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Title: National Association for Search and Rescue


1
  • National Association for Search and Rescue
  • Little Rock, Arkansas
  • 26-27 May 2009

Georeferencing for SAR Responders in Catastrophic
Incidents
Rick Button SecretaryNational Search and Rescue
Committee (www.uscg.mil/nsarc)
2
Agenda
  • National SAR Committee (NSARC)
  • National SAR Plan/National SAR Supplement
  • The Olive
  • ESF 9
  • Catastrophic Incident SAR (CISAR) Addendum
  • Framing the Issue Hurricane Katrina
  • CISAR Georeferencing

3
What is NSARC?
4
National SAR Committee
5
Natl SAR Committee
DOD, DOC, DOT, DOI, DHS, FCC, NASA
NSARC Chair and Secretariat Coast Guard
www.uscg.mil/nsarc
6
NSARC Objectives
  • . . . provide a standing committee to oversee
    the National SAR Plan and coordinate interagency
    SAR matters.
  • . . . provide a forum for preliminary
    development of interagency positions in SAR
    matters.
  • . . . provide for an interface with other
    national agencies involved with emergency
    services.

7
NSARC Documents
  • U.S. National SAR Plan
  • National SAR Supplement
  • Catastrophic Incident SAR (CISAR) Addendum
  • Several under development

www.uscg.mil/nsarc
8
National SAR Plan (NSP)
  • 19-Page Plan
  • For coordinating SAR services to meet domestic
    needs and international commitments
  • Assigns Federal SAR Coordinator (SC)
    responsibilities
  • Rewritten in 2007
  • Harmonized NSP to the Natl Response Framework

9
National SAR Supplement (NSS) to the IAMSAR Manual
  • Guidance to Federal Agencies on implementing the
    NSP
  • Specific addl national guidance that builds upon
    the baseline established by the IAMSAR Manual
  • Provides guidance to all Federal forces, military
    and civilian, that support civil SAR operations
  • Being rewritten to be renamed National SAR
    Manual

10
The Olive
Model that describes the NSARCs SAR World of
Work
11
Normal SAR SAR that Federal Departments and
Agencies conduct day in and day out. Any SAR
case, not an MRO or Catastrophic Incident, can be
considered a Normal SAR operation.
Olive Model Normal SAR
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
12
MROs Infrequent ops that require the search and
rescue of large numbers of people. Not
considered Normal SAR, but also does not meet
the criteria for a Catastrophic Incident.
Olive Model MROs
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
Mass Rescue Operations
13
Olive Model MROs
A mass rescue operation (MRO) is one that
involves a need for immediate assistance to large
numbers of persons in distress such that
capabilities normally available to SAR
authorities are inadequate.
Ref a. IAMSAR Manual Vol I, Page 6-6 b.
NSS, paragraph 6.11.4
14
Olive Model MROs
MROs are required less frequently than typical
rescue efforts. Flooding, earthquakes, terrorism,
and large passenger aircraft or ship disasters
are examples of scenarios that may involve the
need for MROs. Potential adverse consequences
of poor preparedness for MROs are enormous.
MROs are low probability, high risk events!
15
A catastrophic incident is any natural or
manmade incident, including terrorism, which
results in extraordinary levels of mass
causalities, damage, or disruption severely
affecting the population, infrastructure,
environment, economy, national morale, and/or
government functions. National Response
Framework, page 42
Olive Model Catastrophic Incident SAR (CISAR)
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
MROs
16
Olive Model Catastrophic Incident SAR
  • Civil SAR carried out as all or part of the
    response to an emergency or disaster declared by
    the President under provisions of the NRF ESF
    9
  • CISAR could range from Normal SAR to the
    conduct of MROs
  • What qualifies SAR operations as CISAR is when
    the response is associated with a Presidential
    declaration

17
Olive Model Catastrophic Incident SAR
Civil SAR carried out by the Federal Government
in support of the State(s).
18
Key Points No line between Normal SAR and
MROs unique to each agency, circumstance, and
type of SAR (land, aeronautical, maritime, urban,
etc.) Line around CISAR represents the
requirement for a Presidential Declaration that
implements CISAR operations
The Olive
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
MROs
19
U.S. SAR System
Natl SAR Plan
National SAR Supplement (Implements NSP)
Normal SAR
MROs
Catastrophic Incidents
NRF
ESF 9
CISAR Addendum
20
Emergency Support Function (ESF) 9
21
ESF 9 Purpose
Rapidly deploys Federal SAR resources to provide
lifesaving assistance to State, Tribal,
Territorial, local SAR Coordinator(s), SAR
Mission Coordinator(s), and other authorities
when a request for assistance is made or
anticipated from an authority recognized by the
NRF for incidents or potential incidents
requiring an integrated SAR response.
22
ESF 9 (May 2009)
Three primary response operational environments
  • Structural Collapse (Urban) SAR (USR)
  • Primary Agency FEMA
  • Maritime/Coastal/ Waterborne SAR
  • Primary Agency USCG
  • Land SAR
  • Primary Agency NPS DOD

23
ESF 9, CISAR and the Olive
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
Mass Rescue Operations
24
ESF 9, CISAR and the Olive
Normal SAR Operations (24/7)
ESF 9
Mass Rescue Operations
25
Catastrophic Incident SAR Addendum (CISAR)
26
CISAR Addendum Why?
Additional interagency guidance was required for
search and rescue during catastrophic incidents
27
CISAR Addendum Purpose
  • Provides a concise description of Federal
    Governments civil SAR response in catastrophic
    incidents
  • Guide Federal Authorities involved in a CISAR
    response
  • Inform States on what to expect of Federal SAR
    responders during catastrophic incidents
  • For the CISAR responder

www.uscg.mil/nsarc
28
CISAR Addendum (Version 2.0) Topics
Part I - Organization Key References Primary
CISAR Guidance Documents SAR Overview ESF 9
Lead Fed Responsibilities FEMA DOD Coast
Guard NPS States NGOs. Part II - Planning
CISAR Operating Principles Assumptions Planning
Considerations Risk Assessment NIMS CISAR
Management Notice and No-Notice Events. Part III
- Operational Guidance CISAR Searches
Structural Marking Systems Delivery of
Survivors Termination of SAR Ops Children
Persons with Special Needs Animals Media and
Public Relations CBR Incidents Chemical
Incidents Biological Incidents Radiological
Incidents RDD Response Actions IND Response
Actions Exercises Comms A/C Management TFRs
Comms Geo-referencing Health and Safety Boat
Management Handing of Human Remains Handling of
Animal Remains Critical Incident Stress
Management SAR Mission Coordinator.
29
Framing the Problem Georeferencing through
the lens of Hurricane Katrina
30
Hurricane Katrina 3 Georeferencing Issues
  • How do SAR Responders navigate when landmarks,
    such as street signs, are destroyed?
  • How do SAR Responders communicate position in a
    common language?
  • (ref Talbot Brooks, Importance of USNG and Land
    Navigation article on-line available from
    http//mississippi.deltastate.edu/.)
  • Resource deconfliction multiple SAR resources
    working in a common operating area

31
Hurricane Katrina Problems Communicating
Location
  • Local knowledge
  • Limited knowledge of U.S. National Grid
  • Lat/Long stated three different ways
  • DD.d
  • DD-MM-SS
  • DD-MM.mm

32
For ALL Emergency RespondersProblems
Communicating Location
It is important to understand that the same
geo-referencing problems identified during
Hurricane Katrina can also adversely impact any
type of emergency response operationwhether
small or large, frequent or infrequent. How
should positional information be communicated?
Whats the right reference system that should
be used? Is there only one reference system that
satisfies the requirements of all Emergency
Responders? How/when is positional information in
one reference system converted to another? How
is positional information received in
non-standard formats converted to a standard
reference system?
33
NTSB Hearing
Regarding the Public Hearing in the Matterof
the Issues on Emergency Medical
ServicesHelicopter Operational Safety and In
support of the National Search and Rescue
Committees (NSARC)standardization of position
information duringCatastrophic Incident Search
and Rescue (SAR) Operations
March 2009
34
CISAR Georeferencing
How do SAR responders know where they are during
a Catastrophic Incident?
Georeferencing Matrix
35

CISAR Georeferencing Matrix
36
Georeferencing Matrix - Footnotes
  • During CISAR operations, Lat/Long will be in one
    standard format DD-MM.mm
  • Land SAR Responders must use USNG however, a
    good familiarity with Lat/Long is necessary to
    ensure effective interface btwn Land/Boat Air
    SAR Responders
  • Air SAR Responders use Lat/Long

37
Georeferencing Matrix - Footnotes
  • Air space deconfliction only in Lat/Long
  • Air SAR Responders working with Land/Boat SAR
    Responders have primary responsibility of
    coordinating SAR using USNG(Both need to know
    USNG and Lat/Long.)
  • GARS (Global Area Reference System) used for
    CISAR response leadership situational awareness

38
Georeferencing Matrix - Assumptions
39
Assumption 1
No single map/chart projection or coordinate/grid
system will be perfect for all SAR
applications. (Urban, Land, Aeronautical and
Maritime)
40
Assumption 2
Matrix is for NSARC SAR Responders
  • NSARC wont impose georeferencing standards on
    volunteer, local, or State SAR Responders
  • If you call the Feds, we may not know your
    system many are coming from out of State

41
Assumption 3
Matrix is implemented when a Catastrophic
Incident occurs.
  • But theres advantages to using the Matrix for
    any emergency response scenario

42
Lat/Long, USNG and GARS
43
Latitude/Longitude
Keeping it simple For CISAR, Latitude and
Longitude describes what a SAR responder will
use on a standard chart/map and what is displayed
in a GPS receiver.
44
Geo-Referencing Latitude/Longitude
  • Standardized format DD? MM.mm
  • Speaking Latitude/Longitude
  • Example 39 36.06N 76 51.42W
  • Three nine degrees, three six decimal zero six
    minutes North seven six degrees, five one
    decimal four two minutes West.
  • The words, degrees, minutes, and decimal
    must be spoken.

45
U.S. National Grid (USNG)
  • Ground-based grid coordinate system based on
    Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System.
  • Basic unit of measure is the meter positions
    reported as distance east (right) and north (up).
  • Purpose provide a seamless, standard ref system
    for nationwide use during times of crisis.
  • (Talbot Brooks, US National Grid article
    online http//mississippi.deltastate.edu/)

46
U.S. National Grid (USNG)
  • USNG is the U.S. civil standard
    (FGDC-STD-011-2001)
  • Functionally equivalent to the Military Grid
    Reference System (MGRS)

47
Global Area Reference System (GARS)
  • Worldwide area reference system
  • Used for unit deconfliction as well as for
    large-area SAR efforts

48
Global Area Reference System (GARS)
  • GARS is an overlay area reference system based on
    standard Latitude/Longitude.
  • GARS divides world into 30-min by 30-min cells
    and further subdivides those cells into 15-min by
    15-min quadrants that are further subdivided into
    5- min by 5-min cells.

49
Things to consider
Effective interface between the Incident Command,
and Land (or maritime)/Air SAR responders is
vital to a successful CISAR response.
50
Things to Consider
  • SAR responder confusion with respect to the
    interpretation and communication of position data
    can be life-threatening (for the victim and/or
    the responder) in any SAR operation, not just
    catastrophic incidents
  • The Georeferencing Matrix is a simple way to
    communicate position information using existing
    systems.

51
Things to Consider
  • SAR responders/planners should be
  • Familiar with the USNG and Lat/Long reference
    systems and their position data formats
  • Capable of translating positions from one ref
    system to the other
  • Capable of accurately communicating position info
    from either ref system to other SAR responders.

52
Questions?
NSARC www.uscg.mil/nsarc
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