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Title: Assistive%20Devices%20/%20Smart%20Technology%20for%20Successful%20Aging


1
Assistive Devices / Smart Technology for
Successful Aging
  • Roxanna M. Bendixen, MHS, OTR/L
  • Doctoral Candidate
  • Rehabilitation Science Doctoral Program

2
Outline
  • Key Terms Definitions
  • Basic Assistive Technology / Adaptive Devices for
    Everyday Living
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Amputations Prosthetics
  • Robotics
  • Gator-Tech Smart House

3
Occupational Therapy is
  • Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve
    independence in all facets of their lives.
    Services typically include
  • Customized treatment programs to improve one's
    ability to perform daily activities
  • Comprehensive home and job site evaluations with
    environmental modifications or adaptive
    recommendations

4
OT Services include
  • Performance skills assessments and treatment
  • Adaptive equipment recommendations and usage
    training
  • Guidance to family members and caregivers

5
What OT does
  • Assess the person
  • Assess the environment
  • Make suggestions for environmental changes
  • Make suggestions for adaptive equipment
  • Address fear of falling

6
Who benefits from OT
  • work-related injuries including lower back
    problems or repetitive stress injuries
  • limitations following a stroke or heart attack
  • arthritis, multiple sclerosis, or other serious
    chronic conditions
  • vision or cognitive deficits
  • birth injuries, learning problems, or
    developmental disabilities

7
Who benefits from OT
  • mental health or behavioral problems including
    Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic
    stress
  • problems with substance use or eating disorders
  • burns, spinal cord injuries, or amputations
  • broken bones or other injuries from falls, sports
    injuries, or accidents

8
Goals
  • Promote independence and maintenance of skills
    necessary to remain living at home
  • Increase safety within the home
  • Enhance quality of life

9
Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
  • Are basic self-care tasks including
  • Bathing
  • Dressing
  • Grooming
  • Toileting
  • Eating
  • Transferring in and out of your bed, a chair, or
    on and off the toilet, and mobility (getting
    around the house)

10
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs)
  • Higher level daily activities
  • Household chores (housework and mowing the lawn)
  • Shopping and running errands
  • Paying bills (money management)
  • Getting to places outside of walking distance
  • Using the telephone
  • Meal preparation (planning the meal and cooking)
  • Medication management

11
Basic Daily Tasks
  • Leisure activities are also very important in our
    daily activities
  • Ones perception of their quality of life is
    related to their independence in ADLs, IADLs, and
    Leisure

12
  • Adaptive Devices
  • Assistive Devices
  • Adaptive Equipment
  • Assistive Technology

13
Definition
  • Assistive Technology (device) was first defined
    in the U.S. in the Technology-Related Assistance
    for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988
  • any item, piece or equipment or product
    systemwhether acquired commercially, modified,
    or customizedthat is used to increase, maintain,
    or improve functional capabilities for
    individuals with disabilities.

14
Key Terms
  • Strategies for promoting independence and quality
    of life for people as they age include Assistive
    Technology
  • Environmental Modifications
  • Environmental Interventions

15
Importance of AT
  • Increase Independence
  • Promote Social Participation
  • Increase Self-Esteem
  • Decrease Burden of Care
  • Increase Quality of Life

16
Independence
  • Mismatch between the environment and a person who
    has declining ability makes it very difficulty to
    carry out our basic daily tasks and increases the
    risk of accidents, such as falls

17
Independence
  • An important concept for what we hope to
    accomplish in our use of technology and
    environmental interventions
  • the ability to complete basic daily tasks without
    personal assistance

18
Eating Drinking
Rocker knives Roller knives Universal cuffs Plate
guards Non-skid dishes Cups with lids Nosey cups
19
Meal Preparation
20
Grooming
Floss holders Suction cup / denture
holders Toothpaste dispenser Electric
Shaver Adaptive nail devices
21
Dressing
Long-handled shoe horn / Sock aid Dressing
stick Reacher Buttonhook/zipper pulls Elastic
laces Pull-on clothes, Velcro closures, button
extenders Clip-on earrings, magnetic clasp jewelry
22
Bathing
Grab bars Bath bench Hand-held shower
head Long-handled sponge/foot brush Soap dispenser
23
Toileting
Pre-moistened wipes Bidet Raised toilet
seat Toilevator Bedside commode Urinal
24
Transferring Mobility
Canes Walkers accessories Wheelchairs
accessories Scooters Ramps Lifts
25
Mobility
26
Independence
27
Language Memory
Communication Boards Computer Systems Medical
Alert Tags
28
Language Memory
Calendar Notebook Journal Electronic Paging
Systems Smart Environments
29
Cognitive Impairments
30
Wandering Behaviors
31
Vision Impairment
32
Personal Navigation Systems
33
Travel Aids
34
Talking prescription reader
35
  • Major and Minor Home Modifications

36
Simple things we can do
  • Lighting around doorways
  • Nightlights in dark hallways or the bathroom
    (reduce tripping)
  • Higher wattage light bulbs

37
Lighting
38
Simple things we can do
  • Replace faucet knobs with lever knobs
  • Replace doorknobs with levers

39
Simple things we can do
  • Raise furniture 3 to 4 to make it easier to get
    in and out of
  • Use electric seat cushions
  • Electric chairs

40
Simple things we can do
41
Simple things we can do
  • Large buttoned telephones

42
Simple things we can do
  • Non-skid strips in the bathtub or shower (less
    slippery)

43
Major modifications
  • Add handrails and grab bars to bathroom

44
Bathroom Modifications
45
Bathroom Modifications
46
Bathroom Modifications
47
Bedroom Modifications
48
Other problems
49
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

50
Americans with Disabilities Act Definition
  • The ADA prohibits discrimination in all
    employment practices, including job application
    procedures, hiring, firing, advancement,
    compensation, training, and other terms,
    conditions, and privileges of employment. It
    applies to recruitment, advertising, tenure,
    layoff, leave, fringe benefits, and all other
    employment-related activities.

51
Americans with Disabilities Act
  • ADA ensures equal opportunity for persons with
    disabilities in employment, State and local
    government services, public accommodations,
    commercial facilities, and transportation, and
    requires the establishment of TDD/telephone relay
    services.

52
ADA and Disability
  • An individual is considered to have a
    "disability" if s/he has a physical or mental
    impairment that substantially limits one or more
    major life activities, has a record of such an
    impairment, or is regarded as having such an
    impairment. Persons discriminated against because
    they have a known association or relationship
    with an individual with a disability also are
    protected.

53
ADA Requirements
  • Barriers to employment, transportation, public
    accommodations, public services, and
    telecommunications have imposed staggering
    economic and social costs on American society and
    have undermined our well-intentioned efforts to
    educate, rehabilitate, and employ individuals
    with disabilities.

54
ADA Benefits
  • ADA will enable society to benefit from the
    skills and talents of individuals with
    disabilities, will allow us all to gain from
    their increased purchasing power and ability to
    use it, and will lead to fuller, more productive
    lives for all Americans.

55
Ergonomics and the Workplace
  • Science of designing a personal environment so
    that it facilitates the highest level of function
  • Work environment should fit the capabilities of
    the worker
  • Prevent injury, promote health, safety and comfort

56
Environmental Interventions
  • Can the individual eat in the employee lounge?
  • Modify cafeteria door
  • Provide personal assistance
  • Can the individual use the bathroom facilities?
  • Move paper towel /soap accessories
  • Provide personal assistance

57
Informative Website
  • http//www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm
  • http//www.jan.wvu.edu/links/adasummary.htm

58
  • Amputations and Prosthetics

59
Facts about Amputation
  • According to the National Center for Health
    Statistics, it is estimated that more than 1.5
    million people in the United States have lost an
    extremity. This equates to almost 6 cases per
    1,000 people.
  • Why do you think this is likely to increase?

60
Amputations and the Aging
  • It is widely agreed that amputation is surgery of
    last resort.
  • Irreparable loss of the blood supply to a
    diseased or injured limb is the only absolute
    indication for amputation (Diabetes).
  • The aging process has already forced physical and
    mental limitations on many older individuals, and
    the prospect of prolonged rehabilitation can seem
    overwhelming.
  • Advances in the science of prosthetics have led
    to better long-range results.

61
Orthotics and Prosthetics
  • Orthotics and Prosthetics (OP) is an allied
    health profession
  • Orthotics and Prosthetics is the evaluation,
    fabrication and custom fitting of artificial
    limbs and orthopedic braces

62
Arm Prostheses
  • Many arm prostheses have electrically powered
    hands and elbows
  • Simple switches may be used to control these
    protheses
  • Also, sensors on the skin can detect signals
    generated by muscles (myoelectric signals) to
    control the prosthesis
  • In some instances microprocessors are used in
    analyzing and processing the myoelectric signals

63
Leg Knee Prostheses
  • Electronic knee joints for prostheses can now be
    programmed for the individual patient.
  • A computer chip allows the knee joint to sense
    changes in position, speed and force, enabling
    patients with amputations to walk down stairs and
    hills with confidence.
  • There are prosthetic feet made especially for
    running, golfing, rock climbing or swimming.

64
Prostheses
  • The Otto Bock C-Leg uses a microprocessor
    controlled hydraulic knee with swing and stance
    phase control.
  • This knee joint features sensor technology that
    reads and adapts to the individual's every move.
  • Dynamic gait is similar to natural walking as
    possible.

65
Examples
66
Examples
67
Examples
  • Birth defect
  • Artificial legs since the age of 3
  • Was very involved in wheelchair athletics
  • Since receiving new prostheses, able to bike,
    walk up and down stairs, and even drive without
    modifications

68
Hand Arm Prostheses
  • LIVINGSKIN is made to resemble human skin by
    simulating the three dermal layers of natural
    human skin.

69
Livingskin Gloves

70
Examples

71
  • Robotics

72
Robotics
  • The Science of Robotics has advanced
    significantly since the first commercial robot
    was deployed in 1962.

73
Robotics
  • Medical surgery and follow-up care
  • Police and military bomb disposal and
    surveillance
  • Exploration journey into live volcanoes visit
    other planets
  • Professional service inspect bridges and
    nuclear sites

74
Packbot Explorer
Arm reaches 66 Deliver equipment
supplies Explosive disposal/ detect chemical
leaks Stairs, curbs, rocks, sand, mud Battle
tested Assist injured soldiers
75
Personal Robots
  • Vacuum the home
  • Provide entertainment
  • Assist with mobility
  • Provide therapy

76
Inkha
Robot Receptionist Eyes, mouth, head, neck move
in response to environment Laptop, hidden camera,
sensors
77
Personal Adaptive Mobility AidPAM-AID
Assist frail and visually impaired individuals
with navigation in their environment Assist in
transferring Laser and ultrasonic sensors Set
your own pace
78
Guido (2004)
79
Lower Extremity Exoskeleton
Over 40 sensors Carry equipment weighting 70lbs
over rough terrain or stairs for extended periods
of time
80
Power Suit
Decrease back strain for health care
workers Weighs 45 lbs Senses muscle
activity Inflates/deflates air bags to assist
with lifting
81
Entertainment
Move / Search / Play tricks Communicate with
owner (different emotions) Voice and Visual
recognition (understands thousands of
words) Camera
82
ASIMO
Assisting with various tasks Smooth walking pace
up and down stairs Responds to voice
commands Recognizes individuals
83
Pearl
Medication, food, hydration reminders Scheduled
appointments Record health parameters Health care
workers can interact remotely through Pearl
84
Care-O-Bot II
85
Robo-Doctor
86
  • Gator-Tech Smart House

87
UF RERC for Successful Aging
  • Promote independence and quality of life for
    older people with disabilities through technology

88
What is a Smart House?
89
Summary of Functions
  • Levels based on complexity
  • 1. Basic Communications
  • 2. Simple Control Commands
  • 3. Automates Household Functions
  • 4. Tracking location, behaviors, health
    parameters
  • 5. Analyzes Data

90
Additional Levels
  • 6. Provides information, reminders, prompts
  • 7. Answers questions, orientation, general
    information (Google it)
  • 8. Make household arrangements

91
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92
Location Monitoring
93
Smart Front Door
94
Smart Microwave
95
Smart Mirror
96
Appliances
Washer Dryer Combination
97
Appliances
Refrigerator / Freezer Unit
98
Driving Simulator
99
Gator-Tech Smart House
  • At Oak Hammock
  • January 28, 2005 Grand Opening
  • Demonstrations
  • Living Lab

100
  • It is important for both potential AT users and
    AT practitioners to be aware of the current
    available technology and resources in order to
    provide and receive the greatest benefit
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