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Marketing 334 Consumer Behavior

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... irrelevant (PC) in an ad for a car, but decision relevant (CC) in an ad for shampoo. ... These can include: pictures. music. surrealism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Marketing 334 Consumer Behavior


1
Marketing 334Consumer Behavior
  • Chapter 11
  • Attitudes
  • From Consumer Behavior, 10th ed. By Hawkins,
    Mothersbaugh and Best

2
Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes
An attitude is an enduring organization of
motivational, emotional, perceptual, and
cognitive processes with respect to some aspect
of our environment.
  • Attitudes serve four key functions for
    individuals
  • Knowledge function
  • Value-expressive function
  • Utilitarian function
  • Ego-defensive function

3
Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes
Attitude Components and Manifestations
4
Attitude Components
Attitude Component Consistency
5
Influencing Attitudes
Emotion Dimension
SAM (Self-Assessment Mannequin)
P
A
D
PPleasure AArousal DDominance
6
The Multiattribute Model
  • Considers attitude formation based on the
    cognitive component
  • Weighted attributes
  • Attitude index

7
Attitude Components
Attitude Component Consistency
  • Seven factors may account for inconsistencies
  • Lack of Need
  • Lack of Ability
  • Failure to Consider Relative Attitudes
  • Weakly Held Beliefs and Affect
  • Failure to Consider Interpersonal Influence
  • Failure to Consider Situational Factors
  • Measurement Issues

8
Attitude Change Strategies
  • Change the cognitive component
  • Change beliefs
  • Shift importance
  • Add beliefs
  • Change ideal
  • Change the affective component
  • Classical conditioning
  • Affect toward ad
  • Exposure
  • Change the behavioral component

9
Individual and Situational Characteristics that
Influence Attitude Change
ELM Model
10
Individual and Situational Characteristics that
Influence Attitude Change
  • BUT there are caveats and exceptions relating to
    cue relevance and competitive situation.
  • Cue Relevance - What is a PC/CC?
  • Example An attractive model (and her hair) may
    be decision irrelevant (PC) in an ad for a car,
    but decision relevant (CC) in an ad for shampoo.
  • In this case, the attractive model would
    influence persuasion under high involvement for
    shampoos but not for cars.

11
Individual and Situational Characteristics that
Influence Attitude Change
  • Competitive Situation - PCs can influence
    persuasion under HI INVOLVEMENT in competitive
    situations when
  • Central cues neutralize due to homogeneity across
    competing brands (PC then becomes tie breaker).
  • Attribute tradeoffs across central cues engenders
    decision difficulty which PCs help to alleviate.

12
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
  • Three types of communication characteristics
  • Source Characteristics
  • Represents who delivers the message
  • Appeal Characteristics
  • Represents how the message is communicated
  • Message Structure Characteristics
  • Represents how the message is presented

13
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
Source Characteristics
  • Source Credibility
  • Persuasion is easier when the target market views
    the message source as highly credible
  • Celebrity Sources
  • Celebrity sources can be effective in enhancing
    attention, attitude toward the ad,
    trustworthiness, expertise, aspirational aspects,
    and meaning transfer
  • Sponsorship
  • Sponsorships often work in much the same manner
    as using a celebrity endorser

14
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
Appeal Characteristics
  • Fear Appeals
  • Humorous Appeals
  • Comparative Ads
  • Emotional Appeals
  • Value-Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals

15
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
Message Structure Characteristics
  • One-Sided versus Two-Sided Messages
  • Positive versus Negative Framing
  • Nonverbal Components

16
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
Message Structure Characteristics
Positive versus Negative Framing
Goal Framing Message stresses either the positive
aspect of performing an act or the negative
aspects of not performing the act.
17
Communication Characteristics that Influence
Attitude Formation and Change
Message Structure Characteristics
Nonverbal Components
  • Nonverbal components can influence attitudes
    through affect, cognition, or both.
  • Emotional ads often rely primarily or exclusively
    on nonverbal content to drive emotional
    responses. These can include
  • pictures
  • music
  • surrealism
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