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Title: Green PlansStrategies


1
Green Plans/Strategies
2
Sustainable Development as Integration
Science Technology
Environment
Environment
Society/Nation Integrating plan/strategy
Politics
Economy
3
An International Framework
  • Creating conventions and protocols to govern the
    international commons
  • Establishing principles and practices of
    sustainable development for implementation at
    national and local levels

4
The International Framework Agenda 21
  • Preamble
  • Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of
    today and also aims at preparing the world for
    the challenges of the next century. It reflects a
    global consensus and political commitment at the
    highest level on development and environment
    cooperation. Its successful implementation is
    first and foremost the responsibility of
    Governments. National strategies, plans, policies
    and processes are crucial in achieving this.
    International cooperation should support and
    supplement such national efforts. In this
    context, the United Nations system has a key role
    to play. Other international, regional and
    subregional organizations are also called upon to
    contribute to this effort. The broadest public
    participation and the active involvement of the
    non-governmental organizations and other groups
    should also be encouraged.

5
Other Important Agreements for the International
Framework for SusDev
  • Biodiversity Convention on Biological Diversity
    1992
  • Climate Change Convention on Climate Change
    1992 Kyoto Protocol 1997
  • Desertification UN Convention to Combat
    Desertification in those Countries Experiencing
    Serious Drought and/or Desertification,
    Particularly Africa 1994
  • Endangered Species Convention on International
    Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and
    Fauna (CITES) 1973
  • Hazardous Waste Basel Convention on the
    Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and
    their Disposal 1989
  • Heritage Convention Concerning the Protection of
    the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1927
  • Others Ozone (Montreal Protocol 1987) Oceans
    (Law of the Sea 1982) Wetlands (Ramsar 1973)
  • International Development Goals (OECD 1997)
    Millenium Development Goals (UN 2000)

6
  • Agenda 21 - Table of Contents
  • Preamble
  • Section 1 Social and Economic Dimensions
  • Section 2 Conservation and Management of
    Resources for Development
  • Section 3 Strengthening the Role of Major
    Groups
  • Section 4 Means of Implementation

7
Agenda 21 - Table of Contents Chapter Paragraphs 1
. Preamble SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
DIMENSIONS 2. International cooperation to
accelerate sustainable development in developing
countries and related domestic policies 3.
Combating poverty 4. Changing consumption
patterns 5. Demographic dynamics and
sustainability 6. Protecting and promoting human
health conditions 7. Promoting sustainable human
settlement development 8. Integrating environment
and development in decision-making
8
SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MGT OF RESOURCES FOR
DEVELOPMENT 9. Protection of the atmosphere 10.
Integrated approach to the planning and
management of land resources11. Combating
deforestation 12. Managing fragile ecosystems
combating desertification and drought 13.
Managing fragile ecosystems sustainable mountain
development 14. Promoting sustainable agriculture
and rural development 15. Conservation of
biological diversity 16. Environmentally sound
management of biotechnology 17. Protection of the
oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and
semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the
protection, rational use and development of their
living resources 18. Protection of the quality
and supply of freshwater resources application
of integrated approaches to the development,
management and use of water resources 19.
Environmentally sound management of toxic
chemicals, including prevention of illegal
international traffic in toxic and dangerous
products 20. Environmentally sound management of
hazardous wastes, in hazardous wastes 21.
Environmentally sound management of solid wastes
and sewage-related issues 22. Safe and
environmentally sound management of radioactive
wastes
9
SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR
GROUPS 23. Preamble 24. Global action for women
towards sustainable and equitable development 25.
Children and youth in sustainable development 26.
Recognizing and strengthening the role of
indigenous people and their communities 27.
Strengthening the role of non-governmental
organizations partners for sustainable
development 28. Local authorities' initiatives in
support of Agenda 21 29. Strengthening the role
of workers and their trade unions 30.
Strengthening the role of business and
industry 31. Scientific and technological
community 32. Strengthening the role of farmers
10
SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION 33.
Financial resources and mechanisms 34. Transfer
of environmentally sound technology, cooperation
and capacity-building 35. Science for sustainable
development 36. Promoting education, public
awareness and training 37. National mechanisms
and international cooperation for
capacity-building in developing countries 38.
International institutional arrangements 39.
International legal instruments and
mechanisms 40. Information for decision-making
11
Agenda 21 National Plans
  • 8.7. Governments, in cooperation, where
    appropriate, with international organizations,
    should adopt a national strategy for sustainable
    development based on, inter alia, the
    implementation of decisions taken at the
    Conference, particularly in respect of Agenda 21.
    This strategy should build upon and harmonize the
    various sectoral economic, social and
    environmental policies and plans that are
    operating in the country. The experience gained
    through existing planning exercises such as
    national reports for the Conference, national
    conservation strategies and environment action
    plans should be fully used and incorporated into
    a country-driven sustainable development
    strategy. Its goals should be to ensure socially
    responsible economic development while protecting
    the resource base and the environment for the
    benefit of future generations. It should be
    developed through the widest possible
    participation. It should be based on a thorough
    assessment of the current situation and
    initiatives.

12
Local Stragies (Local Agenda 21) Agenda 21
 Chapter 28 LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN
SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21 PROGRAMME AREA Basis for
action 28.1. Because so many of the problems and
solutions being addressed by Agenda 21 have their
roots in local activities, the participation and
cooperation of local authorities will be a
determining factor in fulfilling its objectives.
Local authorities construct, operate and maintain
economic, social and environmental
infrastructure, oversee planning processes,
establish local environmental policies and
regulations, and assist in implementing national
and subnational environmental policies. As the
level of governance closest to the people, they
play a vital role in educating, mobilizing and
responding to the public to promote sustainable
development.
13
28.3. Each local authority should enter into a
dialogue with its citizens, local organizations
and private enterprises and adopt "a local Agenda
21". Through consultation and consensus-building,
local authorities would learn from citizens and
from local, civic, community, business and
industrial organizations and acquire the
information needed for formulating the best
strategies. The process of consultation would
increase household awareness of sustainable
development issues. Local authority programmes,
policies, laws and regulations to achieve Agenda
21 objectives would be assessed and modified,
based on local programmes adopted. Strategies
could also be used in supporting proposals for
local, national, regional and international
funding. 28.4. Partnerships should be fostered
among relevant organs and organizations such as
UNDP, the United Nations Centre for Human
Settlements (Habitat) and UNEP, the World Bank,
regional banks, the International Union of Local
Authorities, the World Association of the Major
Metropolises, Summit of Great Cities of the
World, the United Towns Organization and other
relevant partners, with a view to mobilizing
increased international support for local
authority programmes. An important goal would be
to support, extend and improve existing
institutions working in the field of local
authority capacity-building and local environment
management.
14
Accepted Principles More Important than Framework
Specifics
  • public trust doctrine
  • precautionary principle
  • inter-generational equity
  • intra-generational equity
  • subsidiarity principle
  • polluter pays principle (PPP)
  • user pays principle (UPP)

15
Problems with Early SusDev National Plans
  • Many were not integrated into mainstream
    strategic planning
  • Many were wish lists lacking clear objectives
    and achievable targets
  • Narrow base of participation and without key
    stakeholders
  • Did not support existing processes, strategies,
    and capacities and tried to build parallel
    structure
  • Many (developing countries) were not led by the
    country, but by external agencies
  • In some developing countries different external
    agencies pushed competing strategies

16
Key Principles based on Experience
  • People centred
  • Consensus on long term vision
  • Comprehensive and integrated
  • Targeted with clear budgetary priorities
  • Based on comprehensive and reliable analysis
  • Incorporate monitoring, learning, and improvement
  • Country-led and nationally owned
  • High-level government commitment and influential
    leading institutions
  • Building on existing mechanisms and strategies
  • Effective participation
  • Link national and local levels
  • Develop and build on existing capacity

17
Linear Process of Strategy Making
Requires balance
Set of Objectives Social, Economic, Environmental
Requires co-ordination
Set of Processes Participation, Communications,
Analysis, Debate, Investment, Capacity-building,
Monitoring
Coordination System
Strategy for Sustainable Development
18
Cyclical Process of Strategy Making
Assessment of issues and debate priorities
Consensus on vision and priority goals
Monitor SD outcomes
Communication Participation Coordination
Information Learning
Plans and investment
Monitor strategy mechanisms
Empowerment capacity building
Mainstreaming SD, controls and incentives
19
The Netherlands Approach
  • From 1989 National Environmental Policy Plan
    revised every 4 years
  • Dialogue between government, industry, civil
    society, public
  • Cabinet established interdepartmental body led by
    Prime Minister to develop strategy
  • All policies embedded in susdev concepts (2001)
  • Experiments in integration of economic,
    socio-cultural, environmental aspects of
    government investments
  • Each ministry must overview its contribution to
    susdev annually in annual budget
  • Inventory made of susdev initiatives of
    municipalities, provinces, business, citizens.
  • Visions, baseline analysis, targets and
    timelines, triggers, action plans, institutional
    plans, indicators set
  • Covenant approach with industrial sectors

20
  • Sectors and Community

21
Sustainable Development as Integration
Science Technology
Environment
Environment
Community/Sector Integrating plan/strategy
Politics
Economy
22
Sector and Community Comparison
  • Community focuses on interrelations of people and
    institutions within an area
  • Sector focuses on the interrelations of people
    within an interdependent set of activities
  • In both stakeholders share responsibilities and
    participation
  • Both require building of social capital and other
    capacities
  • Need to integrate technology, economy and
    politics
  • Strategy Framework Vision, participation, issue
    analysis, targets, implementation plans,
    indicators and evaluation
  • External linkages and interdependencies

23
  • SusDev by Sectors

24
Sector Definition
  • Within a larger system (society, economy,
    industry), a sector is a distinct subsystem of
    related components

25
Why Sectors?
  • Allows you to deal with the integrated complexity
    of the susdev challenge at a reasonable level.

26
Sectors as Systems
  • Network and interrelations
  • Upstream and downstream interrelations
  • Horizontal interrelations
  • Interrelations with citizens, government,
    businesses, NGOs, certifying authorities
  • Regulatory and cultural framework
  • Environmental impacts
  • Direct and indirect impacts local/global,
    temporal
  • Life-cycle impacts
  • Interactions with rest of system cumulative and
    synergistic effects

27
Sector Examples
  • Transportation (air, land, water)
  • Construction/Building mgt
  • Water/sewage
  • Tourism
  • Education
  • Finance/Banking/ Insurance
  • Retail and wholesale
  • Health
  • Governance/participation
  • Elderly, youth, gender
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Mining
  • Fisheries
  • Materials (metals, plastics, cement, chemicals,
    nanotechnologies)
  • Energy

Life cycle approach
28
Your Sector Includes
Parts Manufacture
Materials Processing
Product Assembly
Physical Infrastructure, Landuse, Social
Infrastructure
Resource Extraction
Distribution
Recycling
Consumption
Materials Collection
Material Energy Inputs
Pollution Outputs
Minimize
29
Sector Initiatives
  • Most incremental and build on existing practices,
    organizations and cultures
  • Introducing systems based approach with life
    cycle assessment
  • Leadership of individuals, particular firms,
    government departments, and NGOs important
  • Experimentation with pilot projects
  • Need to overcome technological, economic and
    cultural barriers

30
The Netherlands Sector Approach
  • Themes (issues)
  • Target groups (sectors)
  • Indicators
  • Covenants of stakeholders
  • Market and technology
  • Product Life-cycle Policy
  • Program Monitoring and Evaluation

31
Netherlands Target groups, themes and indicators
  • The government targets an industry or group of
    industries that have problems in common that have
    to be solved. The most important target groups
    are agriculture, traffic and transportation,
    manufacturing industry, energy, refineries,
    building trades, and consumer and retail trade.
    The major common problems that they have to solve
    are identified and called themes. Agriculture,
    for example, has the themes of acidification,
    eutrophication, and toxic substance dispersion.
    Indicators are chosen to allow the severity of
    the problem (theme) and advances in solving it to
    be measured accurately and concisely. The
    indicators for agriculture are, respectively,
    ammonia emissions for acidification, phosphate
    emissions for eutrophication, and pesticide use
    for toxic substance dispersion.

32
Netherlands Covenants
  • The national government brings together
    provincial and municipal governments, business
    representatives, industry association
    representatives, environmentalists and
    occasionally labor to discuss the severity of the
    problem and what needs to be done to solve it.
    Improvement targets and timetables are
    established. These targets and timetables are
    set for short, medium and long-term efforts
    because the changing the system requires
    incentives and deadlines that allow firms to
    realistically achieve the improvement goals.
    Companies are expected to put action plans into
    effect, monitor the results and make the
    information open to the public.

33
Netherlands Market and technology
  • The covenant approach works so well because it
    allows the market to motivate companies to
    improve their environmental performance and to
    innovate in the design or use of environmental
    technologies.
  • The targets allow the companies to plan for the
    future in their own way and are not forced to
    adopt existing technologies.
  • Therefore, companies do not have to change
    technologies and practices all the time as
    regulation become tougher, but can devise
    technologies and practices that actually give
    them an advantage over the competition.
  • Thus a company is motivated to find both the most
    advantageous environmental technology and to do
    it in the most efficient manner for their
    business.

34
Netherlands Product Life-cycle Policy
  • Covenants are encouraged to provide information
    about each product as it moves through the
    lifecycle.
  • Thus companies at each stage of the product cycle
    gain improved information about how to design and
    use products received from downstream.
  • The Netherlands balances this policy with the
    fact that are a small trade dependent country
    selling and buying goods from many countries that
    have less strict regulations than them, and also
    selling and buying goods to countries like
    Germany and Sweden which in some sectors will
    have tougher environmental regulations.

35
Netherlands Program Evaluation
  • The programs are evaluated on an ongoing basis by
    the national government, paid consultants and
    environmentalists. The program is also more
    thoroughly reviewed on 5 and 10-year intervals to
    point out significant problems.

36
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37
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39
Covenant Process
Knowledge Base
Heterogeneous Sectors
Homogenous Sectors
Preparation
Declaration of intent (integrated environmental
target plan)
Detailed Development
Detailed Development
Phased plan guidelines
Implementing plan at branch level
Drafting company environmental plans
Implementation
Implementing plans
Monitoring and enforcement
40
HKs Transportation Sector
  • Comparatively high level of sustainability
    because
  • Low private car ownership (5.2 )
  • Relatively few roads
  • 89 of all passenger trips by public transport
  • High level of access, convenience, affordable
  • Modal competition and railway self financing

41
HKs Transportation Sector
  • Problems
  • Roadside pollution high, particularly NOX and
    RSPs from diesel
  • Traffic noise
  • Pressure on land and habitat from expanding road
    and rail networks
  • High latent demand for cars
  • Roads planned with little regard for
    interrelations with other aspects of public space
    (pedestrianization, neighbourhood division,
    aesthetics)
  • Public participation limited to post
    conceptualization-engineering consultations
    (little real change possible)
  • Railways subsidized by government land grants for
    development roads paid for by government
    (therefore bus companies, logistics companies
    subsidized

42
Transportation Policies
  • Infrastructure (Highways dept)
  • Comprehensive Transport Study 3 (2000) began to
    integrate SusDev into transport planning
  • Emphasis on rail but road predominant expansion
    (5X)
  • Predict and provide approach instead of demand
    management
  • Little concern for social well-being, noise, air
    pollution or other issues of sustainability
  • Environment, Transport and Works bureau now links
    environment and transport
  • Vehicles and Fuels (EPD)
  • Low sulfur fuels
  • Euro engines (with replacement of buses)
  • LPG taxis and minibuses
  • No control over mainland fuels being used in HK
  • Tunnel fees but no electronic road pricing

43
UK Sustainable Transport Policy
  • Integrate land use and transport policies to
    minimize transport and increase use of
    less-damaging modes
  • Remove air quality threats to human health
  • Improve quality of life by reducing dominance of
    cars and trucks and providing other modes
  • Halt loss of land used for conservation, scenic,
    or amenity purposes
  • Reduce GHGs
  • Reduce impact on non-renewable resources
  • Reduce noise

44
Indicators
  • ALTERNATIVE
  • Per capita km buses and trains footway length
    avg. travel speed, disabled facilities prv.
    cars traffic accidents fatalities income
    proportion roadside API
  • Access to goods, services, activities,
    destinations
  • Impact/kilometre
  • Kilometer/GDP
  • HONG KONG
  • Direct
  • Average travel distance
  • Average network speed
  • Cost of freight transport
  • Indirect
  • AQ based on air quality objectives
  • Toxic air pollution based on acceptable risk
  • Per capita C02
  • Total C02

45
Indicators
  • Dont connect with guiding principles completely
    (e.g. GP of safety and pedestrian facilities
    dont have indicators)
  • Measures means rather than goals (e.g. network
    speed rather than ease of access to services)

46
50,000 lure for minibus LPG switch
  • What physical infrastructure is under
    development?
  • What land-use considerations are required?
  • What kind of social decisions are being made?
  • Who is involved?
  • Are the decisions being made in a atmosphere of
    cooperation or conflict?

47
HKs Municipal Solid Waste Strategy
48
The Immediate Problem landfills filling up
49
The Underlying Problem high consumption and
waste habits
50
Strategic Objective
51
Targets
52
Implementation
53
Indicators?
54
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55
HKs SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism
  • Subsectors
  • Food and Beverage restaurants, fast food shops,
    bars, etc.
  • Hotels and hostels
  • Travel and transport travel agents, tour
    operators, airport/airline services and companies
    specializing in mass transportation
  • Retailers clothing, footwear, foodstuff,
    alcoholic drinks, consumer and durable products
  • Events and leisure facilities entertainment
    facilities, theme parks, museums, art galleries,
    cultural facilities, other leisure activities.

56
HKs SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism
  • Stage 1
  • Review of Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism
    industry
  • Stakeholders baseline study
  • International benchmarking
  • Comparative assessment and Analysis
  • Stage 2
  • Development of draft integrated strategy for the
    TT industry
  • Stakeholder consultation
  • Formulate an environmentally sustainable
    development strategy
  • Stage 3
  • Devise implementation plan
  • Strategy dissemination

57
HKs SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism
  • Participation
  • Initial consultation with stakeholder groups
  • Focus groups with stakeholders
  • Roundtable discussions yearly

58
HKs SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism
  • Four Priority Areas
  • Environmental management in industry firms and
    associations
  • Sustainable training, education awareness
  • Facilitating exchange of information and
    technology
  • Landuse planning and new tourism product
    development

59
HKs SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism
  • Implementation
  • Action Plans for government departments,
    government tourist organizations and
    representative trade organizations
  • Guidelines for industry members
  • Charters for signing members to observe

60
Gothenburgs Green Product Development
  • 2 programs to eliminate toxic chemicals in urban
    environment, reduce load on sewage system,
    aquatic environment
  • Products used in industry and by consumers
  • Chemical Sweep identify hazardous products and
    develop, test, and market alternatives
  • Clean Lubricants develop, test, and market
    alternatives

61
Gothenburgs Green Product Development
  • Used authority from Swedish National Act on
    Chemical Products (users required to switch to
    alternative to hazardous chemicals when
    available) to interest users
  • Municipality brought together manufacturers and
    users in cooperative effort to stimulate product
    development
  • Service approach offering advice and technical
    assistance engaged manufacturers and users
  • Focused on specific productscleaners, batteries,
    pesticides, cutting fluids, diesel fuels
  • Companies were highly aware and receptive because
    of fears of regulations and potential for
    competitive advantage

62
Chemical Sweep Program switching to available
alternatives
  • Education, information and promotional campaign
    to spread information about hazardous chemicals
    and substitution regulation mass media
    advertisements, brochures, displays, stickers,
    exhibitions and trade fairs
  • Use of specific chemicals in different sectors
    assessed through survey and list of affected
    products and users compiled
  • Users were notified of their hazardous chemical
    use and of alternatives, and of regulations
  • Encouraged to switch to alternatives
  • Follow-up visits to see how many had changed

63
Chemical Sweep Program developing alternatives
  • Some firms couldnt switch because alternatives
    not available
  • Worked with several firms in a sector (and across
    sectors) on pilot projects to develop
    alternatives
  • Functional and ecological assessment of products
    monitored and documented
  • Car Wash Detergent
  • 8 products tested by Chemical Sweep, Env.
    Protection office, Local govts, Petro Dealers
    Nat. Assoc., 2 car wash companies
  • Green products performed better, new class of
    product created
  • 100 uptake by local car wash companies
  • Rechargeable Batteries (15 cadmium to .0025)
  • Tests showed less toxic suitable for mobiles,
    video cameras, shavers
  • Importers and general public informed
  • New product models with less toxic battery
    introduced

64
Clean Lubricants Program developing
alternatives
  • Administered by Municipal Solid Waste Agency two
    employees
  • Focus on hydraulic fluids
  • Manufactures invited to put forward green
    products (6 chosen)
  • Local users asked to participate in one year
    blind field test (excavators, trucks with lifts,
    garbage trucks)
  • Clean lubricants performed well functionally and
    ecologically
  • Manufacturers spurred to develop more clean
    lubricants

65
Gothenburg Green Products Lessons
  • Legislation as starting point, but must be
    followed up with proactive education etc.
  • Municipality can have big influence if programs
    are designed properly
  • Enormous amount of concern and competence in
    sector that can be harnessed cooperatively

66
Sector/Community Case Study Websites
  • European Academy of the Urban Environment SURBAN
    - database on sustainable urban development in
    Europe
  • http//www.eaue.de/winuwd/default.htm
  • International Council for Local Environmental
    Initiatives (ICLEI) Case Studies
  • http//www.iclei.org/index.php?id843
  • Sustainable communities network
  • http//www.sustainable.org/casestudies/studiesinde
    x.html
  • Federation of Community Municipalities Center
    for Sustainable Community Development
  • http//www.sustainablecommunities.ca/Search/Search
    /Search.aspx?lange
  • Sustainable Tourism Net
  • http//www.sustainabletourism.net/cs_destination.h
    tml

67
Our Sector Analysis scope
  • Focus on environmental sustainability
  • Or environmental linkage to social, economic or
    political aspect of sustainability
  • Or an issue dealt with in a systematic manner

68
Our Sector Analysis means
  • Baseline conditions descriptive of
    environmental, social, political, and economic
    characteristics and of stakeholder awareness and
    capacities
  • Issue and gap analysis
  • Alternatives generation
  • Indicators and monitoring system
  • Stakeholder feedback
  • Integration with community

69
Scoping a Sector
  • Branch of society citizens, government,
    business, NGOs
  • Division of branch industry, service, citizen
    group,government level/administrative division,
    type of NGO
  • Smaller divisions community/subgroup, government
    bureau/department, industrial or service
    grouping, NGOs

70
Baseline State and Impacts Checklist
71
Baseline Information
  • Observation
  • Printed materials, government publications
  • Talking to stakeholders

72
Environmental Sources
  • Air, land, water, noise quality, and conservation
    http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd
  • Biodiversity and Habitats http//www.hkbiodiversit
    y.net http//www.susdev.gov.hk/html/en/su/consult
    .htm
  • Fish http//www.hk-fish.net/eng/index.htm

73
Hong Kong Habitats
Area Mapped for Area (ha) Each Habitat
Type Cover Type High Value Ecological
Habitat Fung Shui Forest 106.3 0.1 Montane
Forest 123.4 0.1 Lowland Forest 18318.3 16.5
Mixed Shrubland 15196.5 13.7 Freshwater/
Brackish Wetland 130.1 0.1 Natural
Watercourse 803.9 0.7 Mangrove 343.1 0.3 Int
ertidal Mudflat 656.1 0.6 Seagrass
Bed 5.4 0.0 Subtotal 35683 32.1 Medium
Value Ecological Habitat Plantation or
Plantation /Mixed Forest 417.0 0.4 Shrubby
Grassland 24674.8 22.2 Fishpond/Gei
wai 1031.7 0.9 Sandy Shore 179.6 0.2 Rocky
Shore 94.2 0.1 Cultivation 3838.3 3.5 Subto
tal 30236 27.2
74
Hong Kong Habitats
Area Mapped for Area (ha) Each Habitat
Type Cover Type Low Value Ecological
Habitat Bare Rock or Soil 5101.8 4.6 Grassla
nd 21572.7 19.4 Modified Watercourse 2384.1
2.1 Artificial Rocky/Hard Shoreline 315.4 0.3 G
olf Course/Urban Park 1398.3 1.3 Quarry 168
.6 0.2 Subtotal 30941 27.8 Negligible
Value Ecological Habitat Rural Industrial
Storage/Containers 1379.2 1.3 Landfill 404.3
0.4 Others 12656.3 11.4 Subtotal 14440
13.0
75
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76
Society Sources
  • City Planning Consultants 1998? Study on South
    East New Territories Development Review Strategy
    Final Report. Hong Kong HKSAR Planning
    Department. http//www.info.gov.hk/planning/index_
    e.htm
  • Projection of population distribution (2002-2011)
    and Area of HK by district Planning Department -
    http//www.info.gov.hk/planning/index_e.htm--gt
    look for "Information Services", then "Planning
    Statistics"
  • Land Usage in different parts of HK Town
    Planning Board - http//www.info.gov.hk/tpb/index_
    e.htm --gt go for "e-staturary plans"
  • Demographic and social characteristics, economic
    characteristics, labor/employment, household
    characteristics, housing characteristics,
    GDP/GNP, etc, by district or the whole territory
    Census Statistics Department http//www.info.gov
    .hk/censtatd/eng/hkstat/fas/01c/01c_index.html
    Or, the Government's InvestHK website -
    http//www.investhk.gov.hk --gt look for "Key
    Statistics"
  • Property types (residential, office, industrial,
    shop, large deals) and valuations at
    http//www.info.gov.hk/landreg/eindex.htm or
    Estate agents e.g. Centaline at
    http//www.centanet.com/

77
Interest Groups/NGOs Sources
  • Good list of links at http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/e
    nglish/links/local/link_greengroups.html
  • http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/links/local/link
    _greengroups.html
  • Sai Kung Association http//www.exploresaikung.com

78
Politics Sources
  • Environmental Regulations and Guidelines
    http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/envir_standards/
    esg_maincontent.html
  • Legco Panel on Environment and pending bills
    http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/news_events/legc
    o/ea_panel.html http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english
    /news_events/legco/bills.html
  • Links to relevant government departments
    http//www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/links/local/link
    _govorg.html http//www.info.gov.hk/orgindex.htm
  • Sai Kung District Council http//www.districtcounc
    ils.gov.hk/sk/english/welcome.htm

79
Stakeholders, Awareness and Capacities Checklist
80
Community Sustainable Development
81
Why SusDev at the Community Level?
  • Deal with environmental problems in a holistic
    manner
  • Deal with contradictions between stakeholder
    expectations
  • Avoid top-down planning and colonization
  • Enable people to deal with their own
    environmental impacts directly

82
The subsidiarity principle
The subsidiarity principle seeks to reverse the
inefficiencies and environmental damage done by
centralized planning and decision-making. It
requires that decisions should be made by the
communities affected or on their behalf, by the
authorities closest to them. As appropriate,
decisions should rest either at the national
rather than international level or at the local
rather than the national level. This has been
the basic principle governing the devolution of
planning systems worldwide, and it is intended to
encourage local ownership of resources and
responsibility for environmental problems and
their solutions.
83
Why Participation?
  • Set priorities based on various stakeholder
    needs, but with focus on community
  • Enable the development of long-term,
    comprehensive solutions
  • Obtain information and foster support

84
ICLEI Elements of Community Planning
  • Local government and partners organize for
    service delivery
  • Partnerships engagement of residents, key
    institutional partners, interest groups or other
    stakeholders that represent values and needs of
    community
  • Community-based issue analysis involves 1)
    engaging stakeholders to learn needs, local
    issues, educate, obtain support, set priorities
    and 2) technical assessments of ecology,
    infrastructure etc.
  • Action Planning establishing 1) goals 2)
    targets and triggers 3) strategies and
    commitments
  • Implementation and Monitoring 1) changing
    procedures, reorganizing work tasks, assigning
    responsibilities and funding 2) documentation
    during implementation and recurrent measurement
    of impacts after
  • Evaluation and Feedback assessment of impacts of
    changes for both internal and external uses

85
Who are your partners in service delivery? What
services do people want? What is the capacity of
existing service systems? Are they
sustainable? How do service systems impact
society, economy, and environment? When and how
can sustainable service systems be established?
Partnerships Establish an
organizational structure for planning by service
providers and users. Establish a shared
community vision.
Elements of Community Planning
Community-based Issue Analysis
Identify issues that must be addressed to achieve
community vision. Assess priority problems and
issues in detail.
Triggers Commitment to a specified action at a
future date and/or response to future conditions.
Action Planning Agree on goals,
targets and triggers, and create strategies and
commitments to achieve targets. Formalize into
plan.
Targets Measurable commitments to be achieved in
a specific time.
Implementation and Monitoring
Create partnership structures for implementation
and mgt for municipal compliance. Monitor
activities, changes
When will further planning be required? How will
partners and users participate in implementation
and evaluation?
How will plans be monitored and evaluated?
Evaluation and Feedback
Periodic performance evaluations using
target-based indicators. Repeat issue analyses
celebrate achievements.
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Experts Role
  • Functions
  • Technical knowledge
  • Participation promotion and facilitation
  • Political and administrative knowledge
  • Decision-Making Tools
  • Environmental, social, economic evaluation
  • Indicators
  • Industry knowledge
  • Alternative management technologies
    (environment, industry, services,
    residences,transportation, etc.)
  • Trend, risk and options analysis

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Stakeholder Participation
  • Who
  • Citizens
  • Business
  • Government
  • NGOs and other groups
  • Visitors
  • Where
  • Sustainability plan initiation
  • Sustainability plan design
  • Operation of plan
  • Monitoring and enforcement
  • Evaluation of plan

89
Cultivation of Participation
  • Public forums
  • Scenario generation and envisioning
  • Collective brainstorming
  • Focus groups
  • Networks and partnerships
  • Adaptive management

90
Influences on Participation
  • Positive
  • Specific focus
  • Multi-party comprehension of problem
  • Solutions in context
  • Innovativeness and flexibility
  • Conflict resolution skills
  • Use of facilitator
  • Capacity building
  • Deliberate diversity
  • Financial resources
  • Commitment to communication
  • Sense of ownership
  • Wide participation
  • Trust, transparency, accountability
  • Leadership and clarity
  • North-south dimension
  • Added value and specific projects
  • Experts on tap
  • Negative
  • Hidden agendas
  • Inequality, competitiveness and intolerance
  • Sectoralism
  • Excessive dependence on external aid/expertise
  • Inadequate administrative support
  • Problem avoidance
  • Mutual distrust
  • Different jargons
  • Poor methodology
  • Sharp changes to structure
  • Excessive complexity
  • Over-reliance on experimental approaches

91
Problems with Community Approach
  • Planning system and government structure
  • Alienation in society and lack of sense of place
  • Continued role of experts and management of
    expert-stakeholder interface
  • Time and money considerations

92
Environmental Citizen Responsibilities
  • Change everyday habits
  • Be responsible consumers
  • Engage in public debate
  • Keep officials accountable
  • Work with others
  • Environmental literacy

93
Community Planning in Hong Kong
  • No local government in HK
  • Planning top-down, executive led
  • District councils have limited power, dont get
    involved in planning, involve people
  • Plans satisfy territorial development rather than
    local needs

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Chief Executives instructions Planning study and
drawing up Plan circulated to govt dept.s for
comments Submission to Metro Planning Committee
(MPC) or Rural/New Territories Committee
(RNTC) Presentation to District
Board Resubmission to MPC/RNTPC Gazzetted for
public inspections TPB Submission and hearing C.E
approves or disapproves.
Hong Kongs Planning Process
Public Input
96
Planning System in HK
Territorial Development Strategy
Sub-regional Plans
Plans gazzetted and objections entertained
Outline Zoning Plans Development Permission
Area Plans
Outline Development Plan
Layout Plan
97
Western District Development Strategy (WDDS)
  • Oldest neighborhood, many unique features and
    problems
  • Opportunity for unique upgrading respecting
    traditions
  • WDDS focused on land reclamation, MTR station,
    private sector led redevelopment for 50,000
  • Residents left up in air about completion,
    relocation, sustainability of businesses and way
    of life
  • No alternatives provided

98
The Wanchai Experiment
  • Goal foster community engagement in the design
    of their neighbourhood
  • Focus on the social aspects of sustainability
    and making participation a prerequisite for
    sustainability

99
Stakeholder Identification
  • By walking around the neighborhood, talking to
    people, and study of baseline resources
  • The elderly
  • Housewives
  • Teenagers
  • Business people
  • Visitors and tourists

100
Engaging People
  • Photo exhibition workshops
  • Focus groups
  • Talking to key individuals/leaders
  • Face-to-face surveys
  • Proposal workshop

101
Wanchai Engagement Results
102
Santa Monica
  • Small city (80,000) in Los Angeles
  • (on the beach)
  • Started with Agenda 21 plan in 1994
  • Focused on targets and indicators dealing with 1)
    resource conservation 2) Transportation 3)
    Pollution Protection and Community and Economic
    Development
  • Achieved many successes (next slide)
  • Not there yet, new plan in 2003

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Partnerships
  • 2001 formation of Sustainable City Working Group
    community stakeholders including elected and
    appointed officials, City staff, and
    representatives of neighborhood organizations,
    business community, and other community groups.
  • Working Group met numerous times to discuss many
    issues related to sustainability of community
  • Previous plan and early drafts were revised based
    on large amount of public input

105
Community Based Issue Analysis
  • Evaluated long-term sustainability against
    threats to
  • Natural resources and natural environment
  • Human and social capital connectedness among
    people in the community and their education,
    skills and health
  • Financial and built capital manufactured goods,
    buildings, infrastructure, information resources,
    credit and debt.

106
Action Planning
  • Guiding principles
  • Goal areas with specific goals for community
    visions
  • Targets
  • Indicators systems and programs
  • Goal/Indicator matrix

107
Implementation and Monitoring
  • Citys Task Force on Environment lead initiation
  • Sustainable City Steering Committee with broader
    stakeholder representation will oversee
    implementation
  • At City administrative level, a Sustainable City
    Implementation Group makes existing and new
    programs and policies consistent with
    sustainability goals within respective
    departments and across departments
  • Two teams will coordinate with community
    stakeholder groups

108
Evaluation and Feedback
  • Every two years, the Sustainable City Steering
    Committee and Sustainable City Implementation
    Group make and indicator report
  • Used by City council, City Staff and community
    members to judge progress of plan
  • Provide basis for decision-making on changing
    policies and actions

109
Guiding Principles
  • The concept of sustainability guides City policy
  • Protection, preservation and restoration of the
    natural environment is a high priority of the
    City
  • Environmental quality, economic health and social
    equity are mutually dependent
  • All decisions have implications to the long-term
    sustainability of Santa Monica
  • Community awareness, responsibility,
    participation and education are key elements of a
    sustainable community
  • Santa Monica recognizes its linkage with the
    regional, national, and global community
  • Those sustainability issues most important to the
    community will be addressed first and the most
    cost effective programs and policies will be
    selected
  • The City is committed to procurement decisions
    which minimize negative environmental and social
    impacts
  • Cross-sector partnerships are necessary to
    achieve sustainable goals

110
Goal Areas
  • Resource conservation
  • Environmental and public health
  • Transportation
  • Economic Development
  • Open space and land use
  • Housing
  • Community education and civic participation
  • Human dignity

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Goal Indicator Matrix
122
Huangbaiyu Village Tour Exploring Sustainable
Design
  • http//www.chinauscenter.org/VillageSlideshow/

123
Southeast False Creek is envisioned as a
community in which people live, work, play and
learn in a neighbourhood designed to balance the
highest possible levels of social equity,
livability, ecological health and economic
prosperity, so as to support their choices to
live in a sustainable manner.
124
South East False Creek
  • 32 ha of old industrial land
  • 2,353 units for 4,949 people in public land,
    maybe, 8,575 in private lands
  • range of parks and recreation along the
    waterfront shoreline improvements seaside
    pedestrian-bicycle route re-establishment of
    wildlife habitat private and community gardens
    encouraged.

125
Guiding Principles
1.Implementing Sustainability SEFC should
promote the implementation of sustainable
development principles in an urban
setting. 2.Stewardship of Ecosystem Health The
SEFC plan should improve the health of the False
Creek Basin and encourage resource conservation
and waste reduction. 3.Economic Viability and
Vitality SEFC development should ensure
viability without subsidy and encourage a vibrant
and vital community. 4.Social and Community
Health SEFC should be a livable, complete
community supporting social networks and enhances
quality of life for all in the neighbourhood.
126
Urban Agriculture Study
127
Urban Agriculture Study
128
Urban Agriculture Study Results
129
Urban Agriculture Study Results
130
Urban Agriculture Study Results
131
South East False Creek
  • Indicators and Targets
  • https//www.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/southeast/odp/pd
    f/sustainabilityindicators.pdf

132
Issue and Gap Analysis
  • Determination of main environmental issues by
  • Identifying problems raised in baseline studies
    (e.g. by issues such as ecosystem health,
    presence/absence of awareness, pollution levels,
    regulations and enforcement, participatory
    systems, activities elsewhere in similar sectors
  • or Pressure-State-Response).
  • Identifying concerns of stakeholders (concerns
    about problems and conflicts with other
    stakeholders).
  • Benchmarking against other sustainable
    development models (comparable sectors,
    communities, and natural conditions)

133
Alternatives Generation
  • Importation of successful models
  • Development of new approaches based on new
    technologies, regulations, participation,
    overcoming conflicts, business approaches etc.
  • Sector specific and system wide changes

134
Stakeholder Feedback
  • Return to stakeholders and ask opinions of your
    suggestions (feasibility re stakeholder
    conflicts, technologies, regulations, awareness,
    etc complexity or completeness)
  • Inquire about willingness to participate, pay,
    lead

135
Indicators What gets measured, gets managed
  • Why accountability, monitoring and assessment,
    targets, participation, commitments
  • Measured by (who) government, industry, public,
    NGOs
  • Measured by (what) physical, monetary and other
    values
  • Measured at (where)national, local, sector
    levels
  • Applications environmental, social, economic,
    political
  • Types set, combined (index), framework
    (accounting pressure, state, response),
    decoupling
  • Created by experts, stakeholders, government,
    public
  • Requirements representative, analytically sound,
    easily understood, practical, show trends
  • Problems weightings, valuations, integration,
    movement
  • http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/47/24993546.pdf

136
Indicators and Monitoring System
  • Develop a small set of indicators for whole
    sector
  • Develop a system for evaluation of progress

137
HK SusDev 21 Guiding Principles
138
HK SusDev 21 Guiding Principles
139
HK SusDev 21 Indicators
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HK SusDev 21 Indicators
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HK SusDev 21 Indicators
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Netherlands Sector Indicators
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OECD Pressure, State, Response Model
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Integration with Community
  • Consider cumulative and synergistic impacts with
    environment, society,economy, and politics
  • Areas of overlap
  • Need for mutual support
  • Need for overall regulatory, cultural changes

154
Medium and Long Term Visions of Sustainability
for Sai Kung
  • Environment local and global aspects?
  • Society, Economics and Politics?
  • What major changes are needed?
  • What strategy?
  • How does your sector fit into the vision?
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