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Plant Tissue Culture Part 3 - Micropropagation

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Physiological condition. Season. Position on plant. Size of explant. Physiological state - of stock plant. Vegetative / Floral. Juvenile / Mature. Dormant / Active ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Tissue Culture Part 3 - Micropropagation


1
Plant Tissue Culture Part 3 - Micropropagation
Richard R Williams
2
What is Micropropagation?
  • the asexual or vegetative propagation
    (multiplication) of plants in vitro

Implies - regeneration -
multiplication - uniformity ??
3
Basic in vitro propagation ...
4
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot
elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
5
Benefits for propagation ...
  • Rapid multiplication of clones
  • Difficult species ?
  • Genetic uniformity ?
  • Aseptic conditions
  • Micro- stock plants
  • Controlled environment

6
Other applications ...
  • in vitro micro-grafting
  • Genetic conservation
  • Plant improvement
  • Experimental system

7
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot
elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
8
Tip bud
Starting material for micropropagation
Leaf
Axillary bud
Internode
Root
9
Drew et al 1991
10
Selection of plant material ...
  • Part of plant
  • Genotype
  • Physiological condition
  • Season
  • Position on plant
  • Size of explant

11
Physiological state - of stock plant
  • Vegetative / Floral
  • Juvenile / Mature
  • Dormant / Active
  • Carbohydrates
  • Nutrients
  • Hormones

12
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot
elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
13
(No Transcript)
14
Disinfestation
  • Stock plant preparation
  • Washing in water
  • Disinfecting solution
  • Internal contaminants
  • Screening

15
The medium
  • Minerals
  • Sugar
  • Organic growth factors
  • Growth regulators
  • Gelling agent
  • Other additives

16
Physical Environment
  • Temperature
  • Moisture
  • Light

17
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot
elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
18
Origins of new shoots ...
  • Terminal extension
  • Lateral / Axillary buds
  • Adventitious (de novo, re-differentiation)
  • Callus differentiation

19
Role of growth regulators ...
  • Cell division
  • Differentiation
  • Cell expansion
  • Apical dominance

20
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4. Shoot
elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
21
Shoot elongation ...
  • Basal hormone free medium
  • Gibberellins
  • Carry-over of hormones

22
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4.
Elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
23
Root initiation ...
  • Auxins
  • Co-factors
  • C N ratio
  • Light / darkness
  • Initiation vs growth
  • Juvenility / rejuvenation
  • Genotype

24
STAGES
1. Selection of plant material 2. Establish
aseptic culture 3. Multiplication 4.
Elongation 5. Root induction / formation 6.
Acclimatization
25
Acclimatization (hardening)
- survival of the new plant when removed from
the in vitro environment
- will be covered later.
26
END of Part 3
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