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Finite Element Primer for Engineers: Part 3

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This example shows an intravenous pump modeled using hexahedral elements. 14. Car tires require sophisticated analysis because of their complex geometry, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finite Element Primer for Engineers: Part 3


1
  • Finite Element Primer for Engineers Part 3
  • Mike Barton S. D. Rajan

2
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

3
Information Available from Various Types of FEM
Analysis
  • Static analysis
  • Deflection
  • Stresses
  • Strains
  • Forces
  • Energies
  • Dynamic analysis
  • Frequencies
  • Deflection (mode shape)
  • Stresses
  • Strains
  • Forces
  • Energies
  • Heat transfer analysis
  • Temperature
  • Heat fluxes
  • Thermal gradients
  • Heat flow from convection faces
  • Fluid analysis
  • Pressures
  • Gas temperatures
  • Convection coefficients
  • Velocities

4
Example FEM Application Areas
  • Automotive industry
  • Static analyses
  • Modal analyses
  • Transient dynamics
  • Heat transfer
  • Mechanisms
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Metal forming
  • Crashworthiness
  • Aerospace industry
  • Static analyses
  • Modal analyses
  • Aerodynamics
  • Transient dynamics
  • Heat transfer
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Creep and plasticity analyses
  • Composite materials
  • Aeroelasticity
  • Metal forming
  • Crashworthiness
  • Architectural
  • Soil mechanics
  • Rock mechanics
  • Hydraulics
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Hydroelasticity

5
Variety of FEM Solutions is Wide and Growing Wider
  • The FEM has been applied to a richly diverse
    array of scientific and technological problems.
  • The next few slides present some examples of the
    FEM applied to a variety of real-world design and
    analysis problems.

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13
  • This example shows an intravenous pump modeled
    using hexahedral elements.

14
Car tires require sophisticated analysis because
of their complex geometry, large deformations,
nonlinear material behavior, and varying contact
conditions. Brick elements are used to represent
the tread and steel bead, while shell elements
are used in the wall area. Membrane elements are
used to represent the tire cords.
15
This guitar features two strips of graphite
running the length of the neck. This FEM model
was used to study how much the neck moved when
string forces were applied and moisture content
changed. Using the FEM calculations,
designers could try different reinforcement
scenarios to increase neck stability.
16
Dynamic analysis of a tuning fork, to find it's
first eight modes of vibration.
5
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
17
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

18
Commercially Available FEM Software Suites
  • Here we present a survey of some of the
    better-known integrated FEM software packages.
    These integrated systems allow users to perform
    all facets of FEM analysis, including modeling,
    meshing, solution and post-processing.
  • The Internet provides a vast new resource for
    individuals interested in the FEM. See the
    Reference section of this paper for interesting
    FEM links to start your Internet research.
  • In addition to the integrated FEM packages
    listed below, many vendors offer dedicated
    software for solid modeling, mesh generation, FE
    equation generation and solution, and
    post-processing.

19
Commercially Available FEM Software Suites
(cont.)(partial list)
20
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

21
Technologies That Compete With the FEM
  • Other numerical solution methods
  • Finite differences
  • Approximates the derivatives in the differential
    equation using difference equations.
  • Useful for solving heat transfer and fluid
    mechanics problems.
  • Works well for two-dimensional regions with
    boundaries parallel to the coordinate axes.
  • Cumbersome when regions have curved boundaries.
  • Weighted residual methods (not confined to a
    small subdomain)
  • Collocation
  • Subdomain
  • Least squares
  • Galerkins method
  • Variational Methods (not confined to a small
    subdomain)
  • Denotes a method that has been used to
    formulate finite element solutions.

22
Technologies that Compete With the FEM (cont.)
  • Prototype Testing
  • Reliable. Well-understood.
  • Trusted by regulatory agencies (FAA, DOT, etc.)
  • Results are essential for calibration of
    simulation software.
  • Results are essential to verify modeled results
    from simulation.
  • Non destructive testing (NDT) is lowering costs
    of testing in general.
  • Expensive, compared to simulation.
  • Time consuming.
  • Development programs that rely too much on
    testing are increasingly less competitive in
    todays market.
  • Faster product development schedules are
    pressuring the quality of development test
    efforts.
  • Data integrity is more difficult to maintain,
    compared to simulation.

23
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

24
Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation
  • The FEM in particular, and simulation in
    general, are becoming integrated with the entire
    product development process (rather than just
    another task in the product development process)
  • FEM cannot become the bottleneck.
  • A broader range of people are using the FEM
  • Not just hard-core analysts.
  • Increased data sharing between analysis data
    sources (CAD, testing, FEM software, ERM
    software.)
  • FEM software is becoming easier to use
  • Improved GUIs, automeshers.
  • Increased use of sophisticated shellscripts and
    wizards.

25
Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation (cont.)
  • Enhanced multiphysics capabilities are coming
  • Coupling between numerous physical phenomena.
  • Ex Fluid-structural interaction is the most
    common example.
  • Ex Semiconductor circuits, EMI and thermal
    buildup vary with current densities.
  • Improved life predictors, improved service
    estimations.
  • Increasing use of non-deterministic analysis and
    design methods
  • Statistical modeling of material properties,
    tolerances, and anticipated loads.
  • Sensitivity analyses.
  • Faster and more powerful computer hardware.
    Massively parallel processing.
  • Decreasing reliance on testing.
  • FEM and simulation software available via
    Internet subscription.

26
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

27
Selected FEM Resources on the Internet
  • The internet offers virtually unlimited resources
    to persons interested in the FEM.
  • The following links are a small sample of FEM
    sites on the Internet which the author has found
    useful. Thousands more (at least!) are readily
    available.
  • Most commercial FEM developers have extensive
    presence on the Internet, with web pages that
    include company histories, descriptions of
    software products, and example FEM solutions.
  • Other good FEM resources on the web originate
    with academia, government, and discussion and
    user groups.

28
Selected FEM Resources on the Internet (cont.)
  • http//www.ansys.net
  • http//www.engineeringzones.com - A website
    created to educate people in the latest
    engineering technologies, manufacturing
    techniques and software tools. Exellent FEM
    links, including links to all commercial
    providers of FEM software.
  • http//www.comco.com/feaworld/feaworld.html -
    Extensive FEM links, categorized by analysis type
    (mechanical, fluids, electromagnetic, etc.)
  • http//www.engr.usask.ca/7Emacphed/finite/fe_res
    ources/fe_resources.html - Lists many public
    domain and shareware programs.
  • http//sog1.me.qub.ac.uk/ - Home page of the the
    Finite Element Research Group at The Queen's
    University of Belfast. Excellent set of FEM
    links.
  • http//www.tenlinks.com/cae/ - Hundreds of links
    to useful and interesting CAE cited, including
    FEM, CAE, free software, and career information.
  • http//www.gorni.eng.br/ - Extensive FEM links.
  • http//www.nafems.org/ - National Agency for
    Finite Element Methods and Standards (NAFEMS).
  • http//www.6dof.com/

29
Contents
  • Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)
  • Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
    Mechanics)
  • Examples
  • Commercial FEM Software
  • Competing Technologies
  • Future Trends
  • Internet Resources
  • References

30
References
Cashman, J., 2000. Future of Engineering
Simulation, ANSYS Solutions, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.
3-4. Chandrupatla, T. R. and Ashok D. Belegundu,
1997. Introduction to Finite Elements in
Engineering, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey. Kardestuncer, H., 1987. Finite
Element Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York. Krouse,
J., 2000. Physical Testing Gets a Bum Rap,
ANSYS Solutions, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 2. Lentz, J.,
1994. Finite Element Analysis Cross Training,
unpublished lecture notes, Honeywell Engines and
Systems, Phoenix, Az. Nikishkov, G.V., 1998.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method,
unpublished lecture notes, University of Arizona,
Tucson, Az. Rajan, S.D., 1998. Finite Elements
for Engineers, unpublished lecture notes, Arizona
State University, Tempe, Az. Segerlind, L. J.,
1984. Applied Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
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