Consumer Photography Study Final Report

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Consumer Photography Study Final Report

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Title: Consumer Photography Study Final Report


1
Consumer Photography StudyFinal Report
Prepared for Photo Imaging Council of
Australia Conducted by Scott MacLean Katie
Buxton Justine Clements Aihong LeJune 2000
2
Table of contents
  • 1. Research background
  • 2. Incidence of photography
  • 3. Camera ownership
  • 4. Beliefs about main camera
  • 5. Ideal camera
  • 6. Who takes the pictures in the household?
  • 7. Film usage
  • 8. Photographic Behaviour and Occasions
  • 9. Consumer motivations for taking photographs
  • 10. Advanced Photo System (APS)
  • 11. Digital photography

3
Table of contents (cont)
  • 12. Film processing
  • 13. Film speed
  • 14. Role of the Internet and computing
  • 15. Quantitative segmentation
  • 16. Paths for future growth
  • 17. Appendices
  • Qualitative Stage Discussion Guide
  • Quantitative Stage Questionnaire

4
1. Research Background
5
Background
  • To ensure continued success for the photo
    imaging industry, there needs to be a focus on
  • Marketing relating the desired message
    effectively to the right target audience
  • Continuous new product development continuing
    to bring new products to market
  • In-store presence enhancing the consumer
    shopping experience.

Source Bruce Swinsky, Eastman Kodak
6
Research objectives
  • Broad aims
  • to provide a comprehensive overview of (consumer)
    photography in Australia today
  • to identify the issues associated with taking
    photographs and the triggers to stimulating
    greater use and
  • to explore awareness and perceptions of digital
    photography.
  • Detailed objectives
  • explore the role and importance of photography in
    peoples lives
  • identify and explore the barriers and triggers to
    photography
  • look at the decision and purchase process for
    equipment and film
  • discuss perceptions and knowledge surrounding
    digital photography and determine likely impact
    on existing behaviour and
  • provide a user segmentation in terms of profiles
    and typologies.

7
In other words ...
  • provide a better understanding of consumers
    needs and help members plan marketing which not
    only meets their individual business and brand
    requirements, but also builds the use of
    photography.

8
Background
  • Both qualitative and quantitative stages of the
    study are now complete

This document largely contains the results from
the quantitative stage, together with some of the
findings of the earlier qualitative stage.
9
Research method qualitative stage
  • 6 Full Group Discussions conducted between 10
    February and 17 February (3 in Melbourne and 3 in
    Sydney)
  • Plus 8 depth interviews amongst Hobbyists

SINKS (18-24yrs)High Burn Melbourne
DINKS (25-35yrs)Mix of usageSydney
Young family (25-35yrs)High Burn Melbourne
Young family (25-35yrs)Low BurnSydney
Older family (35-45yrs)Mix of usageMelbourne
Empty nesters (50-65yrs)Mix of usageSydney
10
Research method quantitative stage
  • Telephone survey - 600 interviews
  • Sydney 250
  • Melbourne 200
  • Brisbane 150
  • All interviews conducted during April, 2000
  • Respondent (photographer) definition/qualification
  • Camera owners aged 18 years or more who purchased
    or chose camera themselves
  • OR
  • People aged 18 years or more who do not own a
    camera, but who are likely to buy a camera for
    themselves in the next 6 months
  • AND
  • who have taken photos in the last 6 months
  • Final results weighted to population (three
    cities).

11
2. Incidence of photography
12
How many photographers ?
  • Just over 4 million photographers as defined
    (three cities)
  • TOTAL Melbourne Sydney Brisbane
  • Sample Base 600 250 200 150
  • Weighted Base (000) 4,015 1,894 1,339 782
  • Male 47 47 46 47
  • Female 53 53 54 53
  • 18-24 years 17 17 16 18
  • 25-39 34 33 36 32
  • 40-54 28 27 30 28
  • 55-64 12 12 12 13
  • 65 years 9 11 6 8

Base total sample
13
Incidence of photography by age and gender
  • Females more likely than males to be
    photographers except for 55-64 years age group
  • Incidence significantly lower for 65 years age
    group.

Base all approached
14
The photographic life-cycle

Childhood..YouthEarly AdulthoodFamily.
Empty Nester
Life is more routine, fewer novel experiences
to merit photograph Key Trigger first child
Travel shots capturing scenery becomes
important First time events first Grand Final,
21st, new flat, engagement
Key Triggers grandchildren, retirement hobbies

Subject matter tends to be peer groups, first
school trips Taste of independence
Take shots of anything and everything
Act of taking shot and being seen behind camera
is important
Capturing the scene/the moment is key
Source qualitative research
15
The photographic dilemma
For the general consumer, photography is limited
to a means of capturing new/distinct/rare/unique
moments
As adult life settles into a routine, the
triggers for taking this type of shot present
themselves on a less regular basis
Photographic occasions limit themselves to
birthdays, family gatherings, engagements/weddings
, holidays
Many situations and scenes have already been
experienced and are absorbed as part of the
norm which means even fewer photographic
opportunities
Source qualitative research
16
Its all about memories ...
Source qualitative research
17
Memories ...
  • What motivates me to take more is looking back
    through the albums. It is so good to have all the
    pictures, it makes me want to go and buy a film.
  • I look back on the photos and remember how I
    was feeling, its like a diary without having to
    write it.
  • I remember that day like it was yesterday.
  • Im looking forward to showing pictures of my
    daughter naked at 6 months when shes at her
    21st.
  • I want the kids to have photos of themselves.

Source qualitative research
18
3. Camera ownership
19
Camera ownership
  • Seven percent of total (about 290,000 people) did
    not own a camera but were looking to buy one
  • These were more likely to be younger respondents
    than older.

Base total sample
20
Type of camera owned
  • Over half of all cameras owned accounted for by
    compact/point-and-shoot
  • Very low ownership of APS (but possibility of
    confusion with compacts), and exceeded by Digital

All cameras Main camera Sample
Base 560 560 Weighted Base (000) 3,728 3,728
Compact/point-and-shoot 56 51 SLR/Single
Lens Reflex 39 35 Digital 4 3 Instant (eg.
Polaroid) 4 2 OTUC/disposable 4 2 APS/Advanced
Photo System 2 2 Dont know / not
sure 3 3 TOTAL 113 100
Possibility of confusion by respondents
Base people who currently own camera
21
Type of camera owned by age and gender
  • Males more likely than females to own an SLR
  • Younger people more likely to own a
    compact/point-and-shoot

Base people who currently own camera
22
Why more than one ?
  • Ive got two, I find that one doesnt always
    suit the purpose if you go to a restaurant,
    instead of going with a big cumbersome one, you
    have one that fits in your top pocket the other
    one is a better quality SLR for holidays and
    scenery

Source qualitative research
23
Accessories owned
  • Potential opportunities for further equipment
    sales due to relatively low penetration of
  • extra lens (SLR owners)
  • tripod and bag/satchell (all owners)

Main camera Sample Base 560 Weighted Base
(000) 3,728 Separate wide angle lens
(base SLR owners only) 37 Separate telephoto
lens (base SLR owners only) 41 Tripod (base
all camera owners) 20 Bag or satchell(a)
(base all camera owners) 35 (a) Note
in addition to bag that came with camera
Base people who currently own camera
24
4. Beliefs about main camera
25
Beliefs about main camera
  • Some opportunities for consumer training
  • Battery life a problem for some
  • Some opportunities for (replacement or
    additional) camera sales because too
    complicated/dont understand how to use it

Agree/agree strongly Sample
Base 560 Weighted Base (000) 3,728
Easy to use and operate 97 Takes good
pictures 95 Film is easy to load 94
Batteries last a long time 81 Gives me a lot
of flexibility 75 I can be really creative
with it 55 Probably does lot more than I
know 53 Feels a bit too complicated 10

Base people who currently own camera
26
Beliefs about main camera (cont)
  • Consumers may not be completely happy with some
    aspects, but it still takes good pictures
  • Nonetheless, some opportunities for (replacement
    or additional) camera sales because too
    basic/old-fashioned

Agree/agree strongly Sample
Base 560 Weighted Base (000) 3,728
Reliable and dependable 94 Happy for others to
see me using it 89 Nice and light 81 Its
stylish - has a nice look 81 Small and compact,
fits in purse or pocket 58 Bit too basic - not
enough features 34 Its a bit old-fashioned I
feel behind the times 28 Im a bit ashamed of
it 8
Base people who currently own camera
27
Beliefs about main camera (cont)
  • Males slightly more likely to nominate ability to
    be creative
  • Females slightly more likely to nominate small
    and compact

Base people who currently own camera
28
Beliefs about main camera (cont)
  • Younger respondents (18-24 years) more likely to
    nominate too basic
  • Older respondents (65 years) more likely to
    nominate small/compact

Base people who currently own camera
29
5. Ideal camera
30
Ideal camera
  • Significant interest in small/compact/light
    weight cameras

Multi-response (ie. Respondent could
nominate more than one answer) Sample
Base 600 Weighted Base (000) 4,015
Compact 15 Small 14 Light weight 14 Easy
to carry / portable 3 Not bulky / not too
big 2 Looks good / stylish 2 Strong / shock
resistant 2 Fits into bag / packs well for
travelling 2 NET physical features /
size 37
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
31
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Significant interest in ease of use / lack of
    complication

Multi-response Sample Base 600 Weighted
Base (000) 4,015 Easy / simple to
use 29 Not complicated / not too
technical 5 Minimal adjustment / minimal fuss
with functions 4 Just point and
shoot 4 Convenient / handy 3 No unnecessary
features / minimal features 3 Does
everything 3 Easy to load 3 Flexible /
versatile 2 Easy to understand / follow
instructions 2 Does the job / gets job done /
does what it should 2 Basic 2 NET ease of
use / convenience 47
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
32
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Interest in ability to take clear / high quality
    photos in all conditions
  • Digital clearly of relevance (but no mention of
    APS)

Multi-response Sample Base 600 Weighted
Base (000) 4,015 Takes good / quality
photos 18 Digital 6 Takes clear / high
definition / high resolution photos 5 Reliable
5 Takes good photos in all light / weather
conditions 3 Good camera / good quality /
professional 2 NET performance 34
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
33
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Again, ease of use is of some importance

Multi-response Sample Base 600 Weighted
Base (000) 4,015 Automatic / fully
automatic 9 Auto focus 8 Auto
flash 6 Auto winding 3 Auto exposure /
lighting control 2 NET automatic
functions 21
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
34
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Nonetheless, some consumers are feature-oriented

Multi-response Sample Base 600 Weighted
Base (000) 4,015 Lots of / more
functions / features 7 Red eye
reduction 6 Choice of automatic or manual
operation 5 Takes panoramic shots 4 Date
function 3 All functions 3 Flash / inbuilt
flash 3 Download into computer / over
phone 2 Manual functions 2 Variable
focus 2 NET other features /
functions 34
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
35
Ideal camera (cont)
  • And some want the flexibility of different lenses

Multi-response Sample Base 600 Weighted
Base (000) 4,015 Zoom
lens 13 Variety / range of lenses / able to
change 3 Good lens 2 Auto zoom lens 2 NET
lens / lenses 22
Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
36
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Females more likely to nominate
    small/compact/lightweight etc and ease of use
  • Males more likely to nominate performance,
    automatic functions and other
    features/functions.

Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
37
Ideal camera (cont)
  • Older people (25 years) more likely to nominate
    ease of use
  • Younger people (18-54 years) more likely to
    nominate takes good photos and other
    features/functions younger people (18-24
    years) more likely to nominate small / compact /
    lightweight.

Base total sample - people who currently own or
who plan to buy camera
38
6. Who takes the pictures in the household ?
39
Who takes the pictures ?
  • Females and older people (65 years) slightly
    more likely to take the pictures

Base total sample
40
Who is the other person ?
  • Other person more likely to be female

Respondent Total Males Females Sample
Base 243 107 136 Weighted Base
(000) 1,635 834 800 Male 46 13 80 Fema
le 54 87 20 Under 18 years 5 2 8 18-24
12 14 11 25-34 24 27 22 35-44 22 26 18 45-54 1
8 13 24 55-64 11 12 9 65 years 7 6 9
Base people who do not take most of the
pictures themselves
41
7. Film usage
42
Film usage per household
  • Higher film usage in households with young
    children, or in households with younger
    respondents

Base total sample
43
Film usage per household (cont)
  • Higher film usage in households where respondents
    use album or display to show their pictures

Base total sample
44
Exposures per roll
  • Nearly two-thirds of the market is 24 exposures

Base total sample
45
Type of film used most often
  • Majority of market is 35mm

Base total sample
46
8. Photographic behaviour and occasions
47
Key patterns in the evolution of photographic
behaviour
  • Some of the first memories of taking shots are
    often linked to school trips where the child is
    able to act independently. The subject focus is
    peer groups and social events. The act of taking
    the photographs is as important as the end result
    as it allows social interaction and brings a
    sense of self-importance.
  • One of the next major triggers is associated with
    travel. Once in a lifetime extended trips
    abroad bring an intense series of new and unique
    experiences, people, and adventures these are
    perfect candidates for capture on film
  • to preserve the memories for the individual
  • to be able to share the experiences with friends
    and relatives once back home.
  • At 17, I was going overseas and a friend
    bought me a cameraI still have the same brand.

Source qualitative research
48
Photographic occasions
  • What most commonly becomes a photographic
    occasion is any time consumers want to capture
    memories to gather concrete physical pieces of
    memory in the form of a photograph
  • dont trust memory (in particular with details)
    photographs are more vivid
  • memories often need to be triggered by something
    concrete like a photograph
  • photographs make memories easier to share.

Source qualitative research
49
Influence of the first time effect
  • The First Time Effect helps to explain why
    fewer photographs may be taken in early adulthood
    (before starting a family)
  • The First Time Effect relates to
  • choice of subject matter
  • the associated experience
  • the act of taking photographs.

Source qualitative research
50
The associated experience diminishes interest
overtime
  • As with all life experiences, the interest and
    excitement of doing something for the first time
    is often greater than on subsequent occasions
  • For example the most common rekindling of
    interest in photography is starting a family i.e.
    the birth of the first child the number of
    photographs taken is often prolific however for
    the second child the levels of picture taking are
    not so high as the experience is no longer
    unique.

Source qualitative research
51
Other reasons why photograph taking diminishes
  • The following are also reasons given for taking
    fewer photographs
  • Realisation the quality of shots is not getting
    any better
  • Lack of time
  • Not the accepted norm to be walking around with a
    camera
  • More self conscious as an adult and less likely
    to organise group shots or want to put self in
    front of the lens (particularly women)
  • Taking responsibility for the camera when out for
    the day fear of losing it/having it stolen
  • Bulk of carrying the camera around not always
    practical.

Source qualitative research
52
Other reasons why photograph taking diminishes
(cont)
  • I used to be right into it in my younger days,
    now Ive just got a 35mm does everything
    cameraI take snap shots at parties, that sort of
    thing.
  • I used to get carried away Id come back from
    Malaysia with 20 rolls of filmnow Im very
    selectiveyou come home and put it in a box under
    the bed, then you die and it gets thrown away.
  • I used to take scenery and views but only some
    of them have meaning over time.
  • I remember going down to the Harbour and to get
    some shots of the QE2, now I can download them to
    my PC from the internet

Source qualitative research
53
Other reasons why photograph taking diminishes
(cont)
  • If youre going the same route everyday, theres
    nothing much to see.
  • Sometimes if Im going bush walking, Ill want
    to travel light and I think I wont need the
    camera today, and sure enough theres something
    sensational, usually a viewyou want a good
    camera for that and its a bit heavy.
  • I was better with my first child but this time
    round Im not so organised.

Source qualitative research
54
When would people like to take photos ?
  • Interest tends to be associated with the
    perceived appropriateness of the occasion,
    coupled with the frequency of experiencing the
    event

Base total sample
55
When would people like to take photos ? (cont)
  • When occasions of some interest are excluded, a
    party/dinner/BBQ gathering with friends/family,
    and when kids do something new/interesting
    become relatively more important

Base total sample
56
I wish Id brought my camera
  • Females more likely than males, and younger more
    likely than older, to say there had been at least
    one occasion in the last three months when they
    would say I wish I had brought my camera

Base total sample
57
I wish Id brought my camera (cont)
  • Significant incidence and wide range of occasions
    / situations
  • Suggests feasibility of a marketing catchline I
    wish Id brought my camera to capitalise on
    feelings of disappointment / missing out.

Sample Base 375 Weighted Base
(000) 2,475 Beautiful scenery / nice
views 9 With friends / visiting friends /
friends gathering 9 Holidays /
travelling 8 Birthday 8 Party /
parties 8 Kids / grandkids playing / kids doing
things 6 With family / visiting
family 6 Outings 6 Kids sporting
activities 5 Wedding / anniversary /
engagement 5 Family gatherings 4
Base all who wish they had brought camera at
least once in last three months
58
9. Consumer motivations for taking photographs
59
Motivators for photography
  • Three broad components that to different degrees
    motivate consumers to participate in photography
    mood, subject and ability.
  • Mood
  • Photographic occasions are invariably linked to
    positive emotional feelings enjoyment, happy
    events, excitement, love and relaxed times.
  • In the absence of these emotions photography may
    not even be thought of.
  • Subject
  • Whilst growing up, the act of taking the
    photograph is as important as the end result
    because the focus is on the here and now. Later
    in life the emphasis shifts to bring the moment
    to the foreground and the ideal is to capture the
    memory, hence the focus is on preservation for a
    later date.

Source qualitative research
60
Motivators for photography (cont)
  • Subject (cont)
  • When looking back over photographs, their true
    worth emerges. It may not have seemed like the
    right time/place to be taking photographs but at
    a later date the shots are appreciated.
  • Therefore there may be many more photographic
    opportunities that are never realised.
  • Consumers will also see different photographic
    occasions as more or less important/worth as a
    subject.
  • Own ability
  • Confidence levels can influence the desire to
    take shots. If the pictures dont turn out so
    well, the photographer may be dissuaded
  • Conversely, even though the end result may not be
    perfect, snap happy photographers still endeavour
    to have a record of the event

Source qualitative research
61
Mixed emotions associated with the expected result
  • When I photograph something, I feel excited and
    anxious excited because I know Ill have a
    memory of the occasion and anxious because Im
    not sure how well the shot will come out.
  • Im always on a high, I cant wait to develop it
    and yet when I do Im always disappointed, I
    think , Is that what I was excited about?
  • It makes you feel happy but sometimes its
    incredibly frustrating when the kids wont smile,
    theyve got chocolate on their face.
  • I hope I wound it on properly before I took it.

Source qualitative research
62
10. Advanced Photo System (APS)
63
Awareness of APS / Advanced Photo Systems
  • Given intended status of APS in the industry, the
    lack of awareness is disappointing

Sample Base 600 Weighted Base
(000) 4,015 Yes 35 No 65
Base total sample
64
Awareness of APS features / benefits
  • Even amongst those aware of APS, awareness of
    features / benefits is low

Unprompted Sample Base 221 Weighted Base
(000) 1,421 Dont have to load film -
just drop canister into camera 16 Can alternate
between three sizes or formats of photos 15 When
processing done, receive print containing
thumbnail copies 11 Dont have to handle
negatives at any stage 9 Can change roll of film
at any time and back without spoiling
photos 6 Other 17 Dont know 63
Base people aware of APS / Advanced Photo Systems
65
Interest in APS / Advanced Photo Systems
  • Interest is quite strong overall

Sample Base 591 Weighted Base
(000) 3,954 A lot of
interest 25 Some interest 40 Not much
interest 21 No interest at all 12
65
Base people whose current main camera not APS
66
Interest in APS (cont)
  • Interest in APS is stronger amongst females and
    amongst younger respondents

Base people whose current main camera not APS
67
11. Digital photography
68
Awareness of digital cameras and photography
  • Awareness is exceptionally high (particularly in
    comparison with APS)

Sample Base 600 Weighted Base
(000) 4,015 Yes 85 No / dont know
/ not sure 15
Base total sample
69
Awareness of digital features / benefits
  • Awareness of features / benefits is high

Unprompted Sample Base 515 Weighted Base
(000) 3,409 To see photos, need to
download from camera into computer 45 Can store
photos on computer, edit/view images with
software 37 Dont use normal film - pictures
stored on memory card/disk 24 Can take as many
shots as like and delete the duds 16 After
take the photo, can see result on small screen on
camera 15 Dont get film developed and processed
in the normal way 10 You can email copies of
your photos to friends 4 Only way to get copies
is to get them done on colour printer 4 Photos
dont look as good as when they are
printed 2 Other 8 Dont know 20
Base people aware of digital cameras and
photography
70
Interest in digital cameras and photography
  • Interest is very strong overall

Sample Base 581 Weighted Base
(000) 3,896 A lot of
interest 37 Some interest 28 Not much
interest 15 No interest at all 20
65
Base people whose current main camera not digital
71
Interest in digital photography (cont)
  • In contrast with APS, interest in digital is
    stronger amongst males
  • As with APS, interest is stronger amongst younger
    respondents

Base people whose current main camera not digital
72
Interest in digital photography (cont)
  • I personally like to have hard copy, I sit at a
    computer screen enough..theyre not portable
  • Theres a camera with a little screen so you can
    actually see how they come out on the side
  • With a digital, it would be bang, theres a
    shot, do I like it? Yes Ill keep itits more
    instantaneous
  • I like to get the shot right first time and Im
    thinking with a digital video camera Id link the
    PC through a video capture card and play it back
    frame by frame
  • You can buy photographic paper or download your
    CD roms to the processor for them to print
  • Coupled with the computer you get a CD burner,
    then you can store the images and build up a
    library without having stacks of albums, just a
    couple of disks

Source qualitative research
73
12. Film processing
74
Film processing
  • Film Processing is an area of the photographic
    process which has the opportunity to greatly
    reward or, alternatively, disappoint consumers.
  • Because many consumers dont understand the
    processing of photographs there are many mixed
    beliefs about processing services
  • 1 Hour processing
  • for some, quick, convenient and the only
    processing they use
  • for others, expensive and/or poor quality
  • Postal processing
  • for some, too slow and sceptical about where
    films go
  • for others, easy, cheap, and better quality
    because time is taken

Source qualitative research
75
Film processing (cont)
  • Because many consumers dont understand the
    processing of photographs there are many mixed
    beliefs about processing services (cont)
  • Processing machines
  • for some, automated process leads to different
    photographs being processed the same way and
    turning out under or over-exposed
  • for others, automated means it avoids human error
  • Processing outlets
  • Camera stores/processing labs tend to be more
    expensive but specialised and therefore better
    quality
  • Pharmacies with their own processing unit offer
    more personalised care, depending on the pharmacy
  • Department stores send the film out to other labs
    but offer no value or quality checking themselves

Source qualitative research
76
Film processing (cont)
  • Because many consumers dont understand the
    processing of photographs there are many mixed
    beliefs about processing services (cont)
  • Errors in photographs
  • for many, the fault of the photographer or the
    lighting in which they are taking the photograph
  • for few, an error in the printing of the
    photographs
  • for others, the camera, inappropriate film etc.

Source qualitative research
77
Feelings about photos taken
  • Older people (65 years) are more likely to be
    pleased with the photos they take than are other
    age groups

Base total sample
78
Allocation of responsibility when disappointed
with photos
  • When disappointed with photos, people are far
    more likely to blame themselves than
    anything/anyone else
  • Film and processing receive the lowest
    mentions.

Sample Base 600 Weighted Base
(000) 4,015 You yourself 74 The
camera 14 The film 5 The processing 7
Base total sample
79
Processing is viewed differently depending on the
consumer type
  • Trigger Happy
  • - go to any outlet
  • - driven by convenience
  • - machines are all the same therefore processing
    will be the same
  • - require very little customer service
  • - and see customer service as being the same
    across outlets
  • Functional Creatives
  • - quality of processing influenced by different
    factors frequency of changing chemicals, quality
    of paper used, having a trained eye on hand to
    look over photos
  • - like to go to the same developer processing
    done in-store, build up rapport with technician,
    ask for advice or re-processing where necessary

Source qualitative research
80
Processing is viewed differently depending on the
consumer type (cont)
  • Trigger Happy
  • Wherever I am at the time
  • To me its almost like filling your car with
    petrol, if its Ampol or Caltex it doesnt really
    matter, theyve all got the same machines
  • You go and do your shopping and come back an
    hour later and theyre ready. I know its more
    expensive but its a convenience thing for me.
  • Functional Creatives
  • I think its like going to the hairdressers, I
    go to the one place, I know the people personally
    and I trust them
  • I worry some places dont change their
    chemicals, I go where I get a feeling of quality
    control
  • I look at the photos in-store to see if there is
    a need to ask them to be re-done

Source qualitative research
81
Outlet type where normally get photos processed
  • Specialist on-site outlets account for half the
    market

Prompted Sample Base 600 Weighted Base
(000) 4,015 Specialist photographic
outlet with on-site processing 51 Chemist or
pharmacy with on-site processing 15 Chemist or
pharmacy without on-site processing 14 Discount
retail outlet like K-mart, Woolworths, Coles
etc 10 Convenience store, newsagent, etc without
on-site processing 4 Major retail chain like
Myer, Grace Bros, DJs etc 1 Other 4 Dont
know 1
Base total sample
82
Views about knowledge of photography where
normally get photos processed
  • On-site (incl. discount retail) associated with
    higher perceptions of knowledge about photography

Base total sample
83
Views about care where normally get photos
processed
  • On-site (excl. discount retail) associated with
    higher perceptions of care

Base total sample
84
Why perceptions of poor care where normally get
photos processed
Multi-response Sample Base 148 Weighted
Base (000) 1,028 Film is sent away
for processing 5 Staff dont care about
quality / they dont take special care /
finger marks on photos 3 Poor quality photos /
bad photos / poor results 3 Dont know if they
know their job / staff dont know much 3 Busy
staff / large volume to process 3 Negligence /
damaged photos/negatives / lost or missing
photos 2 Disinterested staff / staff not
interested in photography 2 Poor colours /
colours dont come out 2 NET negative
comments 26
Base those who think outlet doesnt take much
care in processing photos
85
13. Film speed
86
Awareness of film speeds
  • Most claim to be aware of different film speeds

Sample Base 600 Weighted Base
(000) 4,105 Yes 85 No 13 Dont
know / not sure 2
Base total sample
87
Film speeds aware of
  • Lower awareness of high (ie. 800 ISO) film speed

Sample Base 516 Weighted Base
(000) 3,414 100 ISO/ASA 73 200 62
400 72 800 14 Other 12 Dont know / not
sure 14
Base those aware of film speeds
88
Film speed used most often
  • Negligible usage of high (ie. 800 ISO) film speed

Sample Base 516 Weighted Base
(000) 3,414 100 ISO/ASA 32 200 25
400 35 800 1 Other 5 Dont know / not
sure 15
Base those aware of film speeds
89
Film speed awareness versus use
  • 800 ISO under-utilised relative to awareness

Base those aware of film speeds
90
Perceptions of role played by film speed
  • Nearly one-third of those who claim to be aware
    of different film speeds not sure about role
    played

Multi-response Sample Base 516 Weighted
Base (000) 3,414 Faster speed better
for action shots 27 Faster speed better for
shots where there isnt much light 24 Slower
speed better for shots where there is a lot of
light 15 Slower speed better for shots where not
a lot of movement 13 Faster speed better for
shots taken indoors 7 Slower speed better for
shots taken out of doors 5 Other 19 Dont know
/ not sure 31
Base those aware of film speeds
91
14. Role of the Internet and computing
92
Where does the Internet fit in ?
  • Excellent tool for gathering information about
    cameras
  • more in-depth information about each model than
    in store
  • comparative sites are favoured
  • more objective precis, consumer feedback, advice,
    saves on search time
  • Still need to visit the store to make the
    purchase decision
  • ergonomics (how camera feels and works in the
    hand) very important
  • subjective preference, need to have the
    reassurance of seeing it for real
  • Once purchase decision made, sceptical about
    buying on-line because of the security concerns
  • future expectation of cost savings through
    on-line purchase
  • may buy more homogenous item without tactile
    experience e.g. film, tripod

Source qualitative research
93
Where does the Internet fit in ? (cont)
  • They have a lot more information about each
    individual camera on the Internet, than they have
    in stores.but I would want to try it out before
    I bought it
  • If it was something like a tripod, things that
    dont really alter what the picture looks like,
    Id buy off the Internet
  • Im still very coy about buying over the
    Internet, I think its still a very immature
    market

Source qualitative research
94
Access to Internet
  • Males and younger respondents more likely to have
    access to Internet

Base total sample
95
Where access to Internet
  • Most (over three-quarters) have access at home

Sample Base 382 Weighted Base
(000) 2,583 At home 79 At
work 45 At school / university 13 Internet
café / cyber cafe 3 Other 5
Base those who have access to Internet
96
Access to computer at home
  • Males and younger to middle-aged respondents more
    likely to have computer at home

Base total sample
97
Does home computer have CD or CD-ROM drive ?
  • Almost all have access to CD/CD-ROM drive at home

Sample Base 418 Weighted Base
(000) 2,788 Yes 92 No 8
Base those with access to computer at home
98
Access to colour printer at home ?
  • Three-quarters have access to colour printer at
    home

Sample Base 418 Weighted Base
(000) 2,788 Yes 76 No 24
Base those with access to computer at home
99
Level of comfort in using computers
  • Males and younger people more likely to feel
    very comfortable in using computers

Base total sample
100
15. Quantitative segmentation
101
Approach
  • Based on the preliminary findings of the
    qualitative research, 46 statements concerning
    attitudes to and behaviour re photography were
    rated by all respondents on a 4-point
    agree/disagree scale
  • Responses were used as input into a cluster
    analysis routine - this resulted in the
    identification of five attitudinal / behavioural
    segments in the population of photographers
  • Scores (ie. the proportions of agree/agree
    strongly) by segment on each of the 46 statements
    were calculated
  • Scores which were two more standard errors
    distant from the average for the total sample
    were identified for each statement
  • These enabled the characterisation of each
    segment in terms of attitudes and behaviour,
    which may be summarised as shown overleaf

102
Summary of segmentsattitudinal and behavioural
characterisation
  • Segment 1 Trigger Happy (33 of photographers)
  • perception of not being a good photographer
  • take lots of shots
  • usually get double prints
  • happy with quality of photos taken
  • happy to take camera out with him/her
  • not very interested in experimenting/getting
    settings right
  • not so interested in digital photography

103
Summary of segments (cont)
  • Segment 2 Disappointeds (6 of photographers)
  • tend to leave it to others to take photos
  • dont feel comfortable taking photos at social
    gatherings
  • disappointed with quality of their own shots
  • would like to be able to take better photos
  • cant see point in taking lots of photos, as most
    dont come out
  • nonetheless, use albums and enjoy showing photos
    to others

104
Summary of segments (cont)
  • Segment 3 Careful Clickers (15 of
    photographers)
  • like to take time to set up each shot
  • choose shots carefully so as not to use too much
    film
  • find photography to be expensive, which limits
    increased activity
  • likely to take several shots of same
    subject/different settings
  • keeps photos well-organised
  • interested in quick advice for taking better
    photos

105
Summary of segments (cont)
  • Segment 4 Functional Creatives (26 of
    photographers)
  • like to experiment with camera and manual
    settings
  • not as interested as others in camera portability
  • think its worth taking time to set up each shot
  • more interested than others in the quality of the
    photo
  • tend to see photography as a creative outlet
  • not unhappy with quality of photos taken

106
Summary of segments (cont)
  • Segment 5 Holiday/Specialists (20 of
    photographers)
  • tend to take photos only on holidays/special
    occasions
  • dont really enjoy taking photos
  • tend not to have camera on hand

107
Segments by statements
Segment No.
1
2
3
4
5
Segment Base
204
33
88
161
114
Weighted Base ('000)
1,299
248
615
1,042
811
Weighted Percent ()
32.4
6.2
15.3
26
20.1

-
I'm not a good photographer but still take lots
of shots

-
Chose camera partly because really portable

-
No real difference between types of processing
outlets

-
Dont care how good photo is - so long as
capture the moment

-
Try to have camera on-hand in case see something
worth photo

-
I think my camera looks really stylish

-
When get film processed, usually get double prints

-
Like to experiment with camera /use different
functions
Base total sample
108
Segments by statements (cont)
Base total sample
109
Segments by statements (cont)
Base total sample
110
Segments by statements (cont)
Base total sample
111
Segments by statements (cont)
Base total sample
112
Segments by statements (cont)
Base total sample
113
Segment characterisationrespondent gender
  • Trigger Happy segment more likely to be female

Base total sample
114
Segment characterisationrespondent age
  • Trigger Happy and Functional Creatives segments
    less likely to contain younger (18-24 years)
    people
  • Functional Creatives and Holiday/Specialists less
    likely to contain older (65 years) people

Base total sample
115
Segment characterisationno. children under five
in household
  • Trigger Happy segment most likely to have
    children under five years in household
  • Holiday/Specialists least likely to have children
    under five years

Base total sample
116
Segment characterisationmarital status
  • Trigger Happy segment most likely to have
    children at home
  • Disappointeds and Holiday/Specialists most likely
    to have no children at home

Base total sample
117
Segment characterisationannual film usage per
household
  • Highest burn rate from Functional/Creatives
  • Lowest burn rate from Disappointeds and
    Holiday/Specialists

Base total sample
118
16. Paths for future growth
119
Paths for future growth
  • There are three broad ways of examining how
    levels of photograph taking, processing and
    development are currently impacted and to
    determine how future growth may be encouraged.

Lifestage of a Photographer
Type of Photographer
Experience of Photography
Different types of consumers participate to
different degrees in photography encouraging
different consumers requires targeted strategies.
Within the process of taking/processing
photographs there are opportunities to make it
more rewarding
There are different lifestage changes that impact
on levels of photography which cant be altered
BUT by targeting these lifestages in different
ways it is possible to encourage the highest
level possible.
Encourage further/more frequent participation
Encourage growth of high burn groups and
encourage higher burn behaviour from other
consumer segments
Encouraging greater levels of participation given
a particular lifestage
120
Paths for future growth
  • Most consumers do not continually take
    photographs in fact many do not regular even
    think about photography.
  • Consumers experience of photography follows a
    cycle of emotions
  • From the point where photographs arent being
    taken or even thought about.
  • Something triggers photograph taking and
    consumers develop expectations about the finished
    pictures
  • The experience of film processing which is a mix
    of high expectation, anticipation and
    trepidation.
  • To the final outcomes which are obviously
    measured against expectationsdisappointment may
    affect later
  • photograph taking.

Source qualitative research
121
Paths for future growth - experience of
photography
  • If we examine ordinary consumers, we can see a
    sort of photographic cycle ...
  • and there are opportunities to smooth out the
    cycle, or at least lift the burn rate across the
    cycle

Take Roll for Processing High expectations
Good Equipment High expectations
Some photos taken Photos of good subjects
Trepidation / Anticipation
No photos taken Not top of mind No
camera/film No picture occasions
Theoretical Photographic Cycle
Film collected Outcome lower than expectations
Source qualitative research
122
Paths for future growth - experience of
photography
  • The aim is to find triggers (and barriers) to
    modify the photographic cycle ...
  • that is, opportunities to smooth out the cycle,
    or at least lift the burn rate across the cycle

Better Equipment but realistic expectations
Take Roll for Processing Again realistic
expectations
Can we broaden the definition of good subjects?
Trepidation / Anticipation
Film collected Deliver more of the good
pictures (different sizes etc.)
Theoretical Photographic Cycle
Can we make photos more top of mind, cameras/flim
more accessible?
Source qualitative research
123
Paths for future growth - type of photographer
  • Trigger Happy
  • Need to be guided towards fool-proof film and
    cameras unlikely to respond to instruction
  • Encourage broader definition of subject and
    enhance experience of family photographs by
    offering display options eg. Frames, albums etc
  • Offer more opportunities/ways to share
    photographs with others eg. Mini-albums, extra
    copies/different sizes, mini-photographs
  • Disappointeds
  • Encourage sharing opportunities, in terms of
    enlargements, framing etc

124
Paths for future growth - type of photographer
(cont)
  • Careful Clickers
  • Need a radical change in photography to see that
    there is something new and encourage re-trial eg.
    digital photography
  • Unlikely to be easily encouraged except by
    aggressive pricing structures and low budget
    options
  • Easy-to-read brochures or leaflets on different
    aspects of how to take better pictures could be
    appreciated

125
Paths for future growth - type of photographer
(cont)
  • Functional Creatives
  • Processing and film developments that offer
    artistic qualities would encourage even more
    photography and experimentation
  • Enhanced camera technology most likely to
    encourage greater participation of these
    consumers
  • Cameras that offer technical features in a
    convenient format could encourage these
    hobbyists to consider a more portable option.

126
Paths for future growth - type of photographer
(cont)
  • Holiday/Specialists
  • Promote the range of Single Use Cameras,
    highlighting the benefits of different types for
    different occasions

127
Paths for future growth - lifestage of
photographer
  • Encouragement at Different Lifestages
  • Early Childhood - encourage hobby development
    via parents communicating why photography is an
    excellent hobby and giving parents an
    easy/relatively cheap way of introducing the
    hobby to their child
  • Older children - encourage directly via
    personalised cameras (children's own)
    especially Single Use Cameras. Print options that
    are mini or fun are likely to attract older
    children

128
Paths for future growth - lifestage of
photographer (cont)
  • Encouragement at Different Lifestages
  • Early Adulthood - need more reasons to take
    photographs (beyond travel) and cameras which are
    acceptable to be seen taking everywhere
  • Young Families - little encouragement needed to
    trigger photography but enhancing the outcome at
    the processing level will make the process more
    rewarding and more likely to continue as children
    get older
  • Empty Nesters - need reasons to reignite
    photography and for some to taking it up as a
    hobby may be the initiator

129
Paths for future growth - photo taking norms
Because...
Therefore...
And so...
  • Communicate idea that cameras are an acceptable
    everyday accessory, like mobile phones
  • Promote easy-to-carry cameras for everyday use
  • Promote affordable and fashionable everyday
    cameras
  • Communicate notion that to avoid disappointment
    and regret later in life, take more photos now
  • Camera use involves feelings of
    self-consciousness
  • I wish Id brought my camera a common
    experience
  • The value of photos are more so recognised in
    hindsight

Increase camera use, photo taking and increase
burn-rate
130
Paths for future growth - photo subject
Because...
Therefore...
And so...
  • Play on the need to capture special times on
    film, times change so fast, people change so fast
    - you dont want to miss out and not have
    memories to look back on
  • Broaden definition of photographic subject
    matter through communication and demonstration
  • Communicate notion that everyday is unique and
    had the potential for photo taking

Occasions for photo taking generally limited
to first-time experiences or special events
Increase photo taking behaviour and increase
burn-rate of photographers
131
Paths for future growth - equipment
Because...
Therefore...
And so...
  • Interest in APS is high but awareness is low
  • For many the ideal camera is easy to use and
    compact in size
  • Review APS communication to
  • Promote APSs easy to use features further
  • Develop consumer interest in APS

132
Paths for future growth - photo taking ability
Because...
Therefore...
And so...
  • Ensure camera manuals and technical information
    is consumer friendly and easy to understand
  • Offer clear and concise photo tips via brochures
    at processing outlets and equipment retailers
  • Offer photographic community support via help
    line or email
  • Encourage digital camera use so that immediate
    feedback and re-shoot of photo is possible

Photographers blame mostly themselves for bad
photos
  • Build confidence in the amateur photographers
    ability to take photos
  • Help photographer get more satisfaction from
    shots

133
Paths for future growth - displaying
Because...
Therefore...
And so...
  • Develop ways of bringing photos into more
    interactive situations (not just stuck in the
    album or in a box)
  • Have photos in a more dynamic environment so
    they get noticed everyday eg. computer screen
    savers, magnetic frames
  • Create mechanism to display photos in a manner
    which is easy to change and update to maintain
    interest

Photo displaying behaviour associated with
higher burn-rate
Increase photographer burn-rate
134
16. Appendices Qualitative Stage Discussion
Guide Quantitative Stage Questionnaire
135
Discussion Guide
  • Discussion Guide
  • Introduction (5 minutes)
  • Introduce yourself
  • Explain confidentiality/logistics (ie, taping the
    interview, length of group etc)
  • Purpose of research project in broad terms
  • Explain group rules (or use cards)
  • Interested in a range of opinions not a
    consensus
  • Importance of individual opinions
  • OK to disagree with each other / ask questions of
    other respondents
  • Importance of full participation
  • OK to disagree with each other / ask questions of
    other respondents
  • Importance of full participation
  • Need to use your imagination and think out side
    the box
  • Ask group to introduce themselves
  • Purpose To inform and relax respondents, as well
    as setting up the right environment for discussion

136
Discussion Guide (cont)
  • Photographic background Topic Area One (10-15
    minutes)
  • What we are talking about tonight is photography
    and all aspects of photography
  • Tell me about your first experience of taking
    photographs? What prompted you to take your first
    pictures? What were they of? When/ On what
    occasions did you take pictures? What sort of
    camera did you have? How did you know what to
    do?
  • How does that differ to what you do today?
    (Subject /occasion / equipment/ motivation)
  • I want you to tell me how you feel about taking
    pictures and I want you to have a go at drawing
    how you feel. Grab a pen/pencil/crayon and a
    piece of paper. Try and show in your drawing how
    you feel about taking photographs - dont
    describe what you do, just try and show how you
    feel about it. Im not expecting great works of
    art, just have a gothe drawings might be
    unrecognisable to us, they may be quite abstract
    thats fine as long as they represent how you
    feel about it. Ill give you about 5 minutes.

137
Discussion Guide (cont)
  • Photographic background Topic Area One (cont)
  • Thanks for doing that. Can you now add 3 words
    you would use to describe your feelings about
    taking photographs? Jot them down at the side of
    the picture.
  • Who wants to talk about their drawing and how
    they feel about taking photographs? (Quickly go
    round each person getting them to briefly
    describe what they have drawn, probe on relevant
    issues or take note and refer back at appropriate
    moment. Explore if this has changed over time
    from first experience to now.)
  • Occasions-usage
  • When do you find yourselves taking photographs?
    (Brainstorm and list on one half of flipchart)
  • What do you take photographs of? (Brainstorm and
    list on other half of flipchart)
  • What makes an occasion/ a subject /an event, a
    photo opportunity? How do you decide when to get
    the camera out/take the camera along?
  • So, how often would you say you take photos?
  • Who usually takes the shots? Why that person? How
    many photos do you take?

138
Discussion Guide (cont)
  • When do you NOT take photographs? Why? What are
    the barriers?
  • Are there times when you wish you had a camera in
    your hand but didnt take one along? What sort of
    moments are they? What happens next time you go
    to a similar event/see a similar subject? Why?
  • Photographic Needs
  • What are you looking to get from your
    photographs? (Hand out projective technique 1 and
    ask them to imagine what they would say to their
    photographs and how the photographs would
    respond, and importantly what they would be
    thinking sometimes we say one thing but are
    actually thinking another). Dont think about it
    long and hard, just write the first thing that
    comes to mind. Allow 5 minutes). What sort of
    comments did you make? (Discuss as a group)
  • Why take photographs? What are the benefits? How
    important are they in your life? Whats important
    to you ?

139
Discussion Guide (cont)
  • Photographic Needs (cont)
  • Imagine you are on your way to pick up your
    processed film, what expectations do you have
    about the photographs? (Are they satisfied with
    the outcome, do they expect all the shots to have
    some out, do they expect their to be some duds,
    will they blame the processing, the camera,
    themselves, the conditions? How do they feel
    about taking photograph