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IKEA furniture assembly instructions. Books for Children. How-to-Do repair manuals ... IKEA Manuals. 16 of 40. From DVD Manual. Don't pull refrigerator over ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1 of 40


1
How to Write the Wordless Manual
  • STC-Israel Technical Communications,National
    Conference 2004
  • Kibbutz Maaleh HaHamisha, Israel
  • February 2004
  • Presented by Yehuda Zelenko

2
Assumption
  • We assume that graphics is sort of a universal
    language -- that different cultures interpret
    graphics in the same way.
  • WRONG!!!!

3
Non-Verbal Learning
  • Act of gaining knowledge, apart from language,
    speech or words.
  • Knowledge gained by watching, imitating body
    movements
  • WATCH ME!
  • Isotype set of pictographic characters, to
    communicate directions, events, objects

4
Non-Verbal Communications
  • The process of sending and receiving word-less
    messages
  • Facial expressions
  • Gestures
  • Postures
  • Tones of voice
  • Grooming habits
  • Body positioning
  • Consumer product design

5
Facial Expressions
  • Lips
  • Eyebrows
  • Tongue
  • Eyelids
  • Eyes
  • Eye contact

6
GesturesWhat does this mean in Japan?
7
Gestures What does this mean in France?
8
Gestures What does this mean in Iran?
9
Body Gestures
  • Clenched fist
  • Wave of hand
  • Pointed finger
  • Shrug of shoulders
  • Palms Up
  • Palms Out
  • Crossing your arms
  • Making facial expressions
  • Nodding persistently
  • Overusing hand motions
  • Tapping your fingers or feet.

10
Successful Verbal Communication
  • Should end with
  • I SEE!

11
Tactile Symbols for Blind
12
Tactile Symbols for Blind
13
Language for the Deaf
  • Signing
  • Finger- Spelling
  • Numbers

14
Examples of visual manuals
  • Seat cards in airplanes
  • Origami books
  • Lego building block instructions
  • IKEA furniture assembly instructions
  • Books for Children
  • How-to-Do repair manuals
  • Various labels and tags

15
IKEA Manuals

16
From DVD Manual
  • Dont pull refrigerator over bump!

17
Table Lamp SAFETY!!
18
Product Wrappings
  • On a plastic packaging bag

19
Shoe Tag
  • Shoe Upper from leather
  • Shoe Insides woven cloth
  • Shoe Soles Diamonds?

20
Packing Instructions
  • If you drop box on a dog, dont trip on its
    tail

21
IEC-ISO Safety Symbols
22
ISO 3864 Safety Signs
rotating gear wear safety do not
touch hazard gloves
23
Homeowner Wordless Fix-It Manual
  • The problem (presented in a cartoon) A person
    sorting through laundry to wash, trying to
    separate the colors. Laundry is all over the
    floor in front of the machine.
  • The solution A frame is built which holds six
    little trash bins, stacked up one on top of the
    other, so clothes can be sorted into them by
    color.

24
Dont use ambiguous illustrations !
Honda Motorcycle Manual
25
The Wordless ManualWhats it good for?
  • For step-by-step procedures
  • For physical activities
  • Cannot teach programming
  • Not for conceptual tasks that need branching or
    looping.

26
  • So why did HP want visual (wordless) manuals?

27
Main Criteria for the HP Visual Manual
  • Main motivation Company wanted to save money,
    but not necessarily promise better usability to
    their customers!
  • Wanted to enjoy a global market
  • Both parties won!
  • Designed for a HP Network Computer
  • Audience Network Administrator / Tech Support
    Persons

28
Main Logistic Benefits
  • Product Engineering collaborated with
    Documentation team
  • Localization costs were virtually eliminated (for
    up to 22 languages)
  • Printing Production costs per revision were
    substantially reduced
  • HP internal documentation management was
    simplified

29
Collaboration -- Engineering Documentation Teams
  • Improved the product
  • By adding instructional cues, such as decals,
    warnings, engraved labels, arrows
  • By proposing alternative placement for card
    assemblies and cables making assembly easier
  • By unifying components onto same assembly
  • By moving components to other locations
  • By doing usability testing repeatedly to create
    ideal user experience.

30
LOCALIZATION Definition
  • Process of creating or adapting a product to a
    specific locale -- language, cultural context,
    conventions, and market requirement of a specific
    target market,
  • So that User can interact in his/her own language
    and cultural conventions, and
  • Product meets all regulatory standards.

31
Virtually Eliminated Localization Cost
  • Localization -- used to cost up to 80 cents per
    word before Wordless Manual was published (year
    2000)
  • For 5 languages _at_ 25-page book not localized
    saved 15,000!
  • Savings did not include salaries of internal
    staffing or consultants to manage multiple
    localization vendors.

32
Reduced Printing Production Cost
  • Single Wordless Manual saved lots of money!
  • Non-Recoverable Expenses (initial print setup of
    manual) - small manual in color costs US 5,000.
  • Printing production costs for each manual -
    reduced by combining volumes. As much as half
    saved per copy with large print runs.

33
Simplified HP Document Management
  • Reduced the costs of handling multiple parts
    (e.g., manuals), multiple inventories, and
    different bills of material.

34
HP Marketing Gains
  • Flexibility able to enter new language markets
  • Improved Time-to-market - no delays for
    translation localization
  • Improved Usability -- for users who had
    difficulty with textual instructions
  • Manual portability (fewer pages)

35
Marketing Power
  • For countries who demanded instructions in their
    native language
  • For limited markets, localization and re-printing
    costs were prohibitive
  • Easy to enter very small markets ---no additional
    costs or waiting time

36
How to Increase Usability using Pictures
  • Reduce visual traffic by taking out extraneous
    details
  • Use only simple illustrations
  • Help reader to focus only on relevant details
  • In US, preferred words with pictures
  • In Japan, preferred Wordless manual
  • TipIllustrate only the instruction, not the
    object in its perfect form!
  • Dont scrimp, be repetitive.

37
Developing Non-Verbal Instructions
  • Set size of manual, orientation, binding
  • Sketch out simple frames
  • Storyboard with text information and simple
    photos or videotape
  • Chunk text in frames to create more succint
    instructions
  • Group into logical modules of related steps
  • Make reading sequence obvious
  • Test and revise!

38
Manual Product --Usability Testing
  • 6- to 8-month development period
  • Six product prototypes were built
  • 1st product prototype tested with worded manual
    problem could not assemble the product with
    text.
  • 3rd product prototype tested with first draft of
    Wordless manual
  • 5th product prototype tested with final version
    of Wordless manual

39
Off-Line Testing
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Had to pass all performance, electrical, safety
    tests
  • No sacrifice in performance and operation
  • MANUAL
  • First tested the text manual
  • Next tested the visual manuals - twice
  • Any revisions mainly on icons, not the
    instructions.

40
Any Questions?
  • Now lets see what an HP visual manual is all
    about.
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