculates Flows
40
Arc Hydro and HEC-RAS
HEC-RAS Hydraulic Model
Calculates Water Surface Elevations
Arc Hydro Channel Cross Sections
41
HEC Data Storage System (DSS)(binary data file
system shared by HEC models)
  • Model features define the spatial framework
  • One or a few variables modeled
  • Values for each time interval
  • One time series may be associated with many
    features
  • Many modeling scenarios

Time series catalog
Many time series
42
Flow Change Points
Models communicate with one another through Arc
Hydro at designated points
43
Nexrad Map to Flood Map in Arc 9 Model Builder
Flood map as output
Model for flood flow
HMS
Model for flood depth
Nexrad rainfall map as input
44
Hydrologic Information System Models
  • Hydrologic simulation models
  • Hydrologic data models
  • Hydrologic workflow models
  • All of these can be delivered through ArcIMS

Arc Hydro
45
CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System
Experiments
Monitoring
1. Assemble data from many sources
Information Sources
GIS
Remote sensing
Climate models
2. Integrate data into a coherent structure
Hydrologic Data Model
Hypothesis testing
Analysis and Visualization
3. Do science
Statistics
Data Assimilation
Simulation
46
CUAHSI Program Components
47
Hydrologic Information Partners
Institutions of participants in the CUAHSI HIS
Proposal
48
Digital WatershedAn implementation of the
CUAHSI Hydrologic Data Model for a particular
region
Created first for the Neuse basin and then for
each of the following CUAHSI Observatory
Planning basins
49
3D Control Volume of Neuse Basin
Fluxes
Extrude watershed boundary 15 km up into
atmosphere and 1 km down into subsurface
50
Observatory Goal Hydrologic Fluxes
  • Improve predictive understanding of fluxes of
  • Water
  • Sediment
  • Nutrients
  • Selected Contaminants
  • Across spatial scales, including catchment outlet
  • Riverine fluxes, at a minimum, but also fluxes
    across other interfaces (PI-specified)

Need for definition of HydroElements, at any
location in hydrologic system
51
Riverine HydroElements
Detailed bathymetry points of a river channel
3D HydroElement formed from cross-sections and
profile lines
52
Conclusions
  • New information era opening
  • Rapid access and visual display of large
    quantities of data
  • Better integration of data and modeling
  • New disciplines hydroinformatics and hydrologic
    information science
  • Real time hydrology could support teaching

USU is an important partner in this process!
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