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Animation in France

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1933 The night on Bald Mountain, based on the music of Moussorgsky. ... 1949 first one man show at the Hanover Gallery, London ... 1977 died in Paris ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animation in France


1
Animation in France
Emile Cohl Ladislav Starevitch Alexander Alexeie
ff and Claire Parker Peter Foldes Rene Laloux P
aul Grimault

2
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • Emile Cohl (Émile Courtet) called "The Father of
    the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldest Parisian"
    was born in Paris in 18571864 at the age of 7,
    he was enrolled at the Ecole professionelle de
    Pantin, a boarding school known as the Institut
    Vaudron after its founder.

3
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1870 the Franco-Prussian War began. The chaos
    caused by the siege of Paris led to the closing
    of his fathers factory. 1872 three-year
    apprenticeship with a jeweler. Émile drew
    caricatures, enlisted in the Cherbourg
    regiment.1878, Émile obtained a letter of
    recommendation from Etienne Carjat to approach
    André Gill, the best-known caricaturist of the
    day, for a job.
  • Gill's trademark was the large, recognizable
    head of the target (with a fairly benign
    expression) atop a small puppet body (doing
    something ridiculous). It was based on fantoche
    puppetry.

4
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
5
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
6
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1881 André Gill was committed to the Charenton
    mental asylum. He managed to recover in a few
    months and in 1882 submitted his first serious
    painting, "Le Fou" (The Madman) to the Salon. The
    painting's poor reception by the artists of the
    Salon sent him back to Charenton.1883 editor in
    chief of La Nouvelle Lune the focus was
    absurdism, nightmares, and the drawing style of
    children.
  • 1883 "an exhibition of drawings by people who do
    not know how to draw" at the Vivienne Gallery.
    Émile Cohl's contribution was titled Portrait
    garanti ressemblant (Portrait--Resemblance
    Guaranteed)
  • 1886 Cohl produced his most bizarre and
    characteristic work in the Incoherent vein Abus
    des metaphors, a collection of more than a dozen
    colorful expressions brought to life.

7
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1885 Andre Gill died deserted by his friends and
    public with only Cohl by his side. 1898 started
    contributing to L'Illustré National. This would
    be the origin of Cohl's comic strips.
  • 1907 the 50-year old Émile Cohl, like everyone
    else in Paris, had become aware of motion
    pictures. 1907- scenarist writer at French film
    studio Gaumont1907 huge success of the film
    "The Haunted Hotel", released by Vitagraph and
    directed by J. Stuart Blackton. Cohl studied the
    film frame by frame, and in this way discovered
    the techniques of animation.

8
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1908 "Fantasmagorie" 6 months which is
    considered the first fully-animated film ever
    made. It was made up of 700 drawings, each of
    which was double-exposed, leading to a running
    time of almost a minute.

9
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1908 "Fantasmagorie" 6 months which is
    considered the first fully-animated film ever
    made. It was made up of 700 drawings, each of
    which was double-exposed, leading to a running
    time of almost a minute.
  • 1908 "Le Cauchemar du fantoche" "The Puppet's
    Nightmare", now lost
  • 1908 "Un Drame chez les fantoches" "A Puppet
    Drama", called "The Love Affair in Toyland" for
    American release
  • 1908 "Mystical Love-Making" for British
    release
  • chalk-line style
  • the stick-figure clown protagonists
  • the constant transformations
  • 1909 "Les Joyeaux Microbes" "The Joyous
    Microbes", aka "The Merry Microbes"
  • Strange transformations

10
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1909 Clair de lune espagnol" "Spanish
    Moonlight", aka "The Man in the Moon" great
    matte effects
  • 1910 "Le Tout Petit Faust" "The Little Faust",
    aka "The Beautiful Margaret loving puppet
    animation
  • 1910 "Le Peintre néo-impressionniste" "The
    Neo-Impressionistic Painter"1910 Cohl left
    Gaumont for Pathé, probably for more money"Le
    Ratapeur de cervelles" "Brains Repaired"
  • "La Revanche des espirits" The Spirit's
    Revenge
  • 1911 Cohl signed with Eclipse in September. None
    of Cohl's Eclipse films have survived, so little
    is known of his work there--it appeared to
    consist of object animation and travelogues.

11
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1912 invited to New York city by Éclair's
    American studio at Fort Lee, New Jersey humorous
    newsreel inserts and The Newlyweds animated
    series. Cohl saw both "The Story of a Mosquito"
    and "Gertie the Dinosaur" live at the Hammerstein
    Theater in New York, and he recorded his
    admiration of each in his diary.
  • 1914 the Cohl family left New Jersey for Paris
  • 8 days later a fire destroyed most of Éclair's
    American films, including all but two of Cohl's
    films ("He Poses for His Portrait" and "Bewitched
    Matches" aka "Les Allumettes ensorcelées"
    (Fr.)). 1920 Cohl quit Éclair and made
    "Fantoche cherche un logement" aka Puppet's
    Mansion

12
Emile Cohl (1857-1938)
  • 1929, the severe illnesses of Suzanne and his
    fellow stamp-collector Albert Coyette forced him
    to sell off his stamp collection and therefore
    his means of livelihood.
  • It was believed that all his films were
    lost1937 Cohl was awarded the medal of the
    Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie
    Nationale and a stipend of 4000 francs. He had
    been nominated by Léon Gaumont. 1937 Cohl was
    admitted to La Pitié hospital for severe burns,
    the result of being too poor for electricity and
    drawing by lamplight. He was burned so badly that
    any movement was agonizing. "I am nothing but a
    broken marionette" he told a reporter.1938 died
    of bronchial pneumonia in poverty and deserted

13
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1882 born Wladyslaw Starewicz born in Moscow,
    Russia
  • raised by his grandmother in Kaunas,
    Lithuaniasecondary school in EstoniaAcademy of
    Fine Arts in St. Petersburg.
  • 1910 director of a museum of
  • natural history in Kaunas. made 5 short
    live-action
  • documentaries for the museum.

14
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1910 "Lucanus Cervus" inspired by a viewing of
    "Animated Matches 1908 by Emile Cohl,
    re-created the fight through stop-motion
    animation he removed the legs and mandibles from
    two beetle carcasses, then re-attached them with
    wax, creating articulated puppets.
  • 1911 moved to Moscow and began work with a film
    company known variously as Khazhonkov.made two
    dozen films, most of them puppet animations using
    dead animals
  • 1912 "The Beautiful Leukanida"
  • 1911 "The Ant and the Grasshopper" - got
    Starewicz decorated by the czar.

15
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1912 The Cameraman's Revenge
  • 1914-1918 worked for several film companies,
    directing 60 live-action features, some of which
    were fairly successful.

16
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1917 after revolution the film community largely
    sided with the White Army and moved from Moscow
    to Yalta on the Black Sea.
  • 1917 Starewicz and his family fled before the Red
    Army could capture the Crimea, stopping in Italy
    before joining the Russian émigrés in Paris.
  • formed a company in the remains of Georges
    Méliès' old studio.
  • 1918 "The Scarecrow"
  • 1919 company dissolved, with most of the Russians
    joining the Berlin or Hollywood studios.
  • 1920 moved to Fontenay-sous-Bois and started on a
    series of puppet films and made two dozen films.

17
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1922 The Frogs That Demand a King, aka Frogland
  • 1923 Voice of the Nightingale

18
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965)
  • 1934 The Mascot, aka Puppet Love, aka The
    Devil's Ball
  • 1939 Tale of Renard the Fox ten years of
    production
  • 1965 died while workingon " Like Dog and
    Cat.It was left unfinished out of respect.

19
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire
Parker(1910 - 1981)
  • 1901 Alexander Alexeieff was born in Kazan,
    Russiaspent his childhood in Constantinople,
    Turkey
  • Clair Parker born in Boston 1910attended Bryn
    Mawr college and studied drawing at MIT

20
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire
Parker(1910 - 1981)
  • 1920s designed and peinted sets for production
    companies including Ballet Russe
  • Taught himself lithography, engravings,
    woodcuts, etchings, illustration
  • 1934 invention of a new technique in animation
    the Pinscreen (called the pinboard until the
    mid-sixties).

21
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire
Parker(1910 - 1981)
  • 1933 The night on Bald Mountain, based on the
    music of Moussorgsky.
  • inspired by Ballet Mechanique Fernand Leger

22
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire
Parker(1910 - 1981)
  • 1946 En Passant, based on the Canadian folk song,
    done at the National Film Board of Canada, opened
    the international festival of Cannes in 1946.
  • 1963 The Nose based on Gogol's short story.
  • 1972 Pictures at an Exhibition based on the music
    of Moussorgsky
  • 1980 Three Moods using Moussorgsky's music

23
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994)
  • 1905 born in Neuilly-sur_Seigne, France
  • Worked with Andre Sarrut in Les Gemeaux making
    commercials

24
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994)
  • 1947 Brave little solder
  • 1948-1952 The Shepherdess and the Chimneysweep.
    With partner André Sarrut

25
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994)
  • 1952 André Sarrut shown the film against Gaumont
    wishes.This caused a rift between partners and a
    stop in production.
  • 1967 Grimault got possession of the film and was
    able to complete it under a new title, Le Roi et
    l'Oiseau (there are many names for it in English
    that have been used in various releases,
    including The King and the Bird, The King and
    the Mockingbird, The Curious Adventures of Mr.
    Wonderbird .

26
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994)
  • Grimaults films are neither philosophic theses
    nor revolutionary experiments but he is the only
    cartoonist who can be compared with Renoir in his
    deep feeling for reality, for humanity for the
    joy and sadness of our experience.

27
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
  • 1924 born in Budapest
  • 1946 moved to England
  • studied at the Courtauld Institute and the Slade
    School of Art,
  • London
  • 1949 first one man show at the Hanover Gallery,
    London
  • From money from that he received from paintings
    bought movie
  • Camera and made his first film
  • Animated Genesis grand prix at the Cannes Film
    Festival
  • 1954 A short vision - grand prix in Venice
  • 1956 moved to Paris return to painting
  • 1977 died in Paris

28
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
29
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
30
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
31
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
  • 1965 return to film
  • 1971 Metadata Canada
  • 1974 Hunger ... aka Faim Canada
  • 1977 Envisage
  • 1977 Rêve
  • 1977 died in Paris

32
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977)
33
Rene Laloux (1929 2004)
  • 1929 born in Paris
  • went to art school to study painting
  • worked in advertising

34
Rene Laloux (1929 2004)
  • got a job in a psychiatric institution where he
    began experimenting in animation with the
    interns.
  • 1960 1960's "Monkey's Teeth" in collaboration
    with Paul
  • Grimault's studio using a script written by the
    Cour Cheverny's interns.
  • 1964 "Dead Time" with collaborator Roland Topor
  • 1965 Les Escargots

35
Rene Laloux (1929 2004)
  • 1973 "Fantastic Planet"

36
Rene Laloux (1929 2004)
  • 1981 Time Masters with Jean Giraud
  • 1987 Gandahar aka Light Years
  • with American Science Fiction master Isaac
    Asimov. Asimov edited the American translation of
    this film. It received a significant US film
    industry award a decade later in 1997.
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