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Reconstruction

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Lincoln is Elected. In 1860 Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. ... Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman ... Lincoln's Plan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reconstruction


1
Reconstruction
2
Lincoln is Elected
  • In 1860 Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln.
  • He did not believe in slavery and wanted to
    outlaw it.
  • After the election, S. Carolina seceded first and
    by Feb. 1, 1861, 6 S. states in the lower south
    followed suit.
  • The secessionists seized all federal property in
    their states, including arsenals and forts.

3
Founding the Confederacy
  • Delegates met in Montgomery, Al.
  • The Confederate Sates of America, or Confederacy
    was created.
  • Each state was independent and guaranteed the
    existence of slavery in Confederate territory.
  • The president had a six-year term.
  • Jefferson Davis was the president of the
    Confederacy.

4
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5
The Civil War Begins
  • Lincoln planned to re-supply Fort Sumter.
  • Davis decided to take Fort Sumter before the
    supply ship arrived.
  • For 33 hours Sumter took heavy bombardment.
  • Eventually they surrendered.
  • Upper states began to leave the union and join
    the S.
  • Missouri was a border state.

6
Important Players in the Civil War
  • Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, William T.
    Sherman
  • Jefferson Davis, Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson,
    Robert E. Lee

7
Causes of the Civil War
  • Disagreement over the legality, morality, and
    politics of slavery.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty, people
    living in a region had the right to decide by
    voting if slavery would be allowed there.
  • S. states seceded from the Union.
  • Confederates attacked Fort Sumter in S. Carolina.

8
Effects of the Civil War
  • Slavery was outlawed in the U.S.
  • S. states rebuilt their economy.
  • African Americans gained citizenship and voting
    rights.
  • The first U.S. civil rights laws were passed.

9
The Reconstruction Battle Begins
  • By 1865 large areas of the former Confederacy lay
    in ruins.
  • The Souths econ. was in a state of collapse.
  • The value of land had fallen, Confederate money
    was worthless, transportation system was
    devastated, bridges and railroads were useless.
  • Until the south developed a new system to replace
    enslaved labor, it could not maintain its
    agricultural output.
  • Reconstruction, or rebuilding after the war.
  • How the former Confederacy states would join the
    Union.

10
Lincolns Plan
  • In Dec. 1863, he set forth his plan in the
    Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.
  • Amnesty, or pardon to all Southern who took an
    oath of loyalty to the U.S. and accepted the
    Unions proclamation concerning slavery.

11
The Radical Republicans
  • The radicals did not want to reconcile with the
    South.
  • They wanted to revolutionize southern
    institutions, habits, and manners.
  • 3 main goals
  • 1. wanted to prevent the leaders of the
    Confederacy from returning to power after the
    war.
  • 2. wanted the republican party to become a
    powerful institution in the south.
  • 3. wanted the fed. govt. to help African
    Americans achieve political equality by
    guaranteeing their right to vote in the south.

12
Freedmens Bureau
  • As Gen. William T. Sherman marched through the
    South, thousands of freed African Americans,
    known as freedmen, began following his troops
    seeking food and shelter.
  • Union troops settled more than 40,000 African
    Americans.
  • Congress thus est. the Freedmens Bureau, the
    task was to feed and clothe war refugees in the
    S. using surplus army supplies.
  • The Bureau made a lasting contribution to
    education former enslaved African Americans.
  • It provided schools, paid teachers, and est.
    colleges.

13
Johnson Takes Office
  • After Lincolns assassination, V.P. Andrew
    Johnson became president.
  • He believed that a moderate policy was needed to
    bring the south back into the Union and to win
    southern loyalty.

14
Johnsons Plan
  • The Restoration Program, he offered to pardon all
    former citizens of the confederacy who took an
    oath of loyalty to the Union and to return their
    property.
  • Each former Confederate state had to call a
    constitutional convention to revoke its ordinance
    of secession and ratify the 13th Amendment.
  • Most of the former states accepted his
    conditions.

15
Black Codes
  • The new S. state legislatures also passed a
    series of laws called, black codes, which
    severely limited African Americans rights in the
    s.
  • The codes seemed intended to keep African
    Americans in a condition similar to slavery.
  • They were required to enter into annual labor
    contracts, black children had to accept
    apprenticeships and could be whipped or beaten
    while serving in these apprenticeships.
  • These codes enraged Northerners.

16
Radical Republicans Take Control
  • In 1865, House and Senate Republicans created the
    Joint Committee on Reconstruction.
  • Their goal was to develop their own program for
    rebuilding the Union.

17
The 14th Amendment
  • The Republicans introduced the 14th Amendment to
    the constitution.
  • It granted citizenship to all persons born or
    naturalized in the U.S. and declared that no
    state could deprive and person of life, liberty,
    or property without due process.

18
Military Reconstruction
  • The Military Reconstruction Act, wiped out
    Johnsons programs (Rad. Rep. had a 3-1 majority
    in Congress) and divided the former confederacy
    into 5 military districts that would be governed
    by a Union general.
  • Another constitutional convention would be held
    and the new constitution had to give the right to
    vote to all adult male citizens, regardless of
    race.
  • By the end of 1868, 6 former confederate states
    had met all of the requirements and were
    readmitted to the union.

19
Impeachment
  • What is Impeachment?
  • When the President is charged with wrongdoing
    (crime) in office by the House of
    Representatives.
  • What happens after the President is impeached by
    the House of Representatives?
  • Then the Senate holds a trial and votes to decide
    if the President is guilty
  • 2/3 must vote for conviction of the President for
    him to be found guilty.

20
Impeachment
  • What if the President is found guilty by the
    Senate?
  • He is removed from office and faces criminal
    charges in a courtroom.

21
President Johnsons Impeachment Sequence of Events
  • Johnson tries to fire the Secretary of War Edwin
    Stanton.
  • Firing Stanton was illegal because the Tenure of
    Office Act said that the President had to have
    the Senates approval to hire and fire cabinet
    officials.
  • The House of Representatives voted to impeach
    Johnson. Johnson is the first Pres. to be
    impeached.
  • Senate tries Johnson and he is found not guilty
    by one vote.

22
The Election of 1868
  • Most Americans wanted Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to
    run for president in 1868, he was a war hero and
    popular.
  • He won.

23
The 15th Amendment
  • The Rep. led Congress passed the 15th Amendment
    to the Constitution.
  • This amendment declared that the right to vote
    shall not be denied on account of race, color,
    or previous condition of servitude.

24
Impacts of Radical Reconstruction
  • Changed s. politics by bringing hundreds of
    thousands of African Americans into the political
    process.
  • It changed s. society and many white southerners
    are going to fight back against the fed. Govt.

25
Rep. Rule in the S.
  • By 1870 all the former Conf. states had rejoined
    the Union under the congressional reconstruction
    plan.
  • The Rep. Party took power and introduced several
    major reforms.

26
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
  • Many northern began to move to the s.
  • They took up office in the new souths state
    govt.
  • Southerners referred to these newcomers as
    carpetbaggers, because some arrived w/ suitcases
    made of carpet fabric.
  • Carpetbaggers disliked white southerners who
    worked with the republicans and supported
    reconstruction.
  • They called these people scalawags, a term for
    weak, underfed, worthless animals.

27
African Americans Enter Politics
  • Thousands of formerly enslaved people also took
    part in governing the s.
  • W/in a few years African Americans went from
    enslaved workers to legislators and
    administrators on nearly all levels of govt.
  • They held jobs in state legislators, House of
    Reps., and the Senate.

28
Republican Reform in the S.
  • The Republicans repealed the black codes and made
    many more state offices elective.
  • They est. state hospitals and institutions for
    orphans, the hearing and visually impaired, and
    the mentally ill.
  • Rebuilt roads, railways, bridges, provided funds
    for the construction of new railroads and
    industries in the south.
  • Helped with public schools.
  • Many Rep. however, were corrupt and gaining money
    illegally through politics, Graft.

29
African American Communities
  • African Americans worked to improve their lives
    in other ways during the reconstruction.
  • Many sought to gain an education and est. their
    own thriving communities.
  • Schools, Universities, and Churches were all part
    of their communities.

30
The Ku Klux Klan
  • Southerners formed secret societies.
  • Ku Klux Klan started in 1866, formed by conf.
    troops.
  • The goal was to drive out the Union troops and
    carpetbaggers and regain control of the s. for
    the democrat party.
  • Hooded, white-robed Klan members rode in bands at
    night terrorizing supporters of the Rep. govt.
  • President Grant and congressional rep. were
    outraged by the Klan.
  • They formed an act called the Ku Klux Klan Act,
    outlawing the activities of the Klan.

31
The Grant Administration
  • Grant had little experience in politics.
  • He believed that the presidents role was to
    carry out the laws and leave the development of
    policy to congress.
  • Congress didnt mind, but it left the president
    weak and ineffective.

32
Republicans Split
  • Sin Taxes, the rep. kept in place the taxes on
    alcohol and tobacco that had been introduced as
    emergency measures during the war.
  • This money helped pay off the bonds for the civil
    war.
  • Dem. attacked these policies saying they only
    benefited the wealthy, because they were gaining
    too much out of Grants admin.
  • Liberal Rep. broke away and joined the Dem. point
    of view. Thus, breaking away from the Rep. party.
  • Despite the tension, Grant won reelection in
    1873.

33
Scandals During Grants 2nd Term
  • William Belknap, Grants secretary of war, was
    found to have accepted bribes from merchants
    operating at army posts in the west.
  • Whiskey Ring, Govt. officials and distillers
    in St. Louis cheated the Govt. out of millions
    of dollars by filing false tax reports.

34
The Panic of 1873
  • Grant and the nation endured a severe econ.
    crisis that began during Grants 2nd term.
  • The turmoil started in 1873 when a series of
    railroad investments forced the powerful banking
    firm Jay Cooke and Company to declare bankruptcy.
  • A wave of fear known as the Panic of 1873 quickly
    spread through the nations financial community.
  • The panic prompted scores of smaller banks to
    close and the stock market to plummet.
  • Businesses shut down, tens of thousands of
    Americans were thrown out of work.
  • The scandals and panic embarrassed Grant and the
    Rep. Party.

35
Reconstruction Ends
  • The rising power of the Dem. in congress meant
    that enforcing reconstruction policies became
    more difficult.
  • Northerners were more concerned with their own
    econ. problems than with the political situation
    in the s.

36
Election of 1877
  • Rutherford B. Hayes a Rep. vs. Dem. Samuel
    Tilden.
  • Hayes won.
  • Hayes expressed his desire to move the country
    beyond the quarrelsome years of reconstruction,
    by putting an end to the nations regional
    distinctions.

37
A New South Arises
  • Southern leaders realized the South could never
    return to the pre-civil war agricultural economy
    dominance.
  • Southerners called for the creation of a New
    South. The S. region had to develop a strong
    industrial economy.

38
New Industries
  • Northern financers helped the S. to build
    railroads. Laying over 40,000 miles of railroad
    track.
  • A thriving iron and steel industry developed
    around Birmingham, AL.
  • Tobacco processing became big business in NC and
    cotton mills also grew in stature.

39
Sharecropping
  • Many African Americans returned to plantations
    owned by whites, because they never received
    their own land.
  • Back on the plantations, they worked for wages or
    became tenant farmers, paying rent for the land
    they farmed.
  • Most tenant farmers eventually became
    sharecroppers, who did not pay their rent in
    cash, instead they paid a share of their crops to
    cover their rent as well as the cost of the seed,
    fertilizer, tools, and animals they needed.

40
Sharecropping
  • Country stores and local suppliers, known as
    furnishing merchants, provided sharecroppers with
    the supplies they needed on credit but at
    interest rates often as high as 40.
  • Crop liens, meant that the merchant could take
    some of the crops to cover the debts.
  • This was to make sure the sharecroppers paid
    their debts.

41
Sharecropping
  • Many fell into a financial condition known as,
    Debt Peonage.
  • This condition trapped sharecroppers on the land
    because they could not make enough money to pay
    off their debts and leave nor could they declare
    bankruptcy.
  • Failure to pay off debts could lead to
    imprisonment or forced labor.
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