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Lexis and Grammar for Translation

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In any language words can be classified on the basis of their features into ... Io oltrepassai in auto insegne con la scritta Truva Tours... MAGIC LIES ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lexis and Grammar for Translation


1
Lexis and Grammarfor Translation
Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
  • Dott. M. Gatto
  • Lingue e Culture per il Turismo

2
From words to word classes
  • The stock of English words is immense
  • According to David Crystal there might be over 1
    million words in English (scientific terminology
    excluded).
  • In any language words can be classified on the
    basis of their features into
  • word classes (or parts of speech).

3
There is substantial agreement about word
classes in English
  • NOUNS
  • VERBS
  • ADJECTIVES
  • ADVERBS
  • DETERMINERS
  • PRONOUNS
  • PREPOSITIONS
  • CONJUNCTIONS
  • (INTERJECTIONS)

4
There is substantial agreement about word
classes in English
  • LEXICAL WORDS
  • FUNCTION WORDS
  • NOUNS
  • VERBS
  • ADJECTIVES
  • ADVERBS
  • DETERMINERS
  • PRONOUNS
  • PREPOSITIONS
  • CONJUNCTIONS
  • (INTERJECTIONS)

5
LEXICAL WORDS (lexical meaning)
  • Lexical words are the main carriers of meaning
    in a text. In speech they are generally stressed.
  • They are characteristically the words that
    remain in information-dense telegrams (e.g.
    telegrams, lecture notes, head lines)
  • Arriving tomorrow
  • Family killed in fire
  • Lexical words form an OPEN class

6
FUNCTION WORDS (grammatical meaning )
  • While lexical words are the main building blocks
    of texts, function words provide the mortar which
    bind the text together.
  • Function words indicate the relationship between
    lexical words or larger units.
  • Function words form a CLOSED class

7
Lexical words have
  • Morphological features (it has a structure)
  • Semantic features (it has a meaning)
  • Syntactic features (it plays a role in the
    sentence)

8
NOUNS
  • Morphological features
  • inflectional
  • - Number (singular/plural) -s
  • - Case s
  • - Gender?
  • derivational
  • - -ITY -NESS ER -EE -ATION -MENT

9
  • Semantic features
  • Nouns refer to concrete/abstract things as well
    as to people or animals
  • Syntactic features
  • A noun typically fills the subject slot or the
    object slot in a sentence
  • TOM arrived
  • I saw TOM
  • A noun can complement a verb in a sentence Tom
    has become an ACTOR

10
NOUNS
  • ABSTRACT
  • CONCRETE

11
NOUNS
  • COUNTABLE
  • car/cars, dog/dogs, boy/boys
  • UNCOUNTABLE
  • milk, information,hair

BUT some nouns can be used in both forms HAIR
(Countable) PELO/I HAIR (Uncountable)
CAPELLI
12
VERBS
  • LEXICAL VERBS
  • AUXILIARY VERBS

13
LEXICAL VERBS
  • Morphological features
  • Verbs are marked for
  • Tense (present/past) -s -ed
  • Aspect (ongoingness) -ing
  • Voice (active/passive) be -ed

14
LEXICAL VERBS
  • Semantic features
  • Verbs denote
  • Action
  • Process
  • State
  • Syntactic features
  • They serve as the centre of the clause
    (predicate)

15
AUXILIARY VERBS
  • Primary auxiliaries/Operators BE HAVE DO
  • Modal auxiliaries CAN COULD MAY MIGHT MUST SHALL
    SHOULD WILL WOULD
  • Marginal auxiliaries dare, need, ought to, used
    to

16
ADJECTIVES
  • Morphological features
  • Inflectional
  • Adjectives are marked for comparison
  • er, the -est
  • Derivational
  • -FUL -LESS -Y -AL -ABLE

17
ADJECTIVES
  • Syntactic features
  • Adjectives generally occurr before a noun they
    can also occurr after the noun or after the main
    verb
  • The RED box/ The box is RED

18
  • Semantic features
  • Adjectives express qualities (they modify a
    noun), in terms of
  • -shape
  • -taste
  • -size
  • -colour
  • -judgement

19
ADVERBS
  • Morhological features
  • Inflection
  • Adverbs have no inflections. Only a few adverbs
  • Are marked for comparison (like adjectives)
  • soon
  • soon-er
  • soon-est
  • Derivation
  • -LY

20
  • Syntactic features
  • Adverbs are often used as adjuncts in clauses
  • She speaks English very well
  • In the mornung I get up quite early
  • Adverbs can modify adjectives
  • The party was terribly boring

21
  • Semantic features
  • Adverbs specify circumstances
  • How?
  • When?
  • Where?
  • Adverbs specify the speakers attitude
  • Certainly apparently..
  • Adverbs specify the connection between clauses
  • However, nevertheless

22
DETERMINERS
  • FUNCTION Identify a noun
  • Identifiers (a/an the)
  • Possessives (my, your)
  • Demonstratives (This, that)
  • Quantifiers
  • - numerals (one, two)
  • - indefinite (some, few

23
PRONOUNS
  • FUNCTION replace nouns to refer to a person,
    thing, situation, animal
  • Personal
  • Indefinite
  • Reflexive
  • Reciprocal
  • Possessive
  • Demonstrative
  • Interrogative
  • Relative

24
PREPOSITIONS
  • FUNCTION prepositions express a relationship of
    meaning between one word (noun, verb, adjective)
    and another word in the sentence in terms of
  • Space in, at, on ,
  • The book is ON the table
  • Time before, after,
  • See you AFTER the lecture
  • Topic about,
  • This is a book ABOUT tourism development

25
CONJUNCTIONS
  • FUNCTION conjunction links words, phrases and
    clauses
  • Coordinators (and, or, but) they link units
    which have equal grammar status
  • Tom bought the tickets AND Mary parked the car
  • Subordinators gt link units which have different
    grammar status
  • Tom bought the tickets WHILE Mary parked the car

26
Subordinating conjunctions(a sample)
  • They express several meanings
  • -Time when
  • -Place where
  • -Condition if
  • -Concession though
  • -Purpose in order to
  • -Reason because

27
Do-It-Yourself
  • BEFORE is
  • A PREPOSITION?
  • A CONJUNCTION?
  • AN ADVERB?

28
BEFORE is
  • She had never asked him that before
  • He was there before her
  • Dont go away before I arrive!
  • ADVERB
  • PREPOSITION
  • CONJUNCTION

29
  • PAST
  • SPORT
  • MAGIC

30
And now
  • PAST SIGNS MAGIC LIES
  • OR
  • Why word class matters!!!

31
PAST SIGNS
  • The Greeks took the easiest route to Troy,
    crossing the Aegean in a thousand ships. I drove
    a hire car from Istanbul airport to Canakkale
    going along roads that followed the coast.
  • I had booked to stay in the Truva Hotel. The
    only problem is that Truva is the Turkish word
    for Troy and everything in Canakkale is named
    after the town's sole attraction and sports a
    picture of a horse on it. Driving my clattering
    machine past signs for Truva Tours, Truva Car
    Hire and Truva Souvenirs, I ended up in a rather
    empty-looking building on the seafront where the
    only language we seemed to have in common was my
    three words of Turkish. I was given a long thin
    room with a view of where the sea would be were
    it not so dark and windswept. It had been a long
    cold day but tomorrow, as Agamemnon might have
    said, I would be in Troy.

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  • I pronoun gt IO
  • DROVE verb gt GUIDAI
  • PAST preposition gt OLTRE
  • SIGNS noun (common) gt SEGNALI
  • TRUVA TOURS noun (proper) gt TRUVA TOURS
  • Io oltrepassai in auto insegne con la scritta
    Truva Tours

37
MAGIC LIES
  • When I was 13 I fell in love with Valparaiso. I
    drove in from the neighbouring town, and there it
    was - a semi-circle of lights ringing the bay's
    natural amphitheatre. The hills that run down to
    the harbour were carpeted in white lights,
    creating a magical effect. But beneath the magic
    lies a tough harbour town, eclipsed now by its
    flashier neighbour, Viña del Mar, and struggling
    still to recover from the twin blows of a massive
    earthquake in the Seventies and the loss of
    shipping revenue (much of it diverted down the
    Panama canal).

38
BUT CONJUNCTIONBENEATH PREPOSITIONTHE
DETERMINERMAGIC NOUN (NO ADJECTIVE!)LIES
VERB (NO NOUN1)
  • B

39
HOMEWORK
  • Word Classes
  • LAVIOSA, Linking Wor(l)ds Chapters 5-6
  • JACKSON, Grammar and Vocabulary pp.4-8 (A2)
    3537 (B2) 62-73 (C2)
  • A Practical English Grammar UNIT 2 (NOUNS)
    Exercises
  • English Grammar in Use UNIT 69
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