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Joshua and Judges


completes the promise to the Patriarchs they are entering into ... M. to command water from rock ... 11) sacrifices his own daughter in honor of God's victory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Joshua and Judges

Joshua and Judges
  • The Conquerors and the Conquered

Conquest of Canaan
  • completes the promise to the Patriarchs they
    are entering into their land which flows with
    milk and honey.
  • many famous stories
  • battle of Jericho
  • Rahab the prostitute
  • crossing of the Jordan river
  • challenges the reader to live in obedience to
    covenant so as to receive Gods blessings

Death of Moses
  • Deuteronomy provides thematic and narrative
    framework for Joshua-2 Kings
  • theme those who follow law will be blessed
  • they didnt and were cursed with exile (etc.)
  • narrative Moses was forbidden to enter Canaan
    (Deut 312 3251-52)
  • M. to command water from rock
  • He struck it with his staff and God punishes him
    by forbidding his entering Canaan (Num 20)

Moses Death
  • he is buried in Moab but no one knows his burial
    place to this day (Deut 346)
  • he was 120 years of age, his sight was perfect
    his body whole
  • Holy War
  • God had promised the patriarchs the land flowing
    with mile and honey (Deut 273)
  • but they have to fight for it.

Controlled Destruction
  • Deut 20-21 enjoin against uncontrolled
  • Offer terms of peace (forced labor)
  • only adult males to be killed first
  • trees not to be cut down
  • a captive woman is allowed a months mourning
    period (to avoid rape)
  • yet Deut 2016

Joshua and Conquest
  • a straightforward account of a holy war in the
    promised land
  • archaeological support for Conquest
  • Hyksos, an Asiatic group, moved into Egypt in the
    1720s. time of Joseph?
  • New Kingdom Egypt 18th Dynasty (1570s) the
    Hyksos were expelled.
  • Exod 1240 in Egypt total of 430 years.
  • Dates Exodus and Conquest to 13th Century
    period of Ramses II

Conquest Continued
  • Archaeology attests to some Canaanite cities
    destroyed in the late 1200s
  • Beth-El, Debir, Lachish, Megiddo, and Hazor
  • Allbright, Bright and Wright perspective
    dominated the scholarship early in 20th Cen.
  • Serious challenges have arisen
  • debris layers could be caused by intercity
    warfare, internal revolt
  • they dont seem to be all at exactly the same time

Egypts Bid for Power
  • If Ramses II is the Pharaoh of the Exodus, he
    became severely weakened at this time
  • forces were ambushed and mauled by Hittites in
    Kadesh (Syria)
  • He claims a whooping victory on the walls of his
    temple, but it was a military stalemate
  • Just barely able to hold on to Canaan

Merneptah and his Stele
  • Ramses son Merneptah faced more severe
    challenges invasions of Sea Peoples
  • His son, Ramses III (1183-1152) deal also with
    invasion of Sea Peoples
  • Swept in from Crete, Greece and Cyprus in huge
    and varied hordes
  • Brought Hittites to their knees, almost destroyed

Images of the Sea Peoples
Merneptahs Stele
  • Invading Israelites moved into central hill
    country, avoiding contacts with Canaanite Cities
    and Egyptian strongholds
  • In 1220, Merneptah set up stele, claiming to have
    quelled unrest in Syria and Palestine
  • Makes first reference to Israel for this reason
    it is very very important
  • first reference to Israel outside of the Bible

Mereneptahs Stele
  • Israel is laid waste, his seed is not.
  • Harru is become a widow of Egypt

Steles Statement
  • Israel is described as a people
  • unsettled group of pastoralists
  • not a city or a land
  • Israel is present in Palestine in the 13th Cen.
  • Yet, Merneptahs intrusion is completely
    unmentioned in Joshua/Judges!
  • a discrete silence? very hard to say!

Historical Context
  • Invasion of Canaan and expansion into hill
    country made possible by historical events
  • no reference to Egyptian interference made
  • after death of Merneptah (1211) Egypt lost
    control of its Asiatic empire
  • lapsed into confusion and impotence
  • Hittites disappeared from world stage
    Phillistine invasion and Egyptian defeat
  • Assyria and Babylon were still in infancy

Israels Rivals
  • Israels political rivals were all in Canaan
  • new nations in Transjordan
  • raiders from Arabian desert
  • Canaanite city-states
  • newly arrived Philistines
  • Period of general political breakdown
  • major world-empires had fallen apart at the seams
  • period of local kingdoms and local control
  • Canaanite cities under stress with loss of
    Egyptian backing

Israels Conquest of Canaan
  • Josh 1-12 sets for the dramatic story
  • whole land fell to Joshua in three decisive
  • first western side of the Jordan, Jericho and
    Ai and moved up to Shechem with no resistance
  • second southern hill country yet bypassing some
    fortified towns
  • third northern hill country Galilee with
    decisive victory at Hazor (Josh 11)

The Rest of the Story
  • chs 13-21 describe the division of the land into
    tribal units
  • pockets of Canaanite presence which each tribe is
    encouraged to expell (ch 13)
  • chs 22-24 Israel begins to settle the land
  • misunderstandings almost lead to civil war (22)
  • Joshuas final challenges
  • As for me and my house, we will serve the LORD!
  • death and burial of Joshua (2428f)

  • Tribes of Israel

And Yet!!
  • Judges 1 gives a very different picture
  • first question after Joshuas death Who shall go
    up first for us against the Canaanites to fight
    against them?
  • Also Judges 18 credits Judah with capturing
    Jerusalem, yet 2 Sam 5 claims it was not captured
    until Davids time
  • overall, Judges illustrates a very incomplete
    picture of the conquest

Competing Pictures
  • Joshua gives us a telescoped picture, compressed,
    through eyes of Deuteronomist
  • based on ancient traditions book of Jashar in
    Joshua 1013-14
  • Israelite occupation was a complex process
  • long time involved
  • many tribes coming together
  • all finally unified by worship at one central
    sanctuary at Shiloah

Transition to Iron Age
  • transition late Bronze to Early Iron (1200)
  • Many technological advancements
  • new iron tools used for weaponry and agriculture
  • Josh 1716-18, Judges 119,
  • waterproof plaster-lined cisterns for storage of
  • terraced hillsides for cultivation of crops

Various Models
  • because of the complexity of the biblical data
  • and the difficulties on the archaeological front
  • various burn levels that could be associated with
    Israelite invasion but
  • new Israelite settlement in hill country
  • little difference between Israelite cultural
    assemblages and Canaanite
  • various models have been presented

Immigration Model
  • a relatively peaceful migration into sparsely
    populated hill country
  • tribes represent population waves
  • Six Leah tribes (Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah,
    Isacchar, Zebulon)
  • Four concubine tribes (Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher)
    settle west of the Jordan
  • Rachael tribes (Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin)
    arrive with Yahwism (read Josh 2414)
  • Levi looses land grand, Judah annexes Simeon (two
    ways to twelve)

Rahab and Gibeonites
  • Rahab joined the Israelites (625)
  • A whole tribe called Gibeonites joined them
    through deception!
  • Hebrews took Ai through deception in ch. 8 and
    now Gibeonites deceive Israelites in 9
  • twice stated that Israel honored the pact they
    had established with the Gibeonites
  • they live among Israel but as servants
  • 918-21 and 22-27)

Internal Revolt
  • possible revolt of indigenous population
  • Canaanite puppet kings were under Egyptian thumb
  • notorious for heavy-handed taxation
  • New Yahweh-worshipping Hebrews move into hill
    country with story of powerful deliverance
  • catalyst for a new organization and theology
  • much removal of kings was done by indigenous

Composite Model
  • Conquest was a composite story of external and
    internal groups
  • bound together by common desire for freedom from
    Egyptian (Canaanite) control
  • Book of Joshua represents the end of a process of
    explaining their arrival
  • completes the patriarchal promise cycle
  • Ex 1238 mixed multitude went up from Egypt

Assembly at Shechem
  • Josh 24 describes a great gathering at Shechem
  • had been a great Canaanite city strategically
    located in narrow pass between two mountains
  • Impressive remains of ancient pre-Israelite city
    have been uncovered
  • ruins of the foundations of the largest pre-Roman
    temple in Palestine can be seen today
  • Joshua rehearsed sacred history (2-13)
  • challenges people to choose to serve YHWH! in
    sincerity and faithfulness

Surprise at Shechem!
  • read 2414-15
  • what is the big surprise to the reader?
  • put away the gods that your ancestors served
    beyond the River and in Egypt!
  • local Apiru joined with them from the region?
  • no mention of battle to take Shechem
  • we were all delivered from Egypt!
  • Apiru had broad meaning, Israel was a covenant
    community founded at Sinai

The Covenant Service
  • Suzerainty Treaty form
  • preamble (242), historical prologue (2b-13),
    stipulations (14-24), reading of stipulations in
    the book of the law (25-26)
  • witnesses called (not various gods but people
    witness against themselves!) (v 22) and a stone
    witness (27)
  • earlier Shechem ritual contained blessings and
    curses (830-35)

Judges The Ups and Downs
  • Judges continues story from the death of Joshua
    to just before the birth of Samuel
  • Samuel was the last judge and the transitional
    figure toward kingship
  • Read Joshua 11
  • what is the surprise here?
  • Joshua gives the impression the conquest was
    complete compare to Josh 1116ff

Unfinished Business
  • Judges gives us a real picture of all the
    unfinished business
  • failures to conquer the land depicted in first
    chapters of Judges (Jud 119)
  • nations life falls into a downward spiral
  • both moral and spiritual elements
  • reaches low point under Samson
  • final portion of the book describes deterioration
    into idolatry and civil war

They did not drive them out
  • After Joshua, Canaanites are still left in the
    land! (read opening verses)
  • Israel is still unable to drive them out never
    do in this book
  • the book is really about how the Judges, for all
    their heroism, failed
  • they did not drive them out theme is featured
    (119, 21, 27, 29, 30, 31-32, 33, 34)

People in the land
  • Why are these other peoples left in the land?
  • Israel has not obeyed (22-3, 220)
  • they are left to test Israel to find out if they
    are serious about Torah (222-23 31-7)

What is a Judge?
  • Judges should not be understood as judicial in
    any sense at all
  • Shophetim in Hebrew (decision-makers)
  • rulers with military roles
  • part of the former prophets
  • called prophets because of a prophetic viewpoint
    of history
  • Deuteronomistic Historian project Israels
    history showing outworking of the blessings and
    curses of the covenant

Layout of Judges
  • Double Introduction (11-36)
  • Main Section of cycles (37-1631)
  • Double Conclusion (171-2125)

Double Double
  • Double introduction and double conclusion are
  • A first introduction foreign wars with cherem
    being applied (11-25)
  • A(2) second conclusion domestic war with cherem
    supplied (191-2125)
  • B second introduction difficulties with foreign
    idols (26-36)
  • B(2) first conclusion difficulties with domestic
    idols (171-1831)

Main Cycle Section
  • patterns of increasing failure to drive out the
  • introduced by Jud 11-25 (first intro)
  • distinctive refrains
  • In those days, there was no king in Israel (4X)
  • all the people did what was right in their own
    eyes (2x)
  • 176, 181, 191, 2125

Cycles Continued
  • the 6 cycles each have 8 components
  • Israel does what is evil in eyes of the Lord
  • the Lord gives them over to oppressors
  • Israel serves oppressors for x years
  • Israel cries out to the Lord
  • the Lord raises up a deliverer (judge)
  • the spirit of the Lord comes upon the deliverer
  • oppressors are subdued
  • the land has rest for x years

local leadership
  • In Judges (as opposed to Moses/Joshua) there is
    no decisive leader
  • several local heroes who responded to crisis
  • they are empowered by Yahwehs spirit
    energized by God
  • served to unite people to respond to a particular

General Patterns
  • periods of faithfulness to Yahweh shrink at the
    book proceeds - increasing turmoil
  • charismatic prophets/judges dont work
  • we need a king if we are going to stave off the
  • sets stage for Saul and especially David period
    of Kings
  • from Joshua to Judges we move from assurance to
  • departing from faithfulness to God jeopardizes
    the land

Hero Stories
  • On the surface, the book is a collection of
    stories of heroes
  • in various clever and courageous ways delivered
    Israel from enemies
  • they outthought, outfoxed stronger oppressive
  • read story of Ehud Judges 312-30

Judge Cycles
  • six major judge stories
  • Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson
  • components help unlock the books message
  • with each major judge, the cycle unravels
  • the unraveling enhances the communication of
    moral deterioration taking place throughout the

The Cycle Unravels
  • Gideon Judg 827 Gideon himself leads people
    into idolatry
  • Jephthah (ch. 11) sacrifices his own daughter in
    honor of Gods victory
  • Samson (chs 14-6) a phenomenally gifted judge who
    squanders his calling completely
  • captured and blinded, he is able to bring
    deliverance by chance
  • 1628-31

Double Conclusion
  • Conclusion narrates the failure of the era (ch.
  • Two stories are told to make this point
  • the practice of Idolatry (ch. 17-18 Micahs
  • barbaric social relations (19-21 Levite and his
  • stories are framed by refrain In those days
    there was no king in Israel all the people did
    what was right in their own eyes. (176 181,
    191, 2125)

  • Point couldnt be clearer advocacy of kingship
  • monarchy is Israels only hope
  • great assurances of Joshua have become sorry
  • the Torah requirement and covenant loyalty
    requirement is more than the people can bear
  • the land of promise has become the land of
    mission impossible

Three Truths
  • At its Core, Joshua and Judges are about a land
  • Three truths
  • the land is a gift
  • the land is a summons for those who live in the
    land given by Y. must respond positively to the
    giver of the gift
  • the land is seduction the safety and prosperity
    of the land is an invitation to pride
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