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Gangs

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2002 21,500 gangs and 731,500 gang members. 1998 28,700 gangs and 780,000 gang members. 1996 31,000 gangs and 846,000 gang members ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gangs


1
Gangs
  • Gangs are not a new phenomenon in the US. For
    example
  • Philadelphia was trying to devise a way to deal
    with roaming youth disrupting the city in 1791.
  • New York City acknowledged gang problems as early
    as 1825.
  • Ethnicities, among others, associated with gangs
    in US History
  • Irish Jewish Italian
    African-American Chinese Russian
  • Mexican-American Puerto Ricans Vietnamese
    Haitian
  • There appears to have been an increase in gang
    involvement in the 1980s, and a subsequent
    decline in the 1990s.

2
Gangs
  • It is generally agreed that gang activity and
    membership increased through much of the late
    80s and early 90s. However, numbers started
    declining in the late 90s
  • 2002 21,500 gangs and 731,500 gang members
  • 1998 28,700 gangs and 780,000 gang members
  • 1996 31,000 gangs and 846,000 gang members
  • There are still methodological concerns about how
    we count.

3
Gangs
  • Conditions that foster gangsStructural Changes
    in the 1980s
  • that may have fostered increases in
  • gangs
  • Kids are most impoverished group, and poverty had
    risen again.
  • Economic restructuring occurred.
  • Increases in low-wage, low-benefits jobs
  • More women with kids entering labor force
  • Cuts in assistance to the poor
  • Disinvestment in larger cities
  • Racism and denial of inclusion in the economic
    system continued in poor urban neighborhoods,
    while upwardly mobile minorities left minority
    neighborhoods

4
Gangs
  • Structural Changes in the 1980s
  • may have fostered increases in
  • gangs
  • Kids are most impoverished group, and poverty had
    risen again.
  • Economic restructuring occurred.
  • Increases in low-wage, low-benefits jobs
  • More women with kids entering labor force
  • Cuts in assistance to the poor
  • Disinvestment in larger cities
  • Racism and denial of inclusion in the economic
    system continued in poor urban neighborhoods,
    while upwardly mobile minorities left minority
    neighborhoods
  • Higher rates of single-parent familiesless
    supervision and attachment.
  • Smaller families. Lone children seek friends.
    More protection with peers. More gang
    involvement.
  • Volatile drug markets created economic
    opportunities for youths and gangs.
  • Crackdowns on youth behaviors. We tend to tighten
    our bonds in times of trouble. Hatfields vs.
    McCoys
  • Normalization of gangs in youth culture.

5
Gangs
  • Normalization

6
Gangs
  • Social Structure of Gangs
  • Members are typically young teenage males of
    similar ethnic or racial backgrounds (usually
    from broken homes in the inner-cities).
  • Loyalty and adherence to a strict gang code
    (i.e., the gang is more important than anything,
    dont squeal) is expected.
  • Cohesiveness among members is typically loose,
    but increases as recognition from society
    increases.
  • Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by
    participation in group activities that are often
    antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal.
  • Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but
    some have these unspoken, but understood.
  • There is an established hierarchy.
  • Identification with a local territory (often
    referred to as turf) is commonplace in the
    neighborhood as well as on school campuses.
  • Recruitment is an ongoing process, especially at
    schools.

7
Gangs
  • How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s?
  • Younger active members (some as young as eight-
    or nine-years-old)
  • Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in
    multiethnic neighborhoods
  • Growth in female gangs
  • Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and
    suburban communities
  • Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal
    drug markets and prostitution for some gangs
  • Frequent use of drugs and alcohol
  • More violence
  • Use of sophisticated communications devices and
    automatic weapons
  • Employment of guerrilla warfare-like tactics

8
Gangs
  • But lets face it . . . Gangs are not the leading
    cause of violence in the US.

9
Gangs
  • According to Research,
  • Reasons for Gang
  • Involvement are
  • A search for love, structure and discipline
  • A sense of belonging, commitment, acceptance
  • The need for recognition and power, self-worth
    and status
  • Training, excitement and activities

10
Gangs
  • According to Research,
  • Reasons for Gang
  • Involvement are
  • A search for love, structure and discipline
  • A sense of belonging, commitment, acceptance
  • The need for recognition and power, self-worth
    and status
  • Training, excitement and activities
  • To make money
  • The need for physical Safety and protection
  • A family/neighborhood tradition

11
Gangs
  • According to Research,
  • Reasons for Gang
  • Involvement are
  • To sum it up, people are gregarious and join
    groups for psychological security, resource
    security and for emotionally satisfying bonds.
  • These reasons for joining gangs sound like
    reasons people join any other organization.

12
Gangs
Gangs are not Abnormal
  • Gangs are like
  • Fraternities Sororities
  • Lodges How?
  • Sports Organizations
  • Political Groups

13
Gangs
  • Colors or Logos

14
Gangs
  • Initiation

15
Gangs
  • Secret Societies

Independent Order of Oddfellows, Order of Rebekah
16
Gangs
  • Conformity

17
Gangs
  • Homogeneity

18
Gangs
  • Hierarchy

19
Gangs
  • Marking Turf

20
Gangs
  • Competition

21
Gangs
  • Recruitment

22
Gangs
Gangs are not Abnormal
  • Gangs are like
  • Fraternities Sororities
  • Lodges
  • Sports Organizations
  • Political Groups
  • How?
  • Colors or logos
  • Initiations
  • Secret Society
  • Demand for Conformity and Loyalty
  • Homogeneity of Membership
  • Hierarchy
  • Marking Territory with Symbols or Objects
  • Competition with other organizations
  • Recruitment

23
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • More satisfying families and communities. If the
    family or significant others are the source of
    love, guidance, and protection that youths seek,
    they are not forced to search for these basic
    needs from a gang.

24
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • More satisfying families and communities. If the
    family or significant others are the source of
    love, guidance, and protection that youths seek,
    they are not forced to search for these basic
    needs from a gang.
  • Educational attachment. Young people who
    successfully participate in and complete
    education have greater opportunities to
    participate as rewarded and contributing adults.

25
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • Educational attachment. Young people who
    successfully participate in and complete
    education have greater opportunities to
    participate as rewarded and contributing adults.
  • Graffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance
    that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use
    graffiti to mark their turf, advertise
    themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick
    removal is essential.

26
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • Graffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance
    that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use
    graffiti to mark their turf, advertise
    themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick
    removal is essential.
  • Recreational programs. Can get youths involved
    in activities and belonging that would serve the
    same kind of function that gangs serve.

27
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • Recreational programs. Can get youths involved
    in activities and belonging that would serve the
    same kind of function that gangs serve.
  • Conflict resolution programs. Can teach
    potential gangsters how to better deal with
    conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation
    tactics.

28
Gangs
  • Gang Prevention Strategies
  • Conflict resolution programs. Can teach
    potential gangsters how to better deal with
    conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation
    tactics.
  • Fight high-density poverty and hopelessness.
    Combating conditions of urban slums removes the
    structural conditions conducive to gangs.
  • The chief problem in any community cursed with
    crime is not the punishment of the criminals, but
    the preventing of the young from being trained to
    crime. WEB Dubois

29
Gangs
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