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Joshua and Judges

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completes the promise to the Patriarchs they are entering into ... M. to command water from rock ... 11) sacrifices his own daughter in honor of God's victory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Joshua and Judges


1
Joshua and Judges
  • The Conquerors and the Conquered

2
Conquest of Canaan
  • completes the promise to the Patriarchs they
    are entering into their land which flows with
    milk and honey.
  • many famous stories
  • battle of Jericho
  • Rahab the prostitute
  • crossing of the Jordan river
  • challenges the reader to live in obedience to
    covenant so as to receive Gods blessings

3
Death of Moses
  • Deuteronomy provides thematic and narrative
    framework for Joshua-2 Kings
  • theme those who follow law will be blessed
  • they didnt and were cursed with exile (etc.)
  • narrative Moses was forbidden to enter Canaan
    (Deut 312 3251-52)
  • M. to command water from rock
  • He struck it with his staff and God punishes him
    by forbidding his entering Canaan (Num 20)

4
Moses Death
  • he is buried in Moab but no one knows his burial
    place to this day (Deut 346)
  • he was 120 years of age, his sight was perfect
    his body whole
  • Holy War
  • God had promised the patriarchs the land flowing
    with mile and honey (Deut 273)
  • but they have to fight for it.

5
Controlled Destruction
  • Deut 20-21 enjoin against uncontrolled
    destruction
  • Offer terms of peace (forced labor)
  • only adult males to be killed first
  • trees not to be cut down
  • a captive woman is allowed a months mourning
    period (to avoid rape)
  • yet Deut 2016

6
Joshua and Conquest
  • a straightforward account of a holy war in the
    promised land
  • archaeological support for Conquest
  • Hyksos, an Asiatic group, moved into Egypt in the
    1720s. time of Joseph?
  • New Kingdom Egypt 18th Dynasty (1570s) the
    Hyksos were expelled.
  • Exod 1240 in Egypt total of 430 years.
  • Dates Exodus and Conquest to 13th Century
    period of Ramses II

7
Conquest Continued
  • Archaeology attests to some Canaanite cities
    destroyed in the late 1200s
  • Beth-El, Debir, Lachish, Megiddo, and Hazor
  • Allbright, Bright and Wright perspective
    dominated the scholarship early in 20th Cen.
  • Serious challenges have arisen
  • debris layers could be caused by intercity
    warfare, internal revolt
  • they dont seem to be all at exactly the same time

8
Egypts Bid for Power
  • If Ramses II is the Pharaoh of the Exodus, he
    became severely weakened at this time
  • forces were ambushed and mauled by Hittites in
    Kadesh (Syria)
  • He claims a whooping victory on the walls of his
    temple, but it was a military stalemate
  • Just barely able to hold on to Canaan

9
Merneptah and his Stele
  • Ramses son Merneptah faced more severe
    challenges invasions of Sea Peoples
  • His son, Ramses III (1183-1152) deal also with
    invasion of Sea Peoples
  • Swept in from Crete, Greece and Cyprus in huge
    and varied hordes
  • Brought Hittites to their knees, almost destroyed
    Egypt

10
Images of the Sea Peoples
11
Merneptahs Stele
  • Invading Israelites moved into central hill
    country, avoiding contacts with Canaanite Cities
    and Egyptian strongholds
  • In 1220, Merneptah set up stele, claiming to have
    quelled unrest in Syria and Palestine
  • Makes first reference to Israel for this reason
    it is very very important
  • first reference to Israel outside of the Bible

12
Mereneptahs Stele
  • Israel is laid waste, his seed is not.
  • Harru is become a widow of Egypt

13
Steles Statement
  • Israel is described as a people
  • unsettled group of pastoralists
  • not a city or a land
  • Israel is present in Palestine in the 13th Cen.
  • Yet, Merneptahs intrusion is completely
    unmentioned in Joshua/Judges!
  • a discrete silence? very hard to say!

14
Historical Context
  • Invasion of Canaan and expansion into hill
    country made possible by historical events
  • no reference to Egyptian interference made
  • after death of Merneptah (1211) Egypt lost
    control of its Asiatic empire
  • lapsed into confusion and impotence
  • Hittites disappeared from world stage
    Phillistine invasion and Egyptian defeat
  • Assyria and Babylon were still in infancy

15
Israels Rivals
  • Israels political rivals were all in Canaan
  • new nations in Transjordan
  • raiders from Arabian desert
  • Canaanite city-states
  • newly arrived Philistines
  • Period of general political breakdown
  • major world-empires had fallen apart at the seams
  • period of local kingdoms and local control
  • Canaanite cities under stress with loss of
    Egyptian backing

16
Israels Conquest of Canaan
  • Josh 1-12 sets for the dramatic story
  • whole land fell to Joshua in three decisive
    campaigns
  • first western side of the Jordan, Jericho and
    Ai and moved up to Shechem with no resistance
  • second southern hill country yet bypassing some
    fortified towns
  • third northern hill country Galilee with
    decisive victory at Hazor (Josh 11)

17
The Rest of the Story
  • chs 13-21 describe the division of the land into
    tribal units
  • pockets of Canaanite presence which each tribe is
    encouraged to expell (ch 13)
  • chs 22-24 Israel begins to settle the land
  • misunderstandings almost lead to civil war (22)
  • Joshuas final challenges
  • As for me and my house, we will serve the LORD!
    (2415)
  • death and burial of Joshua (2428f)

18
  • Tribes of Israel

19
And Yet!!
  • Judges 1 gives a very different picture
  • first question after Joshuas death Who shall go
    up first for us against the Canaanites to fight
    against them?
  • Also Judges 18 credits Judah with capturing
    Jerusalem, yet 2 Sam 5 claims it was not captured
    until Davids time
  • overall, Judges illustrates a very incomplete
    picture of the conquest

20
Competing Pictures
  • Joshua gives us a telescoped picture, compressed,
    through eyes of Deuteronomist
  • based on ancient traditions book of Jashar in
    Joshua 1013-14
  • Israelite occupation was a complex process
  • long time involved
  • many tribes coming together
  • all finally unified by worship at one central
    sanctuary at Shiloah

21
Transition to Iron Age
  • transition late Bronze to Early Iron (1200)
  • Many technological advancements
  • new iron tools used for weaponry and agriculture
  • Josh 1716-18, Judges 119,
  • waterproof plaster-lined cisterns for storage of
    rainwater
  • terraced hillsides for cultivation of crops

22
Various Models
  • because of the complexity of the biblical data
  • and the difficulties on the archaeological front
  • various burn levels that could be associated with
    Israelite invasion but
  • new Israelite settlement in hill country
  • little difference between Israelite cultural
    assemblages and Canaanite
  • various models have been presented

23
Immigration Model
  • a relatively peaceful migration into sparsely
    populated hill country
  • tribes represent population waves
  • Six Leah tribes (Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah,
    Isacchar, Zebulon)
  • Four concubine tribes (Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher)
    settle west of the Jordan
  • Rachael tribes (Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin)
    arrive with Yahwism (read Josh 2414)
  • Levi looses land grand, Judah annexes Simeon (two
    ways to twelve)

24
Rahab and Gibeonites
  • Rahab joined the Israelites (625)
  • A whole tribe called Gibeonites joined them
    through deception!
  • Hebrews took Ai through deception in ch. 8 and
    now Gibeonites deceive Israelites in 9
  • twice stated that Israel honored the pact they
    had established with the Gibeonites
  • they live among Israel but as servants
  • 918-21 and 22-27)

25
Internal Revolt
  • possible revolt of indigenous population
  • Canaanite puppet kings were under Egyptian thumb
  • notorious for heavy-handed taxation
  • New Yahweh-worshipping Hebrews move into hill
    country with story of powerful deliverance
  • catalyst for a new organization and theology
  • much removal of kings was done by indigenous
    groups

26
Composite Model
  • Conquest was a composite story of external and
    internal groups
  • bound together by common desire for freedom from
    Egyptian (Canaanite) control
  • Book of Joshua represents the end of a process of
    explaining their arrival
  • completes the patriarchal promise cycle
    Hexateuch
  • Ex 1238 mixed multitude went up from Egypt

27
Assembly at Shechem
  • Josh 24 describes a great gathering at Shechem
  • had been a great Canaanite city strategically
    located in narrow pass between two mountains
  • Impressive remains of ancient pre-Israelite city
    have been uncovered
  • ruins of the foundations of the largest pre-Roman
    temple in Palestine can be seen today
  • Joshua rehearsed sacred history (2-13)
  • challenges people to choose to serve YHWH! in
    sincerity and faithfulness

28
Surprise at Shechem!
  • read 2414-15
  • what is the big surprise to the reader?
  • put away the gods that your ancestors served
    beyond the River and in Egypt!
  • local Apiru joined with them from the region?
  • no mention of battle to take Shechem
  • we were all delivered from Egypt!
  • Apiru had broad meaning, Israel was a covenant
    community founded at Sinai

29
The Covenant Service
  • Suzerainty Treaty form
  • preamble (242), historical prologue (2b-13),
    stipulations (14-24), reading of stipulations in
    the book of the law (25-26)
  • witnesses called (not various gods but people
    witness against themselves!) (v 22) and a stone
    witness (27)
  • earlier Shechem ritual contained blessings and
    curses (830-35)

30
Judges The Ups and Downs
  • Judges continues story from the death of Joshua
    to just before the birth of Samuel
  • Samuel was the last judge and the transitional
    figure toward kingship
  • Read Joshua 11
  • what is the surprise here?
  • Joshua gives the impression the conquest was
    complete compare to Josh 1116ff

31
Unfinished Business
  • Judges gives us a real picture of all the
    unfinished business
  • failures to conquer the land depicted in first
    chapters of Judges (Jud 119)
  • nations life falls into a downward spiral
  • both moral and spiritual elements
  • reaches low point under Samson
  • final portion of the book describes deterioration
    into idolatry and civil war

32
They did not drive them out
  • After Joshua, Canaanites are still left in the
    land! (read opening verses)
  • Israel is still unable to drive them out never
    do in this book
  • the book is really about how the Judges, for all
    their heroism, failed
  • they did not drive them out theme is featured
    (119, 21, 27, 29, 30, 31-32, 33, 34)

33
People in the land
  • Why are these other peoples left in the land?
  • Israel has not obeyed (22-3, 220)
  • they are left to test Israel to find out if they
    are serious about Torah (222-23 31-7)

34
What is a Judge?
  • Judges should not be understood as judicial in
    any sense at all
  • Shophetim in Hebrew (decision-makers)
  • rulers with military roles
  • part of the former prophets
  • called prophets because of a prophetic viewpoint
    of history
  • Deuteronomistic Historian project Israels
    history showing outworking of the blessings and
    curses of the covenant

35
Layout of Judges
  • Double Introduction (11-36)
  • Main Section of cycles (37-1631)
  • Double Conclusion (171-2125)

36
Double Double
  • Double introduction and double conclusion are
    symmetrical
  • A first introduction foreign wars with cherem
    being applied (11-25)
  • A(2) second conclusion domestic war with cherem
    supplied (191-2125)
  • B second introduction difficulties with foreign
    idols (26-36)
  • B(2) first conclusion difficulties with domestic
    idols (171-1831)

37
Main Cycle Section
  • patterns of increasing failure to drive out the
    Canaanites
  • introduced by Jud 11-25 (first intro)
  • distinctive refrains
  • In those days, there was no king in Israel (4X)
  • all the people did what was right in their own
    eyes (2x)
  • 176, 181, 191, 2125

38
Cycles Continued
  • the 6 cycles each have 8 components
  • Israel does what is evil in eyes of the Lord
  • the Lord gives them over to oppressors
  • Israel serves oppressors for x years
  • Israel cries out to the Lord
  • the Lord raises up a deliverer (judge)
  • the spirit of the Lord comes upon the deliverer
  • oppressors are subdued
  • the land has rest for x years

39
local leadership
  • In Judges (as opposed to Moses/Joshua) there is
    no decisive leader
  • several local heroes who responded to crisis
  • they are empowered by Yahwehs spirit
    energized by God
  • served to unite people to respond to a particular
    crisis

40
General Patterns
  • periods of faithfulness to Yahweh shrink at the
    book proceeds - increasing turmoil
  • charismatic prophets/judges dont work
  • we need a king if we are going to stave off the
    Philistines
  • sets stage for Saul and especially David period
    of Kings
  • from Joshua to Judges we move from assurance to
    warning
  • departing from faithfulness to God jeopardizes
    the land

41
Hero Stories
  • On the surface, the book is a collection of
    stories of heroes
  • in various clever and courageous ways delivered
    Israel from enemies
  • they outthought, outfoxed stronger oppressive
    enemies.
  • read story of Ehud Judges 312-30

42
Judge Cycles
  • six major judge stories
  • Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson
  • components help unlock the books message
  • with each major judge, the cycle unravels
  • the unraveling enhances the communication of
    moral deterioration taking place throughout the
    period

43
The Cycle Unravels
  • Gideon Judg 827 Gideon himself leads people
    into idolatry
  • Jephthah (ch. 11) sacrifices his own daughter in
    honor of Gods victory
  • Samson (chs 14-6) a phenomenally gifted judge who
    squanders his calling completely
  • captured and blinded, he is able to bring
    deliverance by chance
  • 1628-31

44
Double Conclusion
  • Conclusion narrates the failure of the era (ch.
    17-21)
  • Two stories are told to make this point
  • the practice of Idolatry (ch. 17-18 Micahs
    idols)
  • barbaric social relations (19-21 Levite and his
    concubine)
  • stories are framed by refrain In those days
    there was no king in Israel all the people did
    what was right in their own eyes. (176 181,
    191, 2125)

45
  • Point couldnt be clearer advocacy of kingship
  • monarchy is Israels only hope
  • great assurances of Joshua have become sorry
    condemnation
  • the Torah requirement and covenant loyalty
    requirement is more than the people can bear
  • the land of promise has become the land of
    mission impossible

46
Three Truths
  • At its Core, Joshua and Judges are about a land
  • Three truths
  • the land is a gift
  • the land is a summons for those who live in the
    land given by Y. must respond positively to the
    giver of the gift
  • the land is seduction the safety and prosperity
    of the land is an invitation to pride
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