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Week Three


Reality (Aristotle) (3) Nature of. Morality (Which. Morality) (4) Goodness ... There is no guarantee that philosophy-kings would not be corrupted at a later ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Week Three

Week Three
  • Principle Based or Rule Based?
  • Can you make enough rules to control everyone?

Draft Ethical Framework
  • Assess situation/Determine if more information is
  • Organize key issues of the problem.
  • Think of options/possible solutions.
  • Weigh pros and cons of decision.
  • Prioritize.
  • Decision.
  • Implement.
  • Evaluate impact.

Principles of Justice
  • Richard Wright

Equal Dignity of Persons
  • Every individual member of the human species, as
    a rational being, has the dignity of being a
  • This dignity flows form the consciousness of
    ones choosing and acting self as a
    self-determining being.
  • The ultimate good for any person is fulfillment.

Common Good
  • A state is a community of families and
    aggregations of families in well-being.
  • Such a community can only be established among
    those who live in the same place and intermarry.
  • A person alone cannot be self-sufficient, not
    only because of individual needs and common
    interests, but also because man is by nature a
    political (social) animal.
  • Equal freedom theory focuses on the promotion of
    each persons equal freedom to pursue a morally
    meaningful life.

Justice and Law
  • Each person has the right, indeed the ethical
    duty, to assert her moral worth in interactions
    with others by, among other things, resisting
    non-rightful coercion by those others.

What is Morality?
  • Michael Perry

Morality is
  • The set of duties to others (not necessarily just
    other people the duties could run to animals as
    well, or importantly, to God) that are supposed
    to check our merely self-interested, emotional,
    or sentimental reactions to serious questions of
    human conduct.
  • Acting to serve to serve the welfare of others,
    especially strangers and, sometimes, the sole
    reason is religiously based reason it is,
    moreover, a reason that appeals directly to ones
    emotional concern for the Other, as

Morality is
  • Reasons
  • Morality demands that one do so (an act to assist
  • One would be acting irrationally if one chose to
    not do so.
  • Innate human altruism.

Elements of Ethical Reasoning What needs to be
taken into account.
  • Purpose goal, objective.
  • Question at issue problem, issue.
  • Information data, facts, observations,
  • Interpretation and Inference conclusions,
  • Concepts Theories, definitions, axioms, laws,
    principles, models.
  • Assumptions presupposition, taking for granted.
  • Implications and Consequences what may happen.
  • Point of View frame of reference, perspective,
    orientation. What should happen.

Process(one Concept)
Define the Situation 1
4 Choose Loyalties Decide where your loyalties
lie - To your organization, the community,
society? conflicts?
2 Identify Values Determine your personal,
along with those of the organization and the
community served.
3 Apply Ethical Principles Examine
various Ethical principles And see which best To
the situation.
  • An ethical framework.
  • 1) Cases that follow
  • Framework
  • (continue)

Case Series (Power Point)
  • Class divide into established groups.
  • Group discuss.
  • Report back to class.
  • Decision
  • How did you make the decision?
  • The process of decision making, apply what you
    developed last time.
  • Complete Group Activity Report.
  • (Sexual Assault Case)

End of ExerciseStop
History of Ethics
  • An overview of what others have said and thought.

  • The Masters

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Socrates469 B.C. 399 B.C.
  • Raised questions about the meaning of life.
  • Challenged people to rethink and reasons their
    lives rationally.
  • Believed that an unexamined belief is not worth
  • Socratic Reasoning
  • What is it?
  • What is it good for?
  • How do we know?

Socrates469 B.C. 399 B.C.
  • A Life Unexamined is Not Worth Living how
    applied to our situation?
  • A belief unexamined is not worth following?
  • A policy unexamined is not worth executing?
  • A practice unexamined is not worth adhering to?
  • We need to see that all citizens have liberty and
  • Call attention to system failures?

Socrates469 B.C. 399 B.C.
  • What is it?
  • What is it good for?
  • How do we know?

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Plato428 348 B.C.
  • Platos hierarchy
  • - Reasoning (top)
  • Scientific Knowledge
  • Belief
  • Conjecture and Imagination
  • Reasoning transcends science and overrides its
    investigatory value.

  • Morality and Justice
  • If you want justice you must be moral.
  • The Supremacy of Knowledge
  • There is no convincing evidence that absolute
    truths exist at all.
  • Even if these truths exist, there is no
    demonstrable way by which they could be learned
    and applied in a uniform manner.
  • There is no guarantee that philosophy-kings would
    not be corrupted at a later date, given the
    absolute power they would be able to wield.

  • The Tripartite Soul and Achievement of Justice
  • Spirit (passion), appetite (desire), and reason,
  • The Idea of Goodness
  • Goodness is higher than virtue.
  • Platos Theory of Ideals, Forms and Essences.
  • There are absolute moral truths

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Aristotle384 322 B.C.
  • Nature of Philosophical and Political Inquiry.
  • There is an ultimate good.
  • Happiness and the Concept of Eudemonia.
  • (Eudemonia) concept of well-being.
  • Moral Character as the Temple of Virtue
  • Character temple of virtue

Aristotle384 322 B.C.
  • Moral Character as the Activity of the Soul.
  • The soul is divided in three parts sensation,
    desire and reason.
  • Moral Virtues and the Golden Mean.
  • Between the ends of inadequacy and excessiveness.

Aristotle384 322 B.C.
  • Moral Development as the Actualization of
  • Moral character grows from modest means as the
    acorn into the Oak tree.
  • Mans Three Dimensions, a Profile of Moral
  • Knower of truth
  • Doer of goodness
  • Maker of beauty

Aristotle384 322 B.C.Aristotles Rules of
  • Major Premise
  • Minor Premise
  • Conclusion
  • All humans are mortal
  • Socrates is a human
  • Socrates is mortal

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Morality and Ethics
  • Ethics is a philosophy that examines the
    principles of right and wrong, good and bad.
  • Morality is the practice of these principles on a
    regular basis, culminating in a moral life.

Morality and Ethics
  • Standards of morality are not formulated by a
    legislative act, nor are moral standards subject
    to review by a court of law.
  • Immoral acts are sanctioned by words or gestures
    of social disfavor, disapproval, or ostracism,
    illegal actions are punishable by legal

Morality and Ethics
  • Situational Views of Morality
  • Sophists argued that
  • All things are the creation of ones
    consciousness at the moment.
  • The individual is the measure of all morals.
  • Things are not what one says they are.
  • All truths are relative to the social, cultural,
    and personal predisposition of the individual.
  • (all things are relative?)

Morality and Ethics
  • Situational Views of Morality
  • (The ends of liberty and justice that justify
    actions in one situation may not justify it in
    another Mississippi Burning?)
  • The values of goodness, truth, and humanity are
    all neutral.
  • One persons moral judgment is as good as
  • Morality depends on who one is, where one is, and
    the point at which a decision is made.
  • Spiritual and philosophical doctrines are
    non-binding and, therefore, of no particular

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Goodness and Choice
  • The question is all goodness equal?
  • Enforcement of all laws.
  • Ignoring the acts of ones workers that are
    illegal, or unethical?
  • Intrinsic objects, actions, or qualities that
    are valuable in themselves.
  • Non-intrinsic are objects, actions, or qualities,
    the value of which depends upon serving as a
    means for bringing about or maintaining an
    intrinsic good, (money, food, discipline and
    personal loyalty).

Goodness and Choice
  • Intrinsic good supersedes non-intrinsic good
  • Personal loyalty is a non-intrinsic value that
    only serves the need to maintain discipline.
    Honesty, on the other hand, is an intrinsic value
    that is good in itself. (think of the Watergate
    scandal, or Enron)
  • Levels of goodness (or evil) are hierarchically
  • A lower-grade good cannot be justified in the
    presence of a higher-grade good. Judging grades
    of happiness, there is the physical, emotional
    and intellectual level with intellectual being
    the highest.

Goodness and Choice
  • Killing
  • Self defense? (probably highest level of
    agreement in class?)
  • Euthanasia (the Florida case) How does one
    decide (level of agreement)?
  • Abortion (level of agreement)?
  • Capital punishment (level of agreement)?
  • Who is right? Why are they right?

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Actions and Consequences
  • Good actions that lead to good consequences.
  • Bad actions that lead to bad consequences.
  • Bad actions that lead to good consequences.
  • Good actions that lead to bad consequences.
  • (continue)

Actions and Consequences
  • Cases One and Two are relative simple.
  • The other two are not.
  • Bad Actions/Good Consequences
  • Physical discipline leading to better behavior of
    a child?
  • Dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan?
  • Disciplining of employees on the job?
  • Others?
  • Good Actions/Bad Consequences
  • Giving money to a street person?
  • Others?

Actions and Consequences
  • Utilitarianism
  • Act-utilitarianists judge the morality of an
    act only on the basis of its propensity to
    produce happiness or pain. Thus, bad acts can
    not lead to good.
  • Rule-utilitarianists if the rule is conducive
    to good consequences, then the act is

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
Determinism and Intentionalism
  • Determinism
  • All thoughts, attitudes, and actions result from
    external forces that are beyond human control.
  • Predestination an interpretation of a gods
    will? Astrological forces? Cosmic power?
  • Genetic conditions?
  • Climate and geography?
  • Society and culture?
  • Education and socialization?
  • Some view these as forces, not facts, others view
    these as absolute.

Determinism and Intentionalism
  • Intentionalism
  • External forces of heredity and environment are
    merely influences.
  • By virtue of human intellect, people are still
    capable of reasoning their way out of the grip of
    the elements and making good choices.

Ethics Hall of Fame
Nature of Reality (Aristotle) (3)
Nature of Morality (Which Morality) (4)
Goodness (The Choices) (5)
Actions And (6) Consequences (Utilitarianism)
Intellect And Truth (Plato) (2)
Determinism And (7) Intentionalism (Beyond
The Ethical Person (Today?) (8)
Knowledge and Reasoning (Socrates) (1)
Ethics Hall of Fame
The Ethical Person
  • Maslows Profile of the ethical person.

Maslows Description(Selected listing)
  • Delight in bringing about justice.
  • Delight in stopping cruelty and exploitation.
  • Like happy endings.
  • Hate sin and evil.
  • Good punishers of evil.
  • Try to set things right
  • Manage to love what the world is and try to
    improve it.
  • Respond to a challenge of a job.
  • See hope.
  • Enjoy bringing about law and order in chaotic
  • Like doing things well.

Ethics Case Two(stop
  • Break into established groups.
  • Discuss the issue
  • Develop a list or framework of how you would make
    this decision. This needs to be turned in with a
    list of the group members and it must be
  • You have 30 minutes to accomplish these tasks
    determine the decision and list the framework.

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
  • We should judge the morality of an action in
    terms of the consequences or results of the
  • All action is for the sake of some end, and rules
    of action, it seems natural to suppose, must take
    their whole character and color from the end to
    which they are subservient.

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • What is meant by good consequences, and bad
  • Consequences for whom?

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • John Stuart Mill - The Greatest Happiness
    Principle (1806 1873)
  • The Greatest Happiness Principles - the goal of
    humankind is to achieve both the greatest
    quantity and the highest quality of pleasure.
  • Judges of Pleasure The Hedonistic Experts -
    all people desire happiness and everything else
    they desire is either a part of happiness or a
    means to happiness.

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • Evolution of Moral Decay - People who may in
    youth start with the higher pleasures evolve to
    lower pleasures such as indolence and
  • Happiness is a Satisfied Life -
  • The presence of many and various pleasures.
  • The presence of few and transitory pains
  • A decided predominance of active pleasures over
    passive pleasures.
  • A well-balanced expectation.

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • The Utilitarian Morality and Self-Sacrifice -
    there is virtue to self sacrifice.
  • Moral Sanctions External and Internal - What
    will motivate individuals to follow a moral
  • Internal - moral duties
  • External - hopes of favor or the fears of

Ethics of Utilitarianism
  • It is the intensity of the pleasure.
  • The impact on others.
  • The long term impact.

Deontological Ethics
  • The study of duty.
  • Immanuel Kant It is more than just the
    consequences, it is the intent of the person
    performing the act.
  • Morality involves fairness and equity.
  • The categorical imperative people have value
    and need to be treated with respect.

Utilitarian Kantian Principle
  • An action ought to be done in a situation if and
    only if (1) doing the action (a) treats as mere
    means as few people as possible in the situation,
    and (b) treats as sends as many people as is
    consistent with (a), and doing the action in the
    situation brings about as much overall happiness
    as is consistent with (1).

  • Maxims, according to Kant, are subjective rules
    that guide action.
  • Relevant Act Description
  • Sufficient Generality
  • All actions have maxims, such as,
  • Never lie to your friends.
  • Never act in a way that would make your parents
    ashamed of you.
  • Always watch out for number one.
  • Its ok to cheat if you need to.

Categorical ImperativesUniversality
  • Always act in such a way that the maxim of your
    action can be willed as a universal law of
  • --Immanuel Kant

Categorical Imperatives Respect
  • Always treat humanity, whether in yourself or in
    other people, as an end in itself and never as a
    mere means.
  • --Immanuel Kant

Classroom Exercises
  • Most of us live by rules, obedience to which we
    take as a duty.
  • What are the most important rules you live by?
  • What were the most important rules in your
  • What rules have you rejected as you have gotten

Chapter Three
  • Peacemaking, Justice and Ethics

  • We are connected to everyone.
  • The concept of Karma (lawful consequences).
  • Consequences of actions.
  • Not about retribution, revenge, punishment.
  • There is a sense of disconnectedness,
    inconsistency, and neglect regarding
    relationships in unhealthy and abusive families.

  • Moral reasoning is the product of a mind that
    discriminates and draws distinctions (between
    right and wrong, good and bad, just and unjust).
  • Demonstrated caring for others by actions.

  • Allows us to experience a more transcendent sense
    of awareness. It allows us to be fully present,
    aware of what is immediate, yet also at the same
    time to become more aware of the larger picture
    both in terms of needs and possibilities.

  • Offers us a vision of hope grounded in reality of
    which we are part.
  • Acknowledges that while we do not control what
    life brings us, we do have a choice in how to
    respond to whatever life brings us.

Chapter 4
  • Learning Police Ethics

Chapter 4
  • Art Winstanley Film

Learning Ethics
  • Learn on the job, to make your moral decisions in
    haste under the time pressures of police work.
  • You can learn away from the heat of the battle.

Where to most learn ethics?
  • On the job?

Stages of Moral Change
  • Suffer moral experiences that showed them that
    the laws were not impartially enforced and that
    judges were corrupt.
  • Then they learned that other police officers were
    dishonest, including those who engaged in
    shopping ie stealing goods at the scene of a
    nighttime commercial burglary, with the goods
    stolen by the police thus indistinguishable from
    the goods stolen by others.

Stages of Moral Change
  • They joined in the shopping themselves and
    constructed an apologia for it (the insurance
    will pay for it anyway).
  • The apologia provided a rationale for planned
    burglary in which they were burglars.
  • The final stage was to commit planned burglaries
    on a regular basis.

Chapter 5
  • Ethics of Deceptive Interrogation

  • Confessions are regulated by the Fifth, Sixth and
    Fourteenth Amendments.

Fifth Amendment
  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital
    or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
    presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except
    in cases arising in the land or naval forces or
    in the militia when in actual service in time of
    war or public danger, nor shall any person be
    subject for the same offense to be twice put to
    jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled
    in any criminal case to be a witness against
    himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
    property, without due process of law nor shall
    private property be taken for public use without
    just compensation.

Sixth Amendment
  • In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall
    enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by
    an impartial jury of the State and district
    wherein the crime shall have been committed,
    which district shall have been previously
    ascertained by law, and to be informed of the
    nature and cause of the accusation to be
    confronted with witnesses against him to have
    compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
    favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for
    his defense.

Fourteenth Amendment
  • Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
    United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
    thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
    the state wherein they reside. No state shall
    make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
    privileges or immunities of citizens of the
    United States nor shall any state deprive any
    person of life, liberty, or property, without due
    process of law nor deny to any person within its
    jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned
    among the several states according to their
    respective numbers, counting the whole number of
    persons in each state, excluding Indians not
    taxed. But when the right to vote at any election
    for the choice of electors for President and Vice
    President of the United States, Representatives
    in Congress, the executive and judicial officers
    of a state, or the members of the legislature
    thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants
    of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and
    citizens of the United States, or in any way
    abridged, except for participation in rebellion,
    or other crime, the basis of representation
    therein shall be reduced in the proportion which
    the number of such male citizens shall bear to
    the whole number of male citizens twenty-one
    years of age in such state.

Fourteenth Amendment
  • Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or
    Representative in Congress, or elector of
    President and Vice President, or hold any office,
    civil or military, under the United States, or
    under any state, who, having previously taken an
    oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer
    of the United States, or as a member of any state
    legislature, or as an executive or judicial
    officer of any state, to support the Constitution
    of the United States, shall have engaged in
    insurrection or rebellion against the same, or
    given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
    Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each
    House, remove such disability.
  • Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the
    United States, authorized by law, including debts
    incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for
    services in suppressing insurrection or
    rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither
    the United States nor any state shall assume or
    pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
    insurrection or rebellion against the United
    States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation
    of any slave but all such debts, obligations and
    claims shall be held illegal and void.
  • Section 5. The Congress shall have power to
    enforce, by appropriate legislation, the
    provisions of this article.

  • Brown v. Mississippi defendants whipped and
    pummeled until they confessed. (1936)
    Confessions must be voluntary.
  • 1940, psychological pressure could be coercive.
  • Lisenba v. California (1941), Ashcraft v.
    Tennessee (1944) the court introduced fairness
    and shock the conscience.

  • (1966) or some use (1967) prescribed specific
    limitations on custodial interrogation by police.
    Advisement of rights.

Typology of Interrogatory Deception
  • Interview versus Interrogate recasting the
    interrogation and an interview (non-custodial).
  • Miranda Warnings police can not soften up the
    suspect prior to a Miranda warning.
  • Misrepresenting the Nature or Seriousness of the
    offense this is okay, by the courts.

Typology of Interrogatory Deception
  • Role Playing manipulative appeals to conscience
    is okay by courts.
  • Misrepresenting the Moral Seriousness of the
    Offense okay by courts.
  • Use of Promises the admissibility of
    information gained by promises seems to turn on
    the specificity of the promise.

Typology of Interrogatory Deception
  • Misrepresentation of Identity depends on the
    misrepresentation, and how it impacts the case.
    Depends on what the suspect is in custody for and
    the other circumstances.
  • Fabricated Evidence courts have upheld this

Consequences of Deception
  • Lying is as a general matter considered immoral.
  • Torture not approved.
  • Manufactured evidence is less acceptable to the
    courts than verbal assertions.
  • Lying by police in other situations? Does this
    use of deception create other issues?

Chapter 6
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Police Work

Accepted Lying
  • It must be in furtherance of a legitimate
    organizational purpose.
  • There must be a clear relationship between the
    need to deceive and the accomplishment of an
    organizational purpose.
  • The nature of the deception must be one wherein
    officers and the management structure acknowledge
    that deception will better serve the public
    interest than the truth.

Accepted Lying
  • 4. The ethical standing of the deception and the
    issues of law appear to be collateral concerns.

Deviant Lying
  • Occurs when substantive and procedural laws (or
    police administrative regulations) are broken.

Chapter 7
  • Police ethics, Legal Proselytism, and the Social

The Path to Unethical Conduct
  • How police think about themselves, their
    occupation, and the world around them sets the
    stage for unethical conduct.
  • Many police officers see the world as a
    black-and-white morality play.
  • Police view themselves as the thin blue line
    that stands between anarchy and order.

The Path to Unethical Conduct
  • Law, morality and ethics are different things.
  • Law is a set of formal statements. Law can be
    subverted and misused.
  • Situational use (application) of the law to
    achieve enforcement objectives.
  • Morality is individual?
  • Ethics is job related for this purpose.

Socially Situating Unethical Behavior
  • Denial of responsibility police see themselves
    as buffeted back and forth between administrative
    policies, political decisions, and citizens.
  • Denial of injury violate individuals by
    stealing from criminals, or planning to get a
    conviction on a guilty suspect.

Socially Situating Unethical Behavior
  • Denial of the victim character of victim, or
    the interpretation of the circumstances.
  • Condemning the condemners condemners are
  • Appeal to a higher loyalty blue wall of
    silence or giving up your partner.

The End
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