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Sustainable Urban Drainage

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Amenity value of surface water ... Rapid conveyance of water & pollutants. Local watercourse ... Drainage conveyance. Detention Basins. Retention Ponds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable Urban Drainage


1
Sustainable Urban Drainage
  • Alan Jones
  • (Alan.Jones_at_ed.ac.uk)

2
Sustainable Drainage
  • A concept that focuses on the environment and
    people.
  • Considers
  • Quantity of runoff
  • Quality of runoff
  • Amenity value of surface water
  • Existing urban drainage systems are
  • Unsustainable in the long-term
  • Damaging to the environment

3
Why are SUDS needed?
Hydrograph
Discharge
Time
  • SUDS
  • Attenuate flow
  • Promote infiltration groundwater recharge

4
Why are SUDS needed?
  • 11 of Scottish river length is classified as
    polluted due to contamination from urban drainage
  • SUDS aim to protect watercourses from
    point/diffuse pollution by acting as sinks for
    contaminants
  • Cost implications for maintaining long-term
    performance of SUDS

5
Why are SUDS needed?
  • Amenity
  • A loaded term when used in relation to SUDS
    environmental/community issues
  • Covers
  • Aesthetic Ecological quality of the landscape
  • Land-use
  • Wildlife habitats
  • Land-values
  • Recreation opportunities
  • Educational opportunities
  • Water-resources
  • Other factors
  • Opportunity costs
  • Perceptions of risk
  • Construction impact

6
SUDS Triangle
7
Present Legal Status
  • WFD Water Framework Directive (2000)
  • Prevent deterioration in water status
  • Restoration of surface waters to good ecological
    and chemical status by 2015
  • Reduction of pollution from priority substances
  • Contributing to mitigating the effects of floods
    and droughts
  • Preventing/limiting pollution input into
    groundwater
  • CAR The Water Environment (Controlled
    Activities) (Scotland) Regulations (2005)
  • Surface water-runoff in areas constructed, or
    construction sites operated, after 1st April 2006
    must now be drained by a Sustainable Urban
    Drainage System
  • Exceptions Single dwellings or if the discharge
    is to coastal water

8
Conventional Drainage
Precipitation Rainfall/Snow
Rapid conveyance of water pollutants
Local watercourse
9
SUDS Drainage The treatment train approach
  • Connect SUDS together
  • Individual function of local SUDS techniques
    beneficial but design should be led by a
    holistic vision approach
  • Combined integrated function mimics the
    waterflows in the natural hydrological cycle
  • Surface Flow
  • Infiltration
  • Storage in water-bodies
  • Interflow
  • Evapotranspiration

10
Treatment Train
  • Good Housekeeping best practice to eliminate, or
    minimise, pollutants being generated and allowed
    into the environment.
  • Source Controls methods of dealing with runoff
    at source, e.g. permeable paving, filter strips,
    or roadside filter trenches.
  • Site Controls local controls that deal with
    generally smaller catchment areas, e.g. detention
    basins.
  • Regional Controls larger components that might
    typically deal with larger catchments and
    upstream site controls, e.g. stormwater wetlands
    and retention ponds.
  • (Heal, 2004)

11
A variety of techniques
Drainage conveyance
Kerb design
Roof drainage reuse
Detention Basins
Filter Drain
Swales
12
Retention Ponds
  • Falkirk Stadium Retention Pond (Undeveloped
    catchment)

13
Retention Ponds / Wetlands
  • Lidl Distribution Centre, Livingston - Retention
    Pond (Loading bay, Carpark runoff)

14
Tackling Contaminants
  • The flood-reducing benefits of SUDS are
    obvious...
  • Store water at various points in the catchment
    and allow water to be re-used, infiltrated,
    released slowly and/or evaporated.
  • These processes also allow the trapping of
    potential contaminants (e.g. metals,
    PAHs/Hydrocarbons) within the treatment train.
  • Contaminants are typically adsorbed
    (physico-chemically bonded) to sediment particles
    that are entrained in flow.
  • As water speed is slowed down using SUDS,
    particles (and therefore contaminants) settle out.

15
Contaminant Sources Vehicles
  • 15-fold increase in the number of car and taxi
    miles covered over the last 50 years!

SUSTAINABLE (?)
Campbell et al. (2004)
16
Land-Use Contamination
(Beasley and Kneale, 2002)
17
Design - Site Constraints
  • Physical site constraints can make construction
    difficult or impossible, and maintenance
    expensive if not addressed adequately. Factors to
    consider include
  • topography - e.g. steep slopes
  • soils and geology - e.g. erosivity, porosity,
    depth to bedrock or instability
  • groundwater - e.g. geochemistry and water table
    depth
  • space - limited open space, proximity to
    underground services. (e.g. gas, power)
  • Social constraints include issues of health and
    safety, aesthetics and impacts on recreational
    facilities. Factors to consider include
  • odour problems
  • visual impacts
  • noise
  • physical injury - resulting from unauthorised
    access to structures
  • contamination - infection, poisoning or injury
    caused by trapped pollutants or algal blooms
  • vermin - e.g. mosquitoes, rats.

18
Design Maintenance Issues
  • Not only can a poorly maintained SUDS technique
    function ineffectively, it can become a source of
    pollution or flood hazard itself.
  • When designing a SUDS measure, the following
    points should be considered
  • ease of maintenance and operation - the selected
    treatment should be easy and safe to maintain and
    operate
  • extent of maintenance - ensure the maintenance
    requirements are within the operator's capability
  • access to the treatment site - consider the ease
    of site access, when reviewing the treatment's
    maintenance requirements
  • frequency of maintenance - ensure that resources
    are available to carry out maintenance at the
    required frequency
  • debris and pollutant clearing - during clearing,
    the treatment should not require direct human
    contact with debris and trapped pollutants
    (automated clearing options are preferred)
  • disposal - consider the disposal requirements of
    any waste from the treatment process.

19
Case Study J4M8
  • SUDS development (c. 2000)
  • Previously agricultural land
  • Now a distribution hub based mid-way between
    Edinburgh and Glasgow

20
J4M8 Oblique Aerial Photograph
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