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1
  • Presentation
  • of
  • Enzyme Enhanced Environmental Technology

2009
2
Table of Contents
  • E3 The Company 04
  • E3 Products Overview 06
  • FireAxe 10
  • RoadMaxx 18
  • OS Solution 23
  • WPC 30
  • DSZ 36
  • WasteAway 44
  • EcoBrixx 49
  • Greenhouse Gases 55
  • Carbon Credits 73
  • The Future 76

3
Enzyme Enhanced Environmental Technology, Inc.
  • E3 Presents a Groundbreaking Suite of
    Environmentally Beneficial Products

Confidential For Approved Use Only
4
The Company
  • E3 is an Atlanta, GA-based manufacturing and
    distribution company formed in 2002 with the goal
    of offering effective, environmentally safe and
    cost-efficient solutions for multiple industries.
  • Founded by Dr. Viktor Bouquette, the company has
    spent the last 6 years refining its products,
    identifying its market and identifying a
    potential management team.

5
Our Mission, Values Vision
  • Enzyme Enhanced Environmental Technology, Inc.
    (E3)
  • Our Mission To provide innovative products that
    are highly effective in solving industry specific
    problems that are not only environmentally
    friendly but are also environmentally beneficial.
  • Our Values Maintaining a corporate culture of
    honesty and integrity while nurturing and
    protecting people and the environment.
  • Our Vision To be the industry leader in enzyme
    based environmental technology.

6
Our Products have 16 Commercially
Viable Applications
  • Our groundbreaking products contain
    naturally-occurring enzymes, discovered over 40
    years ago, that serve as catalysts to produce
    specific chemical reactions which effectively
    address the following
  • Enhanced oil recovery Hydrocarbon and
    wildfire control
  • Crude oil bio-desulphurization Indoor mold
    remediation
  • Environmental spill cleanup Farming waste
    and odor control
  • Carbon Credits creation Dust control
    for dirt roads
  • Road construction Tar sands mining
    enhancement
  • Pipeline paraffin mitigation Storage tank
    cleaning
  • Wastewater treatment Building construction
  • Home/Office fire extinguishment Hospital/Home
    bacterial control

7
Our Proprietary Enzymatic-Fungal Formula
  • An enzyme is a protein that exist in the cells of
    all living entities and acts as a catalyst to
    facilitate naturally occurring biochemical
    reactions.
  • It is estimated that in nature there are tens of
    thousands of unique enzymes there are well over
    3,000 enzymes in the human body alone.
  • A fungus is a parasitic organism.
  • It is estimated that there are over 100,000
    species of fungi on the planet (including molds,
    mildews, mushrooms, rusts and smuts).
  • A rare fungus is the basis for E3s proprietary
    formulae. By varying ingredients and
    concentrations of our proprietary baseline
    formulas and combining them with this rare
    fungus, extra-cellular enzymes are created via a
    fermentation process that amplify a specific
    reaction pathway by many orders of magnitude.

8
7 Core Products
  • Enzyme-Based Products

9
Product Development
  • RoadMaxx In commercial use globally for over
    40 years.
  • FireAxe Tested, validated and ready to market
    with receipt of US regulatory
    approvals. Currently being used by Royal
    Dutch Shell in Nigeria.
  • WPC Tested in Alaska, Texas and in the Gulf
    of Mexico with Chevron
  • OS Solution In commercial use globally for
    over 10 years.
  • WasteAway Successful testing conducted in
    conjunction with Goldkist (poultry) in Georgia
    in the mid-1990s.
  • EcoBrixx Successfully tested in conjunction with
    major US manufacturer of Compressed Earth
    Block Machines
  • DSZ In the final stages of RD.

10
FireAxe
  • Advanced Fire Technology

11
FireAxe Video
12
Safe, Rapid Total Fire Suppression
  • FireAxe is formulated to
  • Quickly extinguish even the most difficult
    hydrocarbon-based fires (i.e. oil well or
    pipeline fires) and wildfires
  • Completely eliminate the possibility of
    re-ignition, even in high winds
  • Act as a remediation agent to break down unburned
    hydrocarbon fuel on land or water
  • Exclude ingredients harmful to the environment
  • Compete with aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)
    based on efficacy, price and the avoidance of
    green house gas hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC)

13
Fire Triangle
  • Fire needs three elements to propagate the
    so-called fire triangle 1. Heat can
    exceed several thousand degrees Fahrenheit
    (depending on fuel type and oxygen content) 2.
    Oxygen room air contains 21, the minimum
    needed for fire to propagate 3. Fuel
    hydrocarbon based liquids (e.g. gasoline)
    or solids (e.g.,
    wood/foliage)
  • Traditional methods of fire fighting are directed
    at control of one of these three aspects of the
    fire triangle.
  • Water is used to extinguish a fire by disrupting
    and dissipating the heat aspect of the triangle.
  • Foam (Aqueous Film Forming Foam or AFFF) is used
    to blanket the fire such that the triangle is
    denied oxygen.
  • By and large, neither of these methods is
    particularly effective, as demonstrated by the
    massive loss of property and lives caused by
    wildfires annually.

14
Innovative Advance
  • FireAxe employs a different mechanism of action
    it works simultaneously on the first and third
    elements of the triangle the
  • heat and the fuel components
  • FireAxe locks-up the fuel component rendering it
    incapable of igniting. In addition, FireAxe
    bio-degrades the unburned fuel and therefore
    minimizes potential environmental contamination,
    as well as reduces the risk of re-ignition and
    the risk of explosion associated with fuel
    vapors.
  • FireAxe also rapidly dissipates the associated
    heat necessary to propagate fire. This component
    will prove especially important in oil well fire
    and structure fires involving metals that
    transfer heat (e.g. skyscrapers).

15
New Firefighting Era
  • FireAxe rapidly extinguishes the most extreme
    hydrocarbon and forest fires in a fraction of the
    time as compared to current technology.
  • FireAxe acts as a biodegradable bio-remediation
    agent to clean up the unburned waste and residue
    from hydrocarbon fires that could potentially
    contaminate surrounding soil and water.
  • Significantly, application of FireAxe does not
    require modification of existing equipment or
    acquisition of new skill sets.

16
Benefits
  • FireAxe is an environmentally friendly, natural
    enzyme-based liquid product.
  • FireAxe can be introduced into the standard 1 ½
    and 4 inch fire hoses as a 6 solution in the
    same manner as foam. No equipment modification is
    necessary.
  • FireAxe can be easily and inexpensively induced
    into the existing sprinkler system of any
    structure and will act as a superior first line
    of defense. FireAxe is non-corrosive and will
    not adversely affect plumbing or sprinkler heads.
    A fire will be extinguished before significant
    damage is done and long before the Fire
    Department could arrive.
  • Unlike AFFF (foam), FireAxe contains no
    greenhouse HFC.

17
Regulatory Requirements for Commercialization of
FireAxe
  • Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • US Forestry Service Testing (Missoula, Montana)

18
RoadMaxx
  • In use for over 40 years for road projects in the
    US, Central and South America and Africa.

19
Better and Cheaper Roadbuilding
  • RoadMaxx alters the properties of earth material
    through a
  • catalytic bonding process, producing a
    strong cementation action.
  • Unlike inorganic or petroleum based products
    which temporarily hold soil materials together,
    RoadMaxx causes the soil to bond during
    compaction into a dense permanent base which
    resists water penetration, solid penetration,
    weather and wear.
  • Under proper conditions, use of RoadMaxx
    eliminates the need for additional aggregate,
    reducing costs associated with acquiring and
    transporting fill dirt.
  • Can be used in varied climates - hot or cold, wet
    or dry.

20
Application
  • RoadMaxx is easy to apply and requires no special
    equipment or application procedures. It can be
    used with recycle machines or applied with
    regular road building machines.
  • RoadMaxx can be used with soils that contain a
    minimum of 20 cohesive fines.
  • RoadMaxx is mixed with the water used for
    compaction during normal road building
    techniques. A typical application to stabilize a
    6-inch existing or new road base is presented on
    the video to follow.

21
RoadMaxx Video
22
AS Durable As Asphalt
  • Adding a Double Chip Seal to a base prepared with
    RoadMaxx will result in a road that is as durable
    as asphalt at less than one-third the cost.
  • 15 gallons of RoadMaxx will build an extremely
    durable road 1 mile long, 25 feet wide and 6
    inches deep.

23
OS Solution
  • Oil Spill Solution

24
OS Solution Oil Chemical Spill Remediation
  • OS Solution is formulated to
  • Rapidly and effectively remove oil spills from
    land or water by catalyzing naturally present
    bacteria
  • Contain no ingredients that are harmful to the
    ecosystem
  • Remediate recent or historic spills with equal
    effectiveness
  • Be non-toxic to both marine life and mammals

25
OS Solution
  • The Remediation Problem
  • Surface contamination resulting from spillage of
    crude oil, fuels, chemicals, heavy metals and
    other hazardous materials is costly and time
    consuming to effectively remediate.
  • Remediation via current methods is often
    ineffective and abandoned before total
    elimination of toxins is completed.

26
OS Solution
  • OS Solution has been shown to accelerate the
    biodegradation of diesel fuel, BTEX, MTBE,
    TCE/DCE (chlorinated organics), motor oil,
    gasoline, and a wide variety of other
    petrochemicals contaminating a variety of
    surfaces including sand, soil, and costal
    aggregates.
  • 1 gallon of OS Solution mixed with 16 gallons of
    water will treat 8 cubic yards of contaminated
    soil.

27
OS Solution Mechanism
  • OS Solution transforms volatiles into
    non-volatile forms through direct enzyme action
    after an initial bonding to the protein matrix.
    This bonding is responsible for the immediate
    decrease in VOC (volatile organic compounds),
    followed by longitudinal decrease in VOC through
    microbial oxidation.
  • OS Solution rapidly catalyzes the normal
    bacterial populations into a logarithmic growth
    phase, enhancing both DNA pro- duction and
    specific enzyme production.
  • OS Solution bioremediation of effluent
    contaminated with heavy metal results in rapid
    precipitation, allowing for less costly recovery
    by appropriate technology. Under specific
    circumstances, OS Solution can be utilized as one
    component of a treatment "chain" to bio-remediate
    organics, followed by specific chemical recovery
    of lead and other heavy metals.

28
Example Amrep Corporation In-situ OS Solution
Remediation
  • Chemical Blending Plant
  • Soil Contaminated with Halogenated Organics,
    Mineral Spirits, Diesel Fuel
  • Volume 2,000 cubic yards
  • Technique Soil pile with slotted PVC for
    injection of 4 OS Solution weekly
  • Moisture maintained at 15-20, low-volume air
    injection to maintain aerobic conditions without
    volatilization

29
Amrep Corporation Graphed Results of OS Solution
Remediation
30
WPC
  • Well and Pipeline Cleaner
  • Paraffin Mitigation

31
WPC Benefits
  • Injection of Well Pipeline Cleaner (WPC) enzyme
    formulation results in production increases of
    from 35 to 100. WPC is a specialty
    enzyme-based, natural agent containing colloidal
    suspension and biocide additives.
  • There are no bacteria or toxic solvents in WPC.
    The natural enzymes penetrate and break up the
    paraffin, asphaltenes, scale, resin and minerals
    that typically deposit on the walls of oil well
    tubing over time, restricting valuable oil and
    gas production.
  • The colloidal suspension agents prevent the
    re-deposition of these materials during the
    "soak" cycle, keeping the loosened material in
    fluid suspension until the well is flushed.

32
WPC Application
  • WPC is pre-mixed with production brine and/or
    produced oil. The diluted mixture is then
    injected into the wellbore, using a surge pump or
    similar device.
  • Typically, a water truck equipped with a
    high-pressure pump is used. Once the WPC mixture
    is injected, the well is shut in and allowed to
    soak for three to five days. The wellbore is then
    fully opened and allowed to "flush" into the
    production system.
  • WPC is fully compatible with the crude oil and
    will not cause any problems in the crude oil
    separation and shipping system.
  • Application typically will need to be repeated in
    nine to twelve months, depending on the natural
    production decline in each individual oil well.

33
WPC Field Demonstration
  • A highly successful demonstration of WPC in the
    Gulf of Mexico with Chevron validates our claim
    that use of WPC
  • Dramatically increases BOPD (barrels of oil
    produced daily)
  • Decreases the number of cuttings (graph on next
    slide).
  • Analysis of the data provided by Chevron
    demonstrates
  • Use of WPC increased the BOPD by 52 for a period
    of four months
  • A potential annual pre-tax cash flow improvement
    of roughly 330,000 for this single well
    (assuming three treatments per year and oil
    priced at 70.00 per barrel).

34
Gulf of Mexico Results
35
WPC An Opportunity for Enhanced Oil
Recovery
36
DSZ
  • Bio-Desulphurization
  • of Crude Oil

37
DSZ
  • DSZ utilizes specific proprietary enzymes in
    conjunction with genetically modified bacteria to
    catalyze (speed up) the natural process
    responsible for varying sulfur levels in specific
    crude oil.

38
Bio-desulphurization
  • Approximately half of the 84 million barrels of
    crude produced each day is considered to have a
    high sulfur content or is sour as compared to
    the more valuable and high quality sweet crude
    oil.
  • Our initial research indicates that
    bio-desulphurization is achievable this
    represents an opportunity to significantly
    improve the operating efficiencies of refineries
    and the ultimate value of the products.

39
The Process - Sulfur Liberation
40
Bio-Desulphurization - History
  • Energy BioSystems Corporation (EBC) of The
    Woodlands, TX was a pioneer in microbial
    desulphurization research in the early 1990s.
  • EBC spent approximately 50 million isolating,
    characterizing, and manipulating the
    desulphurization genes from a variety of
    microorganisms, as well as developing and testing
    the reactor, separations, and recovery technology
    that is required to commercialize
    bio-desulphurization.

41
Bio-Desulphurization History -Genetically
Modified Bacteria
  • One of the results of EBCs research efforts was
    the production of superior genetically modified
    sulphurphilic (sulfur loving) bacteria.
  • These modified bacteria have the ability to
    liberate sulfur from a hydrocarbon ring without
    damage to the ring itself.
  • Though the EBC desired outcome was accomplished -
    sulfur was released into a water phase - the
    reaction was not rapid enough to render the
    process commercially viable.

42
The DSZ Breakthrough
  • The addition of E3s proprietary enzyme formula
    to sour crude oil will exponentially increase
    both the reaction time and the percentage of
    sulfur liberated, resulting in a commercially
    viable bio-desulphurization process.
  • DSZs bio-desulphurization process markedly
    decreases the costs incurred by refineries
    currently utilizing high pressure and high
    temperatures as hydro-desulphurization processes.
  • DSZ is in the final stages of RD.

43
Theoretical DSZ Application
  • There are two containers that compose the DSZ
    product. One contains genetically modified
    bacteria and the other a bio-catalytic enzyme
    solution. These two containers form DSZ and are
    mixed on-site in a container with water.
  • This mixture is introduced via distribution lines
    into a static mixer. The static mixer mixes the
    water, DSZ and sour crude.
  • Hypothetical ratio of products is
  • One gallon of DSZ 30 gallons of Water
  • Treats 20,000 gallons of crude
  • This mixture moves into the crude storage tank
    for approximately 5 days.
  • The crude mixture is then sent through an
    oil-water separator.
  • E3s research indicates that this process will
    significantly reduce the sulfur content of this
    treated un-refined crude.
  • This separated crude is then sent to a refinery
    as sweet crude.

44
  • The Global Solution
  • WasteAway

45
WasteAway Decreases GHG
  • WasteAway is an effective extracellular enzyme
    formulation that will markedly decrease methane
    emission, nitrous oxide emission and hydrogen
    sulfide emission from the animal wastes generated
    by Confined Animal Feeding Organizations
    (CAFOs).

46
WasteAway Application
  • WasteAway is simply applied to lagoons and
    holding pits, etc. as a dilute solution (1001)
    mixed with local water.
  • WasteAway is a pure extra-cellular enzyme
    formulation that does not contain exogenous
    bacteria.

47
WasteAway - Mechanism of Action
  • The main determinant of the amount of GHG
    emmission is the amount of carbon in the organic
    waste. As the waste degrades, some of this carbon
    becomes part of the cellular material of the
    microbes (assimilated carbon) and the rest of the
    carbon forms methane and carbon dioxide
    (dissimilated carbon).
  • The more anaerobic the process, the more of this
    carbon is converted to methane.
  • WasteAway promotes an aerobic process and
    markedly increases assimilated carbon and thereby
    decreases the emission of GHG.

48
WasteAway Benefits
  • Dramatic decrease (up to 90) in green house gas
    emissions after the
  • application of WasteAway.
  • The immediate elimination of the atrocious odor
    associated with the
  • handling and storage of animal wastes.
  • Markedly diminished potential for groundwater
    contamination and
  • the realization of significantly decreased costs
    associated with waste
  • disposal.
  • Help solve significant environmental problems
    faced by the CAFOs in managing the massive
    amounts of animal waste that are produced
    annually.
  • The creation of massive amounts of tradable
    carbon credits from WasteAways reduction of
    methane emissions.

49
EcoBrixx
  • Superior Compressed Earth Blocks

50
EcoBrixx
  • Earth has been used as a building material for
    thousands of years.
  • From ancient times to the present day, earthen
    construction has been used to build everything
    from modest shelters to elaborate temples and
    great walls using a wide variety of techniques --
    adobe, cob, rammed earth and compressed earth
    blocks, to name but a few.

51
Compressed Earth Blocks
  • Strong, dimensionally stable building blocks can
    be made by compressing slightly moistened earth
    under moderately high pressure using a device
    commonly known as a compressed earth block press
    and made specifically for this purpose.
  • Modern earth block presses are inexpensive,
    portable, and highly reliable.

52
EcoBrixx
  • Most soil types, when reasonably free from
    organic matter, will make good compressed earth
    blocks (CEB).
  • Best results are obtained by first screening the
    soil through 1/8" wire mesh to remove any
    pebbles, rocks, chunks of compacted soil, etc.
  • To produce a superior CEB, EcoBrixx and water are
    added to the soil to increase strength,
    resistance to erosion and water penetration.

53
EcoBrixx Superior Compressed Earth Blocks
  •      Earthquake Resistance
  •      Earth friendly construction
  •      Common availability of resources
  •      Tornado and Hurricane resistance
  •      Fire resistance
  •     Energy efficient
  •     Ease of construction

54
EcoBrixx Advantages
  • They have structural qualities superior to kilned
    brick and other masonry materials.
  • They can be removed from the machine immediately
    after pressing and stacked for curing which
    requires generally no more than a week.
  • They are extremely durable and resistant to
    erosion and water penetration.
  • Having uniform dimensions, sharp edges and
    smooth surfaces, they are easy to lay.
  • They can be produced at a fraction of the cost of
    conventional cement blocks.

55
  • APPENDIX

56
GHG
  • Green House Gases

57
Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
  • Greenhouse gases (GHG) naturally blanket the
    earth and keep it approximately 33 degrees
    Celsius (91.4 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than it
    would be in the absence of these gases in the
    atmosphere.
  • This gaseous blanketing is called the Greenhouse
    Effect.

58
Green House Effect
  • Shorter-wavelength solar radiation from the sun
    passes through Earth's atmosphere, and then is
    absorbed by the surface of the Earth, causing it
    to warm. 
  • Part of this absorbed energy is then re-radiated
    back into the atmosphere as long wave infrared
    radiation.  Little of this long wave radiation
    however, escapes back into space much of this
    radiation cannot pass back through the greenhouse
    gases in the atmosphere.
  • The greenhouse gases absorb some of this long
    wave infrared radiation and re-emit these long
    waves downward, causing the lower atmosphere to
    warm.

59
Green House Effect Diagram
60
Anthropogenic Global Warming
  • Over the past century, the Earth has increased in
    temperature by approximately 0.5 Celsius (32.9
    degree Fahrenheit).
  • Many scientists believe this increase is due to
    man-made increased emissions of the main
    greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane,
    nitrous oxide and fluorocarbons.
  • This theory is known as anthropogenic global
    warming or AGW.

61
Consequences of Global Warming
  • It is now a widely accepted belief that if this
    increase in greenhouse gas emission continues
    unchecked, the global warming that is produced as
    a consequence will negatively impact nature and
    produce severe climatic changes.
  • Changes including severe floods and droughts,
    increasing frequency and intensity of hurricanes
    and tornados, brutal heat waves, polar ice cap
    melting, rising sea levels and an increased
    incidence of communicable diseases secondary to
    an increased insect population.

62
Fossil Fuels
  • Fossil Fuels were created chiefly by the decay of
    plants over millions of years.
  • Coal, oil and natural gas are used to generate
    electricity, heat our homes, power our factories
    and run our cars. 
  • These fossil fuels contain carbon, and when they
    are burned, they combine with oxygen, forming
    carbon dioxide. 

63
The Major Greenhouse Gases
64
Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless,
    non-flammable gas and is the most prominent GHG
    in Earth's atmosphere. 
  • CO2 is recycled through the atmosphere by the
    process of photosynthesis, which makes human life
    possible.
  • Photosynthesis is the process by which green
    plants and other organisms transform light energy
    into chemical energy.  Light energy is trapped
    and used to convert carbon dioxide, water, and
    other minerals into oxygen and energy rich
    organic compounds.   
  • Every year humans add over 30 billion tons of
    carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and, data from
    polar ice sampling, suggest that this is a thirty
    percent increase since 1750.

65
Methane
  • Methane is a colorless, odorless, flammable
    gas.   It is formed when plants decay where there
    is very little air (anaerobic decay). It is often
    called swamp gas because it is abundant around
    water and swamps. 
  • Polar ice cap sampling data indicate that since
    1750, methane emissions have doubled, and could
    double again by 2050. 
  • Each year we add 350-500 million tons of methane
    to the air by raising livestock, coal mining,
    drilling for oil and natural gas, rice
    cultivation, and decaying garbage sitting in
    landfills.
  • Methane stays in the atmosphere for only 10
    years, but traps 21 times more heat than carbon
    dioxide.

66
Methane (more)
  • Rice cultivation has developed into a large
    business farmland has doubled in the past 45
    years. Rice feeds 1/3 of the World's population. 
    Rice grows mostly in flooded fields, where
    bacteria in waterlogged soil release methane.
  • Livestock such as cows, sheep, goats, camels,
    buffaloes, and termites release methane as well. 
    Bacteria in the gut of the animal break down food
    and convert some of it to methane. When these
    animals belch, methane is released. 
  • In one day, a cow can emit ½ pound of methane
    into the air.  A far greater source of methane
    emissions, however, is from decaying manure
    produced by livestock.

67
Nitrous Oxide
  • Nitrous oxide is a colorless greenhouse gas
    however, unlike the other GH gases, it has a
    sweet odor.  It is used as a dental anesthetic
    because it deadens pain and for this
    characteristic is called laughing gas. 
  • This gas is released naturally from oceans and by
    bacteria in soils.  Nitrous oxide gas has risen
    by more than 15 since 1750.   
  • Each year humans add 7-13 million tons into the
    atmosphere by using nitrogen based fertilizers,
    disposing of human and animal waste in sewage
    treatment facilities, automobile exhaust, and
    other sources not yet identified.

68
Nitrous Oxide (more)
  • Use of nitrogen based fertilizer has doubled in
    the past 15 years.  These fertilizers provide
    nutrients for crops however, when they breakdown
    in the soil, nitrous oxide is released into the
    atmosphere. 
  • In automobiles, nitrous oxide is released at a
    much lower rate than carbon dioxide, because
    there is more carbon in gasoline than nitrogen.
  • Nitrous oxide released today will still be
    trapped in the atmosphere 100 years from now.

69
Fluorocarbons
  • Fluorocarbon is a general term for any group of
    synthetic organic compounds that contain fluorine
    and carbon.  Many of these compounds, such as
    chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs), can be easily
    converted from gas to liquid or liquid to gas. 
  • Because of these properties, CFCs can be used in
    aerosol cans, refrigerators, and air
    conditioners. 
  • Studies in the 1970s showed that when CFCs are
    emitted into the atmosphere, they break down
    molecules in the Earth's ozone layer. 
  • Since then, the use of CFCs has significantly
    decreased and they are banned from production in
    the United States.

70
Fluorocarbons (more)
  • The substitute for CFCs is hydro-fluorocarbons
    (HFCs). 
  • HFC does not harm or breakdown the ozone
    molecule, but it does trap heat in the
    atmosphere, making it a greenhouse gas which
    contributes to global warming. 
  • HFCs are used in air conditioners and
    refrigerators and are a component of Aqueous Film
    Forming Foam (AFFF), the primary retardant used
    by fire departments around the world to control
    hydrocarbon-based fires.

71
Livestock and GHG
  • According to the Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations, the livestock
    industry is responsible for 18 percent of
    greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2
    equivalents (CO2e).
  • This represents a greater percentage than the
    emissions from transportation fuels (fourteen
    percent).

72
Livestock and Manure
  • Huge factory farms known as Confined Animal
    Feeding Organizations (CAFOs) house millions of
    animals in close quarters.
  • One million hogs generate 22 million tons of
    manure annually. Methane, nitrous oxide and
    hydrogen sulfide primarily originate from huge
    open lagoons that contain millions of tons of
    animal waste.
  • One ton of methane is equivalent to 21 tons of
    carbon dioxide.

73
Environmental Pollution
  • Not only are these GHG manure by-products
    contributing to global warming, but pollutants
    from decomposing livestock manure can cause other
    major environmental problems as well
  • Including surface and groundwater contamination,
    in addition to air pollution caused by odors,
    dust and ammonia.

74
Carbon Credits Market
  • The carbon market was created after Europe signed
    the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on curbing green house
    gases.
  • In 2005, European governments began a mandatory
    capping of the amounts of carbon dioxide that
    industries could emit, while letting them buy and
    sell CO2 emission allowances.
  • The cap-and-trade system encourages factories and
    industries to cut emissions by giving them
    "pollution permits." If an entity produces less
    greenhouse gases than the total of their permits,
    that entity can sell the surplus certificates --
    also known as credits -- to companies that find
    them cheaper than cutting their own emissions.

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Carbon Market Valuation
  • Every year humans generate about 38 billions tons
    of carbon dioxide.
  • At its current price of about 3.50 per ton, the
    potential carbon market stands at roughly 133
    billion (38 billion x 3.50) at todays price.
  • The second phase of the Kyoto Protocol (2008
    2012) calls for further decreases of carbon
    emissions and sets limits on carbon credits.
    This will increase the price of the credits as
    more countries, including the US, adopt CO2
    emission standards.

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Quantifying the Credits
  • An independent third party such as those who
    evaluate decreased GHG release in landfills can
    be utilized to quantify the decreased methane
    emissions from the CAFO using WasteAway and the
    resulting carbon credits.
  • Biogas Technology promotes the recovery and use
    of biogas from landfills to generate electricity
    for heating and cooling needs. The calculations
    used in Biogas Technology can be adapted to
    measure the reduction of GHG gained with the use
    of WasteAway.

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The Future
  • E3 products have the potential ability to greatly
    decrease the significant quantity of CO2e emitted
    by animal waste annually
  • E3 will apply for a process patent for carbon
    credit generation
  • E3 will trade surplus generated carbon credits
    globally
  • E3 will eliminate many of the most significant
    sources of water pollution and air pollution
  • E3 will introduce new technology that will
    markedly reduce the threat of massive wildfires
  • E3 will build inexpensive and durable housing and
    roads worldwide
  • E3 will create lighter, sweet crude from
    unrefined existing stock

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Introduces a New Era of Environmental Technology
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