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Canto IX


Canto IX. The Heretics. Limitations of Human Reason. Human Reason can only go so far ... Canto X. Circle Six. The Heretics. The Heretics ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Canto IX

Canto IX
  • The Heretics

Limitations of Human Reason
  • Human Reason can only go so far
  • Divine aid is needed
  • Yet surely we were meant to pass these tombs,
  • If notso much was promised
  • Oh how time hangs and drags till our aid
    comes! (7-9)

3 Infernal Furies
  • aspect of mythology
  • tormented people who sinned
  • represent the horrors and suffering in hell
  • where all at once three hellish and inhuman/
    Furies sprang to view,/ bloodstained and wild./
    Their limbs and gestures hinted they were women.

3 Infernal Furies
  • Queen of Woe
  • Plutos wife
  • Queen of the Underworld
  • Medusa
  • Stare turns people to stone
  • Virgil protects Dante

Divine Aid
  • so I saw more than a thousand ruined souls
  • scatter away from one who crossed dry-shod
  • the Stygian marsh into Hells burning
  • With his left hand he fanned away the dreary
  • vapors of that sink as he approached
  • and only of that annoyance did he seem
  • Clearly he was a messenger from Gods Throne,
  • and I turned to m Guide but he made a sign
  • that I should keep my silence and bow
    down. (76-84)

Divine Aid
  • Divine aid comes uninhibited
  • Indicates his power and authority
  • Human reason also needs help
  • Dantes journey is willed by God

Geography of Hell
  • presented as a city
  • And we moved toward the city (101)
  • And I, eager to learn what new estate
  • Of Hell those burning fortress walls enclosed
  • Beginning of Lower Hell

Sinners and Punishment
  • Heretics
  • Believed that the soul dies with the body
  • Against Christian theology
  • Theological aspect- Dantes beliefs
  • and I saw on every hand
  • a countryside of sorrow and new torment
  • the uneven tombs cover the even plain-
  • such fields I saw here, spread in all
  • except that here the tombs were chests of
  • for, in a ring around each tomb, great fires
  • raised every wall to a red heat. (107-116)

Canto X
  • Circle Six
  • The Heretics

The Heretics
  • All shall be sealed forever on the day these
    souls return here from Jehosaphat with the bodies
    they have been given once to clay. (10-12)
  • Epicurean belief
  • Tombs sealed - pursued pleasures in life-
    thought that the souls died with the body.

Farinata Degli Uberti
  • Bitter enemies were they to me, to my fathers,
    and to my party, so that twice I sent them
    scattering from high ItalyIf they were
    scattered, still from every part they formed
    again and returned both times. (46-51)

Farinata Delgi Uberti
  • War-chief, Ghibelline leader who exiled many
  • He remained even after Guelphs regained power but
    was exiled
  • Dante was a leader after this took place so he is
    not as mad with him
  • Dante talks to him - they share a common bond

Farinata tells Dante
  • Makes reference to Dantes exile
  • And ifmen of my line have yet to learn that
    art,/ that burns me deeper than this flaming
    bed./ But the face of her who reigns in Hell
    shall not/ be fifty times rekindled in its
    course/ before you learn what griefs attend that
    art (76-87)

Souls Perspective
  • We see asquint, like those twisted sight can
    make out only the far off when things draw near
    or happen we perceive nothing of them. Except
    what others bring us we have no news of those who
    are alive (99-105)
  • They can foresee the future but cannot know the

Cavalcante Del Cavalcante
  • Father of Guido Cavalcanti
  • Famous Epicurean- taught only happiness in life,
    no suffering
  • Against Gods ideas
  • He thinks that Dante says his son is dead
  • and that, if I did not reply more quickly,
  • it was because my mind was occupied
  • with this confusion you have solved for me.
  • Dante indicates he delayed to think about souls
    knowledge of the future