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Weight Management

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Weight Loss Advertisements. What is the purpose of the ad? Who is the target audience? ... Selecting Weight Loss Programs 20% Overweight - self-directed approach ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Weight Management


1
Weight Management
  • B.W. Findley, M.Ed.
  • Health Concepts and Strategies

2
Body Composition
3
Energy Balance
Intake of calories through food
Expenditure of calories through exercise
Change in consumption results in loss or gain.
4
Obesity
  • Excess storage fat, 20 or more above desirable
    weight
  • Associated with diabetes, unhealthy cholesterol
    levels, impaired heart function, hypertension,
    cancer, other disorders
  • Can impair psychological health (depression, body
    dissatisfaction, eating disorders)
  • Genetic factors may influence the development of
    obesity

5
Low Levels of Body Fat
  • Can cause muscle wasting, fatigue
  • Loss of bone mass
  • Amenorrhea

6
Body Image
  • Perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes,
    emotions
  • Negative body image is characterized by
    dissatisfaction with body or body part(s)
  • Dissatisfaction can cause psychological distress
    and/or eating disorders

7
Archimedes Principle

Archimedes made extensive contributions to
theoretical mathematics. In addition, he is well
known for applying science to everyday life. For
instance, Archimedes discovered the principle of
water displacement while taking a bath.
8
Body Fat Assessment
Hydrostatic weighing
Skinfold calipers
Infrared laser
Height/weight tables
Electrical impedance
9
Body Fat Assessment
10
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11
Factors Contributing to Weight Problems
  • Largest component of metabolism
  • Energy required to maintain vital body functions
    while at rest
  • Accounts for 55 - 75 of daily energy expenditure

RMR
  • Resting Metabolic Rate

12
Factors Contributing to Weight Problems (cont)
  • Heredity/behavior
  • RMR - burns more calories at rest
  • Weight loss - RMR
  • Exercise - RMR

RMR
  • Resting Metabolic Rate (cont)

13
Factors Contributing to Weight Problems
  • Psychological
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Eating may be used as a distraction from
    difficult emotions, combat low moods, low energy
    levels, self-esteem
  • Obesity is strongly linked to socioeconomic
    status
  • Food can be a symbol of love, celebration,
    cultural values

14
Successful Weight Management
  • Diet/eating habits
  • Physical activity
  • Thinking and emotions
  • Adequate coping strategies

15
Approaches to Overcoming a Weight Problem
  • Self-help
  • Diet books
  • Supplements/fasting
  • Non-prescription diet aides
  • Lifestyle modification programs
  • Prescription drugs

16
Weight Loss Advertisements
  • What is the purpose of the ad?
  • Who is the target audience?
  • How does the ad portray the product or program?
  • What techniques are used to encourage purchase?
  • In your estimation, what is the safety of this
    product or program?
  • Would you buy the product or join the program?

17
Selecting Weight Loss Programs
  • 20-40 Overweight - behavioral programs
  • 40-100 Overweight - counseling
  • 100 Overweight - medical supervision

18
Eating Disorders
  • Problems associated with food and eating
  • Often associated with adolescent girls and young
    women who are dissatisfied with body image or
    body weight
  • Associated with increased illness and increase
    risk of premature death

19
Eating Disorders (cont)
  • More common in
  • developed countries than in developing ones
  • women than men
  • whites and Latins than nonwhites
  • middle and upper-middle socioeconomic classes

20
Eating Disorders (cont)
  • Distorted thinking - perfectionist beliefs,
    unreasonable demands for self-control, excessive
    self-criticism
  • Dysfunctional eating attitudes
  • Personality traits - sensitivity, putting others
    needs first, difficulty in expressing and dealing
    with emotions
  • Obsession with weight / addiction to abnormal
    eating behavior

21
Eating Disorders (cont)
22
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Failure to eat enough food to maintain a
    reasonable body weight
  • Fear gaining weight or becoming fat
  • May engage in compulsive behavior or rituals to
    help keep them from eating
  • May used prolonged physical activity
  • Often introverted , emotionally reserved,
    socially insecure

23
Anorexia Nervosa (cont)
  • 18 Death Rate -Cardiovascular, GI, endocrine
    disorders (heart failure due to electrolyte
    imbalance)
  • When BF is depleted, the body turns to muscles
    and organs for protein
  • Severe depression leading to suicide is also a
    risk

24
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge/purge
  • After binge - ashamed, disgusted, physically
    /emotionally drained
  • Times of major life change may be catalyst
  • Depression, excessive preoccupation with
    food/body image, disturbances in cognitive
    functioning

25
Bulimia Nervosa (cont)
  • Binge/purge cycle puts tremendous stress on body
  • Tooth enamel is eroded
  • Liver/kidney damage
  • Cardiac arrhythmia
  • Chronic hoarseness
  • Damage to esophagus

26
Binge-eating disorder
  • Similar to bulimia - without purging behavior
  • Eating patterns - rapidly, uncomfortably full,
    alone, not hungry
  • Coping with difficult emotions,
  • solace, entertainment
  • Likely to be obese
  • May have higher rates of
  • anxiety/depression

27
Treatment of Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia 1. Restore adequate body weight
  • 2. Then address psychological
    aspects
  • Bulimia/ 1. Stabilize eating patterns
  • Binge eating 2. Changing thinking patterns
  • Treatment of eating disorders must address both
    eating behaviors and misuse of food to manage
    emotions.

28
Healthy People 2010
  • Increase to at least 30 the proportion of people
    age 6 and over who engage in regular, preferably
    daily, in light-to-moderate physical activity for
    at least 30 minutes/day (Baseline 22, 1985)
  • Reduce overweight to a prevalence of no more than
    20 among people age 20 and over (Baseline 26,
    1976)
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