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UNIX Lecture 1

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Title: UNIX Lecture 1


1
UNIX Lecture 1
  • Hana Filip

2
What is UNIX
  • a computer operating system
  • an operating system is the software that provides
    the interface between the hardware of a computer
    system and the applications programs running on
    it

3
What is UNIX
  • UNIX provides a range of tools that can be
    combined and manipulated to perform such a wide
    variety of jobs that users of the system can very
    often carry out sophisticated tasks without
    writing programs in a programming language
  • Text preparation and printing
  • Document storage and manipulation
  • Programming
  • E-mail

4
What is Unix
  • originally developed for multi-user systems
  • now is also run on 'stand-alone' machines

5
What is UNIX
  • can be found on a wide variety of computer
    systems
  • global computer networks like the World Wide Web
  • PCs often have Linux (a UNIX-type operating
    system) or a variety of BSD installed (BSD
    Berkeley Software Distribution, or Berkeley UNIX,
    one of the branches of UNIX)
  • OS X Apple Macintoshes all run a form of UNIX
  • a host of free open software systems like
    FreeBSD, NetBSD or GNU/Linux all are varieties of
    a UNIX-type operating system

6
Date Thu, 11 Jan 2007 151737 From Michael
LaStella Subject
English Computational Linguistics, Language
Description, Text/Corpus Linguistics Knowledge
Engineer (KE), KNOVA Software, Inc. Organization
KNOVA Software, Inc. Department
Engineering Web Address http//www.knova.com Spec
ialty Areas Computational Linguistics Language
Description Text/Corpus Linguistics Required
Language(s) English (eng) Description Knowledge
Engineer (KE) Summary Want to work with
cutting-edge technology in one of the ten fastest
growing software companies as selected by
Baseline Magazine? KNOVA's (http//www.knova.com/
) suite of applications are built on an adaptive
search and knowledge management platform which
has been lauded as 'visionary' and 'innovative'
by technology research firms like Gartner,
professional associations like SSPA, and
customers alike. KNOVA's applications help
leading companies like AOL, Ford, HR Block, HP,
McAfee, and Novell increase revenues, reduce
service costs and improve customer satisfaction.
7
As a member of the KNOVA team, the Knowledge
Engineer (KE) is responsible for the discovery,
development, and maintenance of terminology and
synonyms used to help drive the intelligence of
KNOVA's search engine. This is
a contract-to-hire position. Duties and
Responsibilities - Discover, develop, and
maintain terminology and synonyms used to help
drive the intelligence of KNOVA's search engine -
Set up and configure enterprise software and
development environments - Analyze and import
structured and unstructured data using scripting
languages such as PERL and Python - Participate
in the effort of constantly improving methodology
and tools - Facilitate knowledge transfer from
Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) - Provide SME
training - Follow methodology to complete work
within established time frames Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities - Skilled at using search
engines - Working knowledge of XML, HTML, PERL,
UNIX, and regular expressions - Ability to
communicate effectively - Working knowledge of
data structures, data creation and
manipulation, taxonomies, and ontologies -
Understanding of search technology a plus
8
Qualifications Bachelor's Degree in Library
Science, Computer/Information Science,
Linguistics, or extensive coursework in knowledge
engineering topics -or- Two or more years of
experience in knowledge engineering Contact
Information Please email resumes to
engineering.resumes_at_knova.com Or fax resumes to
(408) 863-5810 To find out more information
about KNOVA, please visit us on the web
at http//www.knova.com. Application Deadline
30-Jun-2007 ---------------------------------
-------------------------- LINGUIST List
Vol-18-95
9
History of UNIX
  • UNIX was first developed in the early 1970s at
    Bell Laboratories in the USA (in collaboration
    with GE and MIT).
  • ATT (the owners of Bell Laboratories) made UNIX
    available at nominal cost to academic users,
    allowing researchers at universities to modify
    and extend UNIX.
  • UC Berkeley was the first university to get
    interested in the UNIX system in 1973, a PDP-11
    installed in 1974, and the computer science
    department used it for extensive research
    thereafter
  • Columbia (1974), Santa Cruz (1979), MIT (1983 -
    Athena networked workstations)

10
Different UNIX Systems
  • System V (distributed by the original developers,
    ATT)
  • AIX (IBM)
  • Berkeley BSD (from the University of California,
    Berkeley)
  • SunOS, now known as Solaris (from the makers of
    Sun workstations)
  • Xenix (a PC version of UNIX).

11
UNIX Features
  • written in the high level level language C
  • easy to install on new computing systems
  • the UNIX operating system consists of
  • the kernel
  • Performs basic operating system functions such as
    accessing files, allocating memory, etc.
  • the shell
  • Provides the user interface to the kernel
  • C shell (csh) is the original default shell for
    interactive work

12
UNIX Features
  • tcsh
  • is a UNIX shell based on and compatible with the
    C shell (csh)
  • t in tcsh comes from the T in TENEX, an
    operating system inspired Ken Greer, the author
    of tcsh, with its command-completion feature
  • early versions of Mac OS X shipped with tcsh as
    the default shell, the most recent versions now
    have bash

13
Shell Commands
  • shell prompt
  • you are in the shell mode, the main command
    center of the UNIX system
  • alternative shell prompts are

14
Shell Commands
  • date RETURN
  • the command is typed and then
  • the RETURN key is pressed
  • this causes the computer to execute that command
  • date
  • displays current date and time
  • is a two-way command after executing the
    command, the computer returns you to the Shell
    Mode (your originating mode)

15
Shell Commands
  • How do you spell … ?
  • UNIX maintains an on-line spelling dictionary
  • look egg RETURN
  • look psych RETURN

16
Shell Commands
  • telnet command allows you to communicate with a
    remote computer that is using the Telnet
    protocol
  • telnet host RETURN
  • opens a telnet session to the domain host
  • telnet grove.ufl.edu RETURN

17
Shell Commands
  • login
  • Trying 128.227.8.12...
  • Connected to grove.ufl.edu.
  • Escape character is ''.
  • Compaq Tru64 UNIX V5.1A (Rev. 1885) (dogwood)
    (pts/12)
  • login hfilip
  • Password
  • Compaq Tru64 UNIX V5.1A (Rev. 1885) Tue Oct 22
    070145 EDT 2002

18
Shell Commands
  • who RETURN current users on the
    system
  • whoami RETURN current user of the account
  • cd .. RETURN
  • change directory move one tier up in the
    directory
  • ls RETURN
  • list the files in the current directory
  • cd RETURN
  • move back to your home directory

19
Shell Commands
  • logout RETURN
  • Connection closed by foreign host.

20
Your First File
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Create a file for visual editing
  • Append text to the file
  • Escape from Text Append Mode
  • Quit working on a file, save the changes made in
    the file and return to the Shell
  • Display a list of files in your account
  • Email your file

21
Your First File Starting Your First File
  • 1. Logon to your UNIX account
  • viSPACEfirst
  • vi indicates that you wish to use the UNIX
    visual text editor
  • first is the name of the file to be worked on
  • Press the RETURN key
  • The screen will clear and a note will appear at
    the bottom of the screen
  • "first" New File
  • Tildes () will parade in a column down the
    left, the cursor will appear at the top left of
    the screen

22
Your First File Appending Text
  • You are now in the
  • Visual Editor Command Mode
  • Press this key a SINGLE time (and do NOT press
    the RETURN key)
  • a
  • What happened?

23
Your First File Appending Text
  • Nothing.
  • In the Visual Editor Command Mode, pressing the a
    key (once) tells vi that you want to add or
    append text to the file
  • After pressing the a key (once) the visual editor
    will add anything you type to the file and at the
    same time display it on the screen.
  • You are now in the Append Mode.

24
Your First File Appending Text
  • Type in the following sentence
  • I anticipate a long and harmonious
  • relationship with UNIX.

25
Your First File Leaving the Append Mode
  • Press the ESC key
  • Nothing appears to happen, but you are now out of
    Append Mode and back in the Visual Editor Command
    Mode.
  • To be certain press the ESC key again.
  • If a beep sounds, vi is telling you that you are
    in Command Mode.

26
Your First File Leaving the Append Mode
  • From the Command Mode type
  • duty
  • What happened? The terminal should have beeped
    at you - several times.

27
Your First File Leaving the Append Mode
  • From the Command Mode type aduty
  • What happened? The word duty appears on the
    screen?

28
Your First File Leaving the Append Mode
  • SUMMARY
  • The a command permits you to start entering text
  • The ESC key stops the append process and returns
    you to the Command Mode

29
Your First File Returning to the Shell
  • I am finished - save this text in a file for
    another time and bring me back to the Shell.
  • Type
  • - ESC key
  • - ZZ (Upper Case)
  • hold down the SHIFT key and press the Z key
    twice

30
Your First File Listing Files
  • ls RETURN
  • The filename first should appear
  • first

31
Your First File Mail - Sending a File
  • mail LOGIN_at_SYSTEM
  • leave one space between mail and LOGIN
  • Example
  • mail hana.filip_at_gmail.com
  • If the person you wish to send an email message
    is on the same system, you need not include in
    the address
  • mail tigger

32
Your First File Mail - Sending a Message
  • mail LOGIN_at_SYSTEM RETURN
  • TYPE YOUR MESSAGE
  • CTRL-D

33
Your First File Transcript
  • script RETURN
  • Script started, file is typescript
  • mail hana.filip_at_gmail.com
  • hello
  • CTRL-D
  • exit
  • Script done, file is typescript

34
Your First File Copying Files
  • ls RETURN
  • typescript
  • cp typescript NEW.FILENAME RETURN
  • ls typescript NEW.FILENAME
  • cp copy

35
Your First File Renaming Files
  • ls RETURN
  • file1
  • mv file1 file2 RETURN
  • ls file2
  • mv moves file1 into file2

36
Your First File Cursor Moving Commands
  • Depending on the terminal type
  • arrow keys
  • h, j, k, l keys
  • or both

37
Your First File Cursor Moving Commands
  • Slash-search command
  • Command mode (Press ESCAPE)
  • /word e.g., /duck /a
  • Press RETURN
  • Pressing the n key will send the cursor to the
    next identical word or letter in your file

38
Your First File Deleting lines
  • Command mode (Press ESCAPE)
  • Position the cursor on any character on a line
    you want to delete
  • Type dd
  • Pressing the u key will undo the effect of the
    most recent text changing command
  • u the undo or I goofed command

39
Your First File Deleting Lines
  • Command mode (Press ESCAPE)
  • Position the cursor on any character on a line
    you want to delete
  • Type 3dd
  • What happened?

40
Your First File Deleting Words
  • dw
  • delete word
  • move the cursor to the first letter of any word
  • deletes the whole word and the cursor lands on
    the first character of the next word
  • place the cursor in the middle of a word and try
    the dw command - what happens?
  • 3dw

41
Your First File Deleting Specific Characters
  • x
  • Move the cursor to a letter or a space
  • Press x
  • Delete one character at a time under x
  • 6x

42
Your First File Replacing a Single Character
  • r
  • replaces the one character located under the
    cursor with the very next character that you type
  • If the cursor is located at the w in two, typing
    r followed by o will give you too

43
Your First File Breaking Up a Long Line
  • r RETURN
  • Move the cursor to the space between two words
  • Type the replace r command and then press the
    RETURN key

44
Your First File Substituting for a Single
Character
  • s
  • substituting for a single character
  • one-way text changing command - moves you into
    the Append Mode
  • r is a two-way text-changing command for a
    replacement of a single character - leaves you in
    the Command Mode

45
Your First File Substituting for a Word
  • cw
  • change word
  • Move the cursor on the first letter in a word
  • Type cw
  • Deletes that word
  • Lets you append as much text as you wish
  • One-way text changing command - moves you into
    the Append Mode

46
Your First File Substituting for Lines
  • cc
  • Substitutes text for a whole line
  • Move the cursor to some place in a given line
  • Type cc
  • Deletes that line
  • Lets you append as much text as you wish
  • One-way text changing command - moves you into
    the Append Mode

47
Your First File
  • Summary
  • Commands that substitute or change characters,
    words and lines

One-way Text Changing Commands s, cw, cc Two-way
Text Changing Commands x, dw dd
48
Your First File Inserting Text
  • i
  • Select a place to which you want to add some text
  • Type the i(nsert) command
  • The text will be entered to the left of the
    cursor
  • i moves you into the Append Mode

49
Your First File Opening a Line Below
  • o
  • Opens a new line below the cursor line
  • o moves you into the Append Mode

50
Your First File Opening a Line Above
  • O (capital)
  • Opens a new line above the cursor line
  • O moves you into the Append Mode

51
Your First File
  • Summary of Append Commands
  • O
  • i a
  • o
  • i inserts text to the left O Opens the line
    above
  • a appends to the right o opens the line
    below
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