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Weight Management


Weight loss of -1 lb/week, need to decrease daily calories by 250-500 calories. Diet Meals video Overweight Children approach to weight loss ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Weight Management

Chapter 9
  • Weight Management
  • Overweight
  • and
  • Underweight

Objectives of Chapter 9
  • Identify how fat cells develop
  • Identify causes of overweight and obesity
  • Health risks associated with overweight and
  • Aggressive treatments of obesity
  • Weight loss strategies

Fat Cell Development
  • Hyperplastic obesity
  • Increase in number of fat cells
  • Hypertrophic obesity
  • Increase in size of fat cells
  • Lipotoxicity
  • Accumulation of fat in non adipose tissue. For
    example, heart or liver increase risk of heart
    failure and fatty liver

Fat Cell Development
Fat Cell Metabolism
  • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
  • Promotes fat stores
  • Activity of LPL increase in obese people than
    lean people
  • LPL activity is different among male and female
  • Fat breakdown is slower in women than men
  • Release of fat in various body parts is different
    for both sexes
  • LPL activities increase after weight loss
    contributing to more weight gain and set point

Fat Cell Metabolism
  • Set point (your internal thermostat)
  • theory holds that body opposes weight loss and
    works to maintain a set weight
  • Provide an explanation that some inner mechanism
    seems to set a persons weight or body
    composition at a fixed point.
  • The body readjust after a weight loss to restore
    that set point.

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Prevalence of Obesity Among U.S. Adults (BMI 30)
  • 1991 Only 4 states had obesity rates greater
    than 15
  • 1995 Over ½ of the states had obesity rates
    greater than 15
  • 2000 Only 1 state had an obesity rate below
    15, most had obesity rates greater than 20, and
    one had obesity rate greater than 25
  • 2005 All states have at least 15 obesity rate,
    only 4 states has obesity rate the states have obesity rate 25, 3 states have
    rates 30

U.S. Obesity Trends 19852006
Adapted from www.cdc.nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/m
  • Overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obesity ( 30) are
    widespread health problems that are continuing to
  • Many refer to overweight and obesity as an
  • For good health, weight management is important.

Body Weight, Body Composition, and Health
  • Health Risks of Overweight
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular disease Sleep apnea
  • Osteoarthritis (bone disease)
  • Some cancers
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Respiratory problems
  • Complications in pregnancy and surgery

What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?
  • What and how often you eat,
  • Hunger and appetite affect what you eat.
  • Appetite is psychological desire for food
  • Hunger is physiological need for food, subsides
    as feeling of satiation sets in
  • Satiety determines length of time between eating
  • environment

What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?
  • Physiological feedback mechanisms
  • involving mouth, stomach, intestines, and brain
    increase or decrease hunger
  • Many hormones play role
  • Ghrelin
  • produced in stomach
  • increases hunger and appetite
  • positive energy balance
  • High in obese people as well as people with
    eating disorder
  • Leptin
  • in fat tissue signals brain to decrease hunger
    and food intake.
  • Promote negative energy balance
  • May be deficient or defective in obese
    individuals, but very rare
  • Cholecystokinin released when stomach is
    distended, increasing feelings of satiation,
    decreasing hunger

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What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?
  • Genetics play a role in determining body weight
  • Risk of becoming obese doubles if parents are
    overweight, triples if obese, five times greater
    if severely obese
  • Genetic differences in level or function of
    hormones, such as high ghrelin or low leptin
    levels, increase obesity.
  • Many obese have adequate leptin but brain has
    developed resistance to it

What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?
  • Environmental factors can increase appetite and
    decrease physical activity.
  • cheap and easily obtainable energy-dense foods
    stimulate appetite
  • We work more and cook less.
  • About 1/3 calories come from ready-to-eat foods
    prepared outside of home
  • Frequent dining out associated with higher BMI
  • Inadequate physical activities
  • Americans eating about 300 calories/day more than
    in 1985

What Is a Reasonable Rate of Weight Loss?
  • National Institutes of Health overweight
    individuals should aim to lose about 10 of body
    weight over 6-month period
  • Example 180-lb person should lose 18 pounds/6
    months 3 lbs/month, ¾ lb/week
  • To lose 1 lb of body fat, need 3,500 calorie
  • Weight loss of ½-1 lb/week, need to decrease
    daily calories by 250-500 calories
  • Diet Meals video Overweight Children approach
    to weight loss

Three Pieces of the Long-Term Weight Loss Puzzle
How Can You Lose Weight Healthfully?
  • Successful long-term weight loss requires changes
    in three areas diet, physical activity, and
  • Eat smart, because calories count add satiation
    to low- calorie meals by including higher-volume
  • Eat more vegetables, fruit, and fiber
  • Include some protein and fat in your meals
  • Protein increases satiety most
  • Fat slows movement of food from stomach into
  • Choose lean meat, skinless chicken, fish, nuts,
    and unsaturated oils.

The Energy Density of Foods
Add high-volume fruits and vegetables to displace
higher calorie foods.
The Volume of Food You Eat
How Can You Lose Weight Healthfully?
  • Use MyPyramid as a weight-loss guide
  • High volume of fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
    some lean protein, modest amounts of fat
  • Diet should contain variety of foods from all
    food groups
  • Replace higher-calorie foods with lower-calorie
    options from each food group.
  • Example replace full-fat dairy with nonfat
  • Replace sodas with water

How Can You Lose Weight Healthfully?
  • Move to lose
  • 60 minutes/day of moderate-intensity activities
    can prevent becoming overweight and aid in weight
  • 10,000 steps/day can reduce risk of becoming
  • Spot Reducing
  • Regular aerobic exercise and weight loss will
    help trouble spots.
  • Strength training can improve muscle tone.
  • Stretching can help flexibility
  • Exercise may help to curb appetite.
  • Activity can reduce stress and improve
  • Break bad habits
  • Behavior modification change behaviors that
    contribute to weight gain or impede weight loss

Fad Diets Are the Latest Fad
  • Research shows that reduction of calories, not
    the composition of the diet, is effective in
    weight loss.
  • People who adhere the longest to weight-loss
    diets lose the most weight.
  • High drop-out rates for most extreme diets
    (Atkins and Ornish diets)
  • Beware of fad diet sensational claims and hype
  • Its the carbs, not calories, that make you
  • Celebrity-endorsed miracle weight-loss products
  • Natural substances help lose weight without
  • How to get fat without really trying

Whats in the Fad Diets?
How Can You Maintain Weight Loss?
  • Weight cycling is a common result of fad diets.
  • Weight loss can be maintained if keep healthy
    habits used during weight loss
  • New, lower weight requires less calories to
    maintain weight
  • Physical activity can close the energy gap,
    easier than further reducing caloric intake
  • 60-90 minutes/day of moderate-intensity physical
    activity recommended to maintain weight loss

Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
  • bariatric surgery Gastric bypass and gastric
  • Results in dramatic weight loss and reduction of
    hypertension, diabetes, high blood cholesterol,
    and sleep apnea
  • Risks include ulcers, gallstone, bleeding in
    stomach and intestines
  • for individuals with clinically severe obesity
    and major medical problems.
  • Changing and improving eating and exercise habits
    offer the greatest benefit.

Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
  • bariatric surgery
  • Over 100,000 is performed annually and numbers
    continue to grow
  • Limit food intake by reducing the capacity of the
  • To qualify, a person must be at least 100lbs over
    their ideal body weight or BMI 40
  • Must comply with prescribed diet
  • At risk of iron, b12, folate, calcium and vit D
  • Infections, nausea, vomiting, and dehydration is
    a very real possibility after surgery
  • Lifelong medical supervision is necessary

Gastric bypass surgery video
Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
  • Drugs
  • Sibutramine (meridia) suppresses the appetite and
    is most effective when used with a reduced
    kcalorie diet and increased physical activity.
    There are many side effects.
  • Orlistat (Xenical) blocks fat digestion and
    absorption. There are many side effects. You can
    now get a low dose over the counter under the
    brand name, Alli.
  • Other drugs are still under study
  • Liposuction is a popular procedure that is
    primarily cosmetic but poses risk. Provides no
    health benefit

How Much Should you Weigh?
  • Ideal Body Weight (IBW)
  • Men
  • 106 pound for the first 5 feet, 6 pounds for
    every inch over 5 feet. For example, a man who
    is 61 have IBW of 184 pounds
  • Women
  • 100 pound for the fist 5 feet, 5 pounds for
    every inch over 5 feet. For example, a woman who
    is 411 have IBW of 95 pounds

Extra Credit
  • 10 points
  • Use worksheet for chapter 9 to evaluate a poplar
    weight loss program
  • Must be typed
  • No more than 1 page
  • One word answer will not be accepted
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