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Sustainable Development and Environment in a Globalizing World

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Geopolitics: Key features. Environment and development: the dilemma's ... Geopolitics - 1: The world. 191 UN member states. 35 very rich countries; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable Development and Environment in a Globalizing World


1
Sustainable Development and Environment in a
Globalizing World Opening Presentation of the
CourseOntwikkelingssamenwerking in theorie en
praktijk De VU in de Tropen Joyeeta
Gupta Institute for Environmental Studies,
Vrije Universiteit AmsterdamUNESCO-IHE Institute
for Water Education
2
Structure
  • Geopolitics Key features
  • Environment and development the dilemmas
  • Sustainability dilemmas of countries
  • Globalisation and impacts
  • Distribution of environmental space and the
    climate change regime
  • Towards constructive cooperative relationships

3
Geopolitics - 1 The world
  • 191 UN member states
  • 35 very rich countries
  • The rest from very poor to high middle income
    countries

The South
4
Geopolitics - 2 Negotiating blocs
  • G-77
  • OECD
  • Rest of the world

OECD
ROW
G-77
5
Geopolitics - 3 Relations
  • Peace (High politics)
  • Environment
  • Development
  • Finance and debt
  • Trade
  • Private international law

6
The key goals
  • How to achieve sustainable development?
  • Theory says -- by leap-frogging and learning from
    past mistakes! (Mistake optimism argument
    problem defined in terms of technology, easy to
    correct incrementally, gives direction,
    confidence in Norths leadership, reconfirms
    possibility of unchanged lifestyles for rich)

N
Environmental pollution
S
Development
7
Environment and development
  • However
  • the inverted U curve does not yet hold for global
    problems,
  • delinking may be followed by linking,
  • imitating production and consumption patterns of
    the North might not solve the problem
  • avoiding mistakes is costly

8
Demographic transition theory
Population
GDP
9
Economic Take-off theory
  • subsistence economies,
  • transitional stage - specialization and surplus
  • take-off - industrialization and investment
    increases, development of political and social
    institutions,
  • maturity, diversification, high mass consumption,
    service sector dominant.

10
Diverging Income Theory
Rich countries
GDP
Those in the middle
Poor countries
Time
11
Political stability theory
Rich countries
Variant 1 democratic- no hunger Variant 2
dictatorial - hunger
Political stability
Poor countries
GDP
12
Sustainable Development
  • Present and future generations
  • Economic, social and environmental
  • Law of Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable use
  • Precautionary principle
  • Equity and poverty alleviation
  • Common but differentiated responsibilities
  • Participation
  • Good Governance
  • Integration
  • But what is sustainable development?

13
Southern Sustainability Dilemmas
  • Development modernising without westernising?
  • Poverty- I surviving without squandering?
  • Poverty-II begging without mortgaging?
  • Privatisation-empowering private sector to solve
    public problems
  • Ecospace equity without responsibility
  • Economic short-term gain without long-term loss?
  • Negotiation-I negotiate pragmatically without
    being corrupted?
  • Negotiation-II empowering G-77 without being
    weakened

14
Northern Sustainability Dilemmas
  • Development further development without
    sacrificing?
  • Wealth - 1 spending without squandering?
  • Wealth - 2 assisting without compensating?
  • Wealth - 3 polluting without paying?
  • Privatization empowering private sector to solve
    public problems
  • Ecospace property rights or human rights
  • Economic short-term gain without long-term loss?
  • Negotiation-I negotiate pragmatically without
    being committed?

15
Globalisation
  • Media coverage
  • Explosion of foreign direct investment trade
  • World wide web
  • Integrated Financial markets
  • Changing labour migration
  • Common governance system
  • Greater wealth for all

16
But, globalisation can also lead to
Gaps, cleavage, exclusion
  • Closed markets
  • Disempowerment
  • Debt
  • Unequal treaties
  • Marginalisation
  • Dependence

17
The polluter pays principle
  • The polluter pays
  • The money is used to compensate and/or clean up
    the pollution
  • Adopted by the OECD
  • Not adopted at international level

18
Ecospace environmental utilisation space
  • There is a limit to how much resource extraction
    and resource pollution can take place
    globally.The environmental utilisation space is
    limited.
  • The question How should this limited space be
    divided among countries and peoples?

19
Ecospace and property rights in water
  • How does one share transboundary waters?

20
The key issue in the climate change regime is
  • How does one allocate emission rights?

21
The Climate Regime
  • Key dates 1992, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2005!
  • Key aim
  • stabilise GHG conc.
  • divide responsibilities
  • set up cooperative mechanisms like TOT, GEF, AIJ,
    JI, CDM, ET

22
Shifting paradigms
JUSSCANNZ
The EU
waiting for
waiting for
the key DCs
JUSSCANNZ
N
The South
waiting for
S
the North to
act
23
Possible Instruments in the Climate Change
Negotiations
  • Emissions Trading
  • Joint Implementation
  • Carbon Taxes
  • The EU bubble

24
Emission Trading theory
  • Fix total emissions divide it among parties and
    allow them to trade.
  • Effective because the total emissions are not
    exceeded
  • Efficient because countries can sell their
    excess and buy when they have shortage.
  • The main problem is how to allocate among
    parties
  • On a per capita basis
  • On grandfathering basis
  • On something in between
  • The other problem is how feasible is it?

25
Joint Implementation Theory
  • Definition Allow a foreign investor to invest in
    another country. The GHG emissions reduced as a
    result are then attributed to the foreign
    investor. This allows the foreign investor to
    seek the cheapest way to reduce emissions.
  • Problems
  • Base lines
  • How to share the credits
  • Is it additional?
  • Is it neo-colonialist?

26
Carbon Taxes
  • A tax is added on to the product. This increases
    the price of the product and thus encourages
    efficiency.
  • The problem is that each country has different
    fiscal systems and adopting a uniform carbon tax
    is not very easy.

27
The European Union Bubble
  • The EU has adopted a common target which is then
    divided among member countries. At present the
    division has been influenced by the tryptich
    method and bargaining.

28
Current situation in the climate change regime.
  • Joint Implementation among developed countries
  • Clean Development Mechanism between developed and
    developing countries
  • Emission Trading between developed countries
  • The Bubble within the EU

29
So
  • What do you think is the most elegant, efficient
    and environmentally effective method to reduce
    the emissions of greenhouse gas emissions ?
  • If the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions
    is seen as 200 units and there are 200 countries
    of which 35 are developed and the rest
    developing, how should the emissions be divided
    among countries?

30
EU and its contribution
  • Plus
  • emissions below 1990 levels
  • potential space from some new EU countries
  • Lots of policies in place, including with
    stakeholders
  • ET internally
  • Minus
  • what happens if coal lobby in Germany is strong
    and anti-nuclear lobby in France is strong?
  • What about new entrants without targets and the
    right to grow of less developed EU countries?
  • Policies in general implemented weakly.

31
India Is it making any contribution?
  • Since 1990
  • Liberalisation in 1991
  • Unbundling of electricity boards
  • Establishment of pricing Commissions
  • Renewable energy programmes
  • Liberalisation of cement, aluminium, iron and
    steel sectors

32
China Is it making any contribution?
  • Has decoupled its energy use from GDP
  • Is undergoing major transformations
  • Is closing down small, inefficient power plants
    and end-use plants
  • ..

33
China and India Afraid to make commitments
  • Data base very weak
  • In a state of structural transformation
    difficult to predict future
  • Some parts advanced, others not

34
Global expenditures and priorities
  • Basic education 6 B
  • Cosmetics USA 8 B
  • Water/san. 9 B
  • Ice-cream in EU 11 B
  • Repro. health 12 B
  • Military 780 B
  • World Bank - 21 B
  • UNDP - 2 B
  • UNEP - 242 M
  • UNCED - 625 B
  • GEF - 500 M

35
Tragedies of Governance - 1
  • Tragedy of Principles
  • Gap between principles and action
  • Tragedy of Over-Production
  • If production increases, prices fall
  • Tragedy of SAPs
  • Reduce subsidies on health/education shift to
    export products devalue currency
  • Tragedy of Food Aid Regimes
  • Policies are driven by domestic policies in
    powerful countries

36
Tragedies of governance - 2
  • Green revolution
  • Increases productivity but increases costs of
    inputs and has environmental impacts
  • Gene revolution and Pharming
  • Increases shelf life, but privatises knowledge
  • Tragedy of free trade
  • Not free, but corporate managed
  • EUs Common Agricultural Policy
  • Subsidies, export subsidies, dumping
  • Tragedy of fishery governance
  • Subsidised fishing in distant waters

37
Conclusion Towards constructive solutions
  • Law Working towards rule of law globally
  • Politics By developing democratic principles
    globally
  • Society By investing in human health and
    education world-wide
  • Economics By internalising environmental costs
  • Technology By investing in new technologies

38
Acknowledgements
  • Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research
    for funding on the
  • VIDI Project Intergovernmental and Private
    International Regimes Good Governance, the Rule
    of Law and Sustainable Development
  • IDPAD ProjectAlternative Development Paths
    Scope for Mobilising International Resources for
    Funding the Power Sector in India
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