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Weight Control

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Title: Weight Control


1
Weight Control
  • Chapter 13
  • Patrick Owens

2
Overview
  • Basic Concepts
  • Eating Disorders
  • Government Regulatory Actions
  • Weight Control Organizations
  • Suggestions for Weight Control
  • Summary
  • Consumer Health Tips

3
Basic Concepts
  • Obesity refers to an excess accumulation of
    fatty tissue in the body.
  • Overweight refers to a weight greater than that
    listed in an established height-weight table
    (Table 13-1).
  • Health Risks of Obesity elevated blood
    pressure diabetes gallstones liver, kidney,
    heart, and blood vessel diseases osteoarthritis
    and more
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) - obtained by taking weight
    in kilograms and dividing by the square of the
    persons height in meters.
  • Government figures show that 30 of Americans are
    obese.
  • 64 of Americans are overweight.
  • There is an increasing rate of diabetic children
    due to excess body fat
  • .

4
(cont.)
  • Waist to hip ratio (WHR) used to estimate risks
    for adverse health consequences
  • WHR is taken by dividing the circumference of the
    waist by the circumference of the hips
  • A WHR greater than one affirms a high risk for
    health complications such as heart disease and
    diabetes

5
Difficulty with Dieting
  • Most overweight Americans consume excess fat,
    carbohydrates, and protein
  • Poor eating habits combined with a sedentary
    lifestyle leads to high levels of body fat
  • Dieting does not promote a lifestyle change such
    as increasing activity level and developing
    healthier habits

6
(cont.)
  • 95 of individuals who lose weight by dieting
    regain that weight within one year.
  • In addition, it is not clear that those who take
    part in yo-yo diets have higher death rates, but
    significant weight loss and weight gain does make
    a person more susceptible to health risks such as
    coronary heart disease.

7
Eating Disorders
  • Societys current standards for being thin have
    stimulated the increase of eating disorders
    including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
  • Anorexia - a life-threatening condition in which
    food intake is severely limited
  • Bulimia - a disorder characterized by bingeing
    and purging
  • Compared to anorectics, those who suffer from
    bulimia generally do not get gaunt, know they
    have a problem, and are bound to conceal it
  • Both aliments can cause severe metabolic
    imbalances including loss of bone density and
    irregular heartbeat
  • Long term induced vomiting can cause receding
    gums, the esophagus to be eaten away, and loss of
    tooth enamel

8
(cont.)
  • Unfortunately, one out of ten woman will suffer
    from an eating disorder some time in their lives
    and for adolescents that number is one out of
    five
  • Due to the actuality that most are unable to
    starve themselves, bulimia is five times more
    prevalent than anorexia
  • The reason for the high occurrence of such
    ailments is due to two main factors heredity and
    societys obsession with being super-thin

9
Government Regulatory Actions
  • There are a number of weight loss programs and
    products that claim to burn calories, melt
    fat, and block carbohydrate absorption.
  • Subsequently, government organizations like the
    FDA and FTC have been forced to regulate
    companies making these false statements.
  • One famous example of government intervention in
    the dietary market is that of Cal-Ban 3000.
  • This product was based on a soluble fiber called
    guar gum and claimed to short-circuit the
    fat-building process.
  • The product began to cause problems in consumers
    including esophageal obstruction, gastric
    obstruction, upper and lower intestinal
    obstruction, nausea, and vomiting

10
Weight Control Organizations
  • Individuals who have had difficulties with weight
    loss often turn to organizations to help them
    succeed in reducing their body fat.
  • Inexpensive Programs - Take Off Pounds Sensibly
    (TOPS), Weight Watchers, and Overeaters Anonymous
    (OA).
  • Expensive Programs - Diet Center and Physicians
    Weight Loss Center

11
(cont.)
  • 1. The diet should be safe and include all
    of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for
    vitamins, minerals, and protein.
  • 2.  The program should be directed towards a
    slow, steady weight loss unless a more rapid loss
    is medically indicated.
  • 3. A doctor should evaluate health status if the
    clients weight goal is greater than 15 to 20
    pounds, if the client has any health problems, or
    if the client takes medication on a regular
    basis.
  • 4. The program should include plans for weight
    maintenance.
  • 5. Prospective clients should receive a detailed
    list of all fees and costs
  • Success rates for these programs vary but average
    losses include 10 to 12 of starting weight by
    the end of the term and 6 to 7 six months
    later. Individuals who used supplements lost 15
    to 20 of initial weight and 8 to 15 six months
    later.
  • When choosing a program an individual should
    consult NIH guidelines that include

12
(cont.)
  • During the 1991 agents of the New York City
    Department of Consumer Affairs it was reported
    that
  • Few of the centers warned about or discussed the
    safety risks of their program (or of rapid weight
    loss in general), even when directly asked about
    possible problems. One representative said her
    centers program was absolutely safe, even
    though the health history form that prospective
    clients had to sign contained a warning about
    health risks.
  • Some centers attempted to sell their services to
    people who did not need them, including
    underweight people.
  • Some centers were engaged more in quackery than
    medicine. One clinic representative advised that
    filling the stomach with certain foods would
    speed up metabolism. Another said her clinics
    maintenance program would close up the bodys
    fat cells.
  • Some centers engaged in high-pressure sales
    tactics

13
(cont.)
  • As a result of these findings the FTC has
    enforced actions against weight loss companies
    requiring
  • 1. Claims that a specified weight loss is
    typical must be based on a sample of all patients
    who have entered the program (or another clearly
    identified segment of patients).
  • 2. Claims that weight loss is long-term must be
    based on sound studies that cover at least 2
    years after completion of a weight-loss and
    maintenance program.
  • 3. Claims of permanence must be based on a period
    of time recognized by experts or demonstrated by
    reliable survey evidence as sufficient.
  • 4. Claims of successful maintenance must include
    disclosures of average weight loss and the length
    it was maintained, as well as the statement For
    many dieters, weight loss is only temporary

14
Suggestions for Weight Control
  • Adequate exercise and controlling calorie intake
    are essential in attainting or maintaining a
    healthy weight.
  • Individuals should determine their own caloric
    needs based on energy expenditure. Many may need
    to consult a health professional in order to
    accomplish this.
  • Parallel with deciding caloric needs is behavior
    modification. This means developing healthy
    eating habits and emphasizing moderation.
  • A person can prescribe their own exercise
    regiment by consulting the American College of
    Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for
    cardiovascular exercise. These guidelines
    include exercising at 60 to 85 percent of maximal
    heart rate for 20 to 60 minutes 5 times per week

15
Summary
  • When starting a weight loss program it is
    important to remember that a person needs to
    exercise more, decrease caloric intake, or do a
    combination of both. No diet pill, shake,
    supplement, or any other product can produce
    miracle weight loss. The only key to healthy
    weight loss is behavior modification and
    exercise. It is important to ignore societys
    standards for weight and to strive for healthy
    goals. In the end, the most vital thing is
    personal health and not personal appearance.

16
Consumer Health Tips
  • Use moderation your dietary guidelines
  • Do not become dependent on fad diets
  • Refer to ACSM guidelines for prescription of
    exercise
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