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Young Drivers:

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To examine current approaches designed to best prepare and oversee young drivers in Virginia ... Young drivers' anticipation and response to situations are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Young Drivers:


1
Young Drivers
  • A Study of Policies and Practices

2
PREPARED BY
  • David Anderson, Ph.D.
  • Associate Professor
  • Amr Abdalla, Ph.D.
  • Research and Evaluation Director
  • Noel Goldberg, M.S.
  • Program Manager
  • Blakely Pomietto, M.P.H.
  • Public Health Specialist
  • George Mason University
  • Center for the Advancement of Public Health
  • Department of Health, Fitness, and Recreation
    Resources
  • Graduate School of Education

3
PURPOSE
  • To examine current approaches designed to best
    prepare and oversee young drivers in Virginia
  • To glean what seems to be working
  • To identify where adjustments and improvements
    appear to be warranted for consideration
  • To improve existing policies and approaches for
    better dealing with young drivers

4
RATIONALE
  • As evidenced by the data, both from a national
    and state perspective, young drivers are
    disproportionately over-represented in motor
    vehicle crashes.

5
METHODOLOGY
  • Nine distinct approaches to gather information
  • Literature review
  • Interviews with key informants
  • National survey of state efforts
  • Interviews with leaders from highway safety,
    transportation, and state police in each state
  • National and state data

6
METHODOLOGY
  • Review of the status of Virginia jurisdiction
    curfew laws
  • Interviews with 5 officials in 60 Virginia
    jurisdictions
  • Focus groups with youth, parents, and driver
    instructors
  • Group discussion with key state officials

7
Virginia Approaches (2000)
  • A person must be 16 years old to obtain a
    drivers license.
  • The applicant must pass a vision screening, a
    two-part knowledge exam, and a road skills test.
  • For juveniles under age 18, parents must provide
    permission for the license.
  • A learners permit may be obtained at the age of
    15, and must be held until the person is 16 years
    old.
  • All those under age 19 must complete a
    state-approved driver education program.

8
Virginia Approaches (2000)
  • Teen drivers and their parents/legal guardians
    must participate in a Juvenile Licensing program
    in local courts, where the judge typically hands
    the license to the adult accompanying the
    juvenile.
  • Parents may cancel the learners permit or
    drivers license privileges at any time until the
    son/daughter is 18 years old.
  • All driver license photographs are taken full
    faced, and licenses for minors show the date that
    the individual turns 18 and the date s/he turns
    21. Photographs are oriented vertically for
    minors age 15 21.

9
Virginia Approaches (2000)
  • Virginias Zero Tolerance law makes it illegal
    for personal under the age of 21 to drive with
    any measurable alcohol in their blood.
  • Any individual under the age of 18 must attend a
    driver improvement clinic if he or she is
    convicted of a demerit point violation, and is
    then restricted to transporting no more than 3
    passengers while driving (in effect until age
    18). Conviction of a second demerit point
    offense suspends driving privileges for 90 days.
    For a third conviction, driving privileges are
    revoked for one year or until s/he turns 18,
    whichever is longer.

10
PRIOR RESEARCH
  • Driving is a complicated combination of
    cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor tasks.

11
PRIOR RESEARCH
  • 2. Research documents that adolescents do not
    have the emotional, mental, and physical
    abilities of an adult.

12
PRIOR RESEARCH
  • 3. Young drivers also lack experience behind the
    wheel they have a relatively low repertoire of
    driving experiences upon which to draw.

13
Themes, Findings, and Recommendations
14
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Parents
  • FINDINGS
  • Parents currently have a large influence on their
    sons and daughters.
  • Parents often have a perspective which conflicts
    with that held by safety personnel.
  • Parents have a large potential role to play.

15
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Parents
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Initiatives should be prepared to help get
    parents up to date and knowledgeable about the
    influence they have with their sons and daughters
    regarding driving safety.
  • Parents need to be more involved with substantive
    and quality time with their childs preparation
    as a driver.
  • Parents need to conduct more oversight activities
    with their children regarding driving.

16
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
  • FINDINGS
  • Young drivers are generally viewed with
    skepticism.
  • The youth perspective is not widely incorporated.

17
AOD and Reckless Driving Convictions Percent
Per Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Age
Virginia 1999
18
AOD and Reckless Driving Convictions Percent Per
Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Virginia 1999
Age
19
High Risk, Safety Belt, and Speeding Convictions
Percent Per Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Age
Virginia 1999
20
High Risk, Safety Belt, and Speeding Convictions
Percent Per Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Virginia 1999
Age
21
Administrative Violations and Improper Driving
Convictions Percent Per Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Age
Virginia 1999
22
Administrative Violations and Improper Driving
Convictions Percent Per Age Group
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
Percent
Virginia 1999
Age
23
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS The Youth
Role
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Youth need to be involved in the process of
    decision-making regarding young driver issues.

24
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Understanding Youth
  • FINDINGS
  • Youth have inadequately developed skills and
    abilities for safe driving.
  • Youth attitudes about driving cause safety
    concerns.
  • The context of driving can compromise driving
    safety.
  • Youth behaviors linked with driving can further
    compromise safety.

25
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Understanding Youth
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Professionals should incorporate current insights
    about the developmental processes faced by youth.
  • Program planners should continually strive to
    better address the inadequately developed skills
    and attitudes held by youth.
  • Promote ongoing examination of the context of
    driving.

26
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Understanding Youth
  • RECOMMENDATIONS (contd)
  • Continued emphasis must be maintained on issues
    such as drinking and driving and other risky
    individual behaviors.
  • A positive reward system should be considered.
  • Program planners and policy makers must
    differentiate between the early young driver and
    the later stage young driver.

27
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Driver
Education
  • FINDINGS
  • Allocated hands-on driving skills training is
    inadequate.
  • Driver education lacks sufficient practical
    training.
  • Young drivers anticipation and response to
    situations are inadequate.
  • Driver education does not include sufficient
    interactive elements and current emphasis of
    training activities.

28
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Driver
Education
  • FINDINGS (contd)
  • There is an apparent inconsistency between
    identified state needs and current emphasis of
    training activities.
  • There is a challenge of linking high-school based
    instructional needs with driver education.
  • The court assigned driver improvement courses are
    viewed as less effective.

29
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Driver
Education
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Increased emphasis should be placed on hands-on
    driving skills.
  • Driver education needs to be more practical.
  • Defensive and offensive driving skills should be
    emphasized at a higher level.

30
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Driver
Education
  • RECOMMENDATIONS (contd)
  • Current technological approaches should be
    incorporated to the extent possible.
  • The formal driver education curriculum should be
    prepared in a way that adapts to change and
    maintains relevance and currency.
  • Formal attention should be placed to reconcile
    the need for high quality education and the need
    for sound driver education.

31
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSChanges in
Youth and Society
  • FINDINGS
  • The context of youthful driving is substantively
    different today.
  • Driving is increasingly perceived as a right
    among youth.

32
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSChanges in
Youth and Society
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • A perspective of anticipating a changed driving
    setting should always be maintained.
  • Active attention must be implemented to promote
    the responsibility that individuals have
    regarding driving rather than the right that one
    has to drive.

33
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSOrganization
and Oversight
  • FINDINGS
  • Relationships among organizations do not support
    wide collaboration.
  • The role of private companies in conducting
    driving curriculum could be posing problems.
  • Some aspects of preparation and oversight of
    instructors are not adequate.

34
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSOrganization
and Oversight
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • A variety of agencies, organizations, and
    individuals should be involved in planning and
    reviewing the training issues surrounding young
    drivers.
  • A clearer definition of inter-organizational
    communications is important to achieve
    consistency in driver education.

35
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSOrganization
and Oversight
  • RECOMMENDATIONS (contd)
  • Attention should be paid to the role of
    commercial driver education services.
  • Preparation and oversight of driver education
    instructors should be improved.
  • A close on-site examination of the driver
    education instruction content and process should
    be implemented.

36
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Enforcement,Consistency, and Judicial Role
  • FINDINGS
  • Lack of consistency appears to exist between the
    actions of police officers and judges.
  • Judges roles may positively affect youth
    behavior.
  • There is need for increased enforcement.

37
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Enforcement,Consistency, and Judicial Role
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Enforcement of laws about driving safety should
    be increased.
  • Differential consequences should be considered
    for young drivers involved in a safety offense
    with an aggravating circumstance.
  • Judicial cases involving young drivers should be
    looked at individually.

38
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Perspective
ofthe Graduated Drivers License
  • FINDINGS
  • The GDL is viewed as a panacea.
  • The definitions of GDL vary.
  • Curfews can be a part of a graduated drivers
    licensing initiative.

39
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS Perspective
ofthe Graduated Drivers License
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Individual elements of the Graduated Drivers
    License initiative should be considered on their
    own merits.

40
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSUrban and
Rural Distinctions
  • FINDINGS
  • Distinctions exist between urban and rural areas.
  • Programs are typically implemented with the
    assumptions of an urban setting.

41
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSUrban and
Rural Distinctions
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • In any policy-making process, local distinctions
    must be made.

42
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSNeed for
Evaluation and Dissemination
  • FINDINGS
  • Limited evaluation exists on young driver issues.
  • Limited awareness of what others are doing to
    address young drivers is found.

43
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSNeed for
Evaluation and Dissemination
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Evaluation systems, including outcome and process
    evaluations, should be actively implemented.
  • Research and information gathering should be
    conducted to obtain insights about youth and
    current approaches in todays society.
  • Findings and research should be disseminated
    widely.

44
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSEmerging
Approaches
  • FINDINGS
  • A range of proactive programs exist.

45
THEMES, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONSEmerging
Approaches
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • The DMV should examine the variety of new
    approaches to assess their usefulness and
    applicability to the state.

46
Young Drivers
A Study of Policies and Practices
  • www.caph.gmu.edu/young_drivers.htm
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