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Globalisation

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AOL Time Warner. Viacom. News Corporation. Disney. Film = 30% of their income. 5 ... Music video. Soundtrack album. novelisation. Infotainment tv shows. Press kits ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Globalisation


1
Globalisation Hollywood
2
Globalisation Hollywood
  • Branston 2000
  • Radical changes to Hollywood since 1960s
  • Ownership patterns
  • Financing
  • Form of major films (event movies)

3
Globalisation Hollywood
  • Branston 2000
  • Large parts of Hollywood now foreign owned and
    multi-market oriented.
  • Development of global multi-media corporations.

4
Globalisation Hollywood
  • Balio 2002
  • eg Companies
  • AOL Time Warner
  • Viacom
  • News Corporation
  • Disney
  • Film 30 of their income

5
Globalisation Hollywood
  • These companies own film production, but also tv
    stations, satellite tv, etc as outlets for film

6
Mergers
  • Balio 1998
  • They invest in foreign media industries
  • Time Warner, Turner, Disney, Viacom, NBC invest
    in European media
  • Television production
  • Cable and satellite
  • Telecommunications

7
Mergers
  • Balio 1998
  • Eg Time Warner invested in
  • Satellite broadcasting in Scandinavia
  • FM radio in UK
  • Pay-tv in Germany and Hungary

8
Globalisation Hollywood
  • What difference does it make to
  • The films that get made?
  • The Americanness of the films, and their relation
    to other national cinemas?
  • Audiences engagement?

9
Globalisation Hollywood Globalisation
  • Branston Stafford (2003)
  • Globalisation a distinctively modern phenomenon

10
Globalisation
  • Activities global if
  • Take place in a global arena
  • Are organised on a global scale
  • Involve interdependence activities in different
    parts of the world are shaped by each other

11
Globalisation Hollywood
  • Globalisation activities
  • Expand horizontally to tap emerging markets
    worldwide
  • Expand vertically to form alliances with
    independent producers to increase no. of films
  • Partner foreign investors to obtain money

12
Globalisation Hollywood
  • Balio 2002
  • Studios evaluating new projects on their
    potential to reach specific segments of the
    audience.

13
Markets
  • In global market 2 main segments
  • teen and pre-teen bubble
  • ¼ of audience but largest share of box office
  • Avid filmgoers 10-24
  • Young males the key segment
  • plenty of leisure time and money

14
Markets
  • boomers with kids
  • 8-80
  • Children, parents and grandparents
  • Limitless possibilities for theme parks, rides,
    ice-skating, etc

15
Markets
  • Geezers over 50
  • ignored

16
Markets
  • Studios devoting their resources to high-concept
    blockbusters and star vehicles
  • Can be pitched in national marketing campaigns
    and released simultaneously in thousands of
    theatres

17
Selling Films
  • (ie Film Distribution)
  • Maltby 2003
  • Cinemas (Theatrical Release)
  • Ancillary Markets
  • Video/DVD
  • TV

18
  • Film Release Order
  • Domestic Theatrical
  • Foreign Theatrical
  • Pay per view
  • World home video/dvd
  • Pay tv
  • Foreign tv
  • Network tv
  • Syndication

19
Selling Films
  • Film release phases
  • Maltby p 194

20
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21
Selling Films
  • Foreign theatrical
  • Maltby p 216

22
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23
Selling Films
  • Hollywoods changing market
  • Maltby p196/7

24
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25
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26
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27
Selling Films
  • Importance of theatrical release to eventual sales

28
Selling Films
  • eg Willow 1988 George Lucas Sci Fi
  • Cost 55m
  • Domestic Theatrical 28m
  • Video 18m
  • TV 15m
  • Foreign theatrical 42m
  • Foreign video and tv 22m

29
Selling Films
  • Shooting for the box
  • Different screen ratios the box (tv) is narrow.
  • (See Bordwell and Thompson 2004 p16/7)

30
Overseas Market
  • Balio 1998
  • Foreign box office
  • More and better cinemas
  • Low concentration of cinemas outside US
  • US majors and European partners renovate cinemas
    in UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, and others.

31
Overseas Market
  • More effective marketing due to
  • Increased availability of commercial tv
    advertising
  • Eg new commercial channels MTV

32
Marketing the Film
  • Maltby 2003
  • Marketing and advertising campaigns
  • Run trade shows screening new films, for
    exhibitors to buy. Have parties, with stars.
  • Schedule release dates
  • Make trailers

33
Marketing the Film
  • May organise
  • Music video
  • Soundtrack album
  • novelisation
  • Infotainment tv shows
  • Press kits
  • Electronic press kits
  • Internet links to merchandise

34
Marketing the Film
  • Merchandising
  • Manufacturers buy rights to film characters for
  • Toys
  • Games
  • Clothing
  • Lunchboxes
  • Schoolbags
  • Tie-ins with fast-food outlets

35
Marketing the Film
  • Eg Star Wars merchandising
  • By 1992 merchandise had made 2.6 billion

36
Marketing the Film
  • Eg
  • McDonalds pays 100m a year to Disney for
    exclusive licensing of Disney films

37
Marketing the Film
  • Cross promotion film and merchandise advertised
    at same time

38
Marketing the Film
  • Eg MGM
  • Tomorrow Never Dies stars appear in ads
  • Heineken
  • Smirnoff
  • BMW
  • Visa
  • Ericsson

39
Marketing the Film
  • These 5 companies pay 100m for campaign, which
    runs worldwide.
  • In return Product Placements
  • film features their products.

40
Marketing the Film
  • Eg Spy Who Shagged Me
  • Had ad partnerships with-

41
Marketing the Film
  • Mitsubishi
  • Heineken
  • Visa
  • Virgin Atlantic
  • Philips Electronics
  • Starbucks coffee
  • American Academy of Periodontology

42
Ultra high budget film
  • Balio 1998
  • Studios exploit ultra-high-budget film
  • Eg Terminator 2 Judgement Day
  • 100m production
  • Gross 204m domestic 310m foreign

43
Ultra high budget film
  • High concept
  • Big name stars
  • Visual and special effects

44
Ultra high budget film
  • Reduce financial risks
  • Are media events
  • Lend themselves to promotional tie-ins
  • Make ancillary profits in theme parks, videos,
    etc
  • Make profit in foreign markets
  • Easy to distribute

45
Ultra high budget film
  • Saturation booking
  • Releasing new films simultaneously in every
    market of the country, accompanied by massive
    marketing.
  • Eg 35m to promote a film
  • Designed to recoup production costs quickly

46
Ultra high budget film
  • World markets seem to like action attractions
    or exhibitionist cinema
  • Their roots in stimulus and carnival rides
  • Less a way of telling stories and more a way of
    presenting a series of views and thrills.
  • (Gunning 1990/ in Branston 2000)

47
Effects of Globalisation
  • Conclusions (Balio 1998)
  • Concentration of ownership is speeded by
    stressing economies of scale
  • Some smaller pictures are successful but
    Hollywood committed to megapics and saturation
    booking

48
Effects of Globalisation
  • Dominate screens worldwide and damage national
    film industries
  • The big got bigger - the small disappeared or
    merged with giants

49
During
  • Simon During
  • Popular culture on a global scale a challenge
    for cultural studies?
  • 1997

50
During
  • Investigating the global popular.
  • Eg Total Recall (TR)
  • Only Hollywood produces systematically for export
    and can establish a global star.

51
During
  • Globalisation inscribes itself at the moment of
    financing.
  • A big budget globally oriented film like TR
    requires
  • Those involved in production take share of
    profits, rather than up-front payment
  • Presales to foreign distributors

52
During
  • cross-collateralisation performance in one
    territory can be discounted against performance
    in other territories
  • Purchase of insurance against failure to complete
  • Local/national distributors only invest if they
    believe it will succeed in their country (eg
    Japan, Germany, wouldnt buy into Revolution)

53
During
  • Some films then are aimed simultaneously at two
    markets US and rest of the world.
  • Rest of world fragmented territories.
  • Japan and Germany most significant, so most
    influential at point of finance.

54
During
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger
  • Dominant star at time when non-domestic sales
    became more significant than domestic
  • Arnie even more popular in Japan, Indonesia,
    Eastern Europe than in US or W. Europe

55
During
  • Total Recall pivotal in his popularity
  • Directly controlled by the star
  • Cost 60m
  • Gross 300
  • 180 non-US
  • 120 US - 63 from rentals

56
During
  • World market likes cinema of action-attractions
  • Special effects and stunts
  • Stylised acrobatic violence, often drawing on
    non-western martial arts
  • Welded into narratives for which violence is the
    solution to exploitation
  • Hence extend generic conventions developed in
    western youth markets

57
During
  • Male bodies and special effects are key.
  • His body is his ultimate resource and grounds his
    appeal across the international division of
    labour.
  • Carry idea of training and routine of
    transforming and observing the body

58
During
  • These films allegorise the condition of those for
    whom the body is
  • A ground to be worked on
  • A source of labour power
  • A locus of undervalued presence

59
During
  • Special effects
  • Used to construct magical worlds that exceed
    causal constraints

60
During
  • Plot must appeal worldwide
  • Balancing act appealing to metropolitan and
    non-metropolitan audiences
  • TR presumes we live in a global culture, via its
    planetary perspective resource depletion on
    earth creates a global we.

61
During
  • Divisions between cultures on earth seem
    peripheral in the face of another species
  • the movie markets the cultural and
    infrastructural conditions of its own success
    p221

62
References
  • Balio, T. 2002 Hollywood Production Trends in
    the Era of Globalisation, 1990-99, Chapter 12
    in S.Neale (ed) Genre and Contemporary
    Hollywood. London BFI
  • Balio, T. 1998 Contemporary Hollywood Cinema.
    London Routlege
  • Bordwell D. Thompson, K. (2004) Film art an
    introduction. Chapter 1 London McGraw-Hill
  • Branston, G. 2000 Globally Popular Cinema?.
    Chapter 3 in Cinema and Cultural Modernity.
  • Branston, G. and Stafford, R. 2003
    Globalisation. Chapter 15 inThe Media
    Students Book. 3rd ed. London Routlege
  • During, S. 1997 Popular culture on a global
    scale a challenge for cultural studies? Chapter
    11 in Mackay, H. and OSullivan, T. (eds) 1999
    The media reader continuity and transformation.
    London Sage
  • Maltby, R. 2003 Hollywood cinema. 2nd ed. Oxford
    Blackwell
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