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Source Water Protection

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Title: Source Water Protection


1
Source Water Protection
  • Best Management Practices and Other Measures for
    Protecting Drinking Water Supplies

2
Acknowledgements
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency would
like to acknowledge the contributions of the
members of the Source Water Protection Best
Management Practices Advisory Group, under the
leadership of Steven Ainsworth of the Office of
Ground Water and Drinking Water.
  • Robert Goo
  • Richard Gullick
  • Denise Hawkins
  • Joyce Hudson
  • Elizabeth Hunt
  • Paul Jehn
  • Joseph Lee
  • Marty Link
  • Ryan McReynolds
  • Karen Metchis
  • Douglas Minter
  • Beatriz Oliveira
  • Bruce Olsen
  • Roberta Parry
  • Kenneth Pelletier
  • Art Persons
  • Shari Ring
  • Andrea Ryon
  • Chi Ho Sham
  • Paul Shriner
  • Stephanie Vap-Morrow
  • Hal White
  • Pamla Wood
  • Rita Bair
  • James Bourne
  • Ross Brennan
  • Hamilton Brown
  • Richard Cobb
  • James Crawford
  • Anthony Dulka
  • Jack Falk
  • MaryJo Feuerbach
  • Nancy Fitz
  • Claire Gesalman

3
Drinking Water Academy
4
Objectives
  • Define source water and explain its importance
  • Describe potential threats to source water
  • Discuss SDWAs major source water protection
    programs
  • Define source water protection measures

5
Objectives
  • Discuss types of prevention measures
  • Describe measures for specific sources
  • Discuss what individuals and organizations can do
    to foster source water protection

6
Introduction to Source Water Protection
7
Definition and Importance of Source Water
Protection
  • Source water protection is defined as efforts to
    protect drinking water sources
  • Surface water
  • Ground water
  • Why protect source water?
  • Public health protection
  • Economic benefits
  • Environmental benefits
  • Public confidence

8
Benefits of Source Water Protection
9
Avoid Costs of Contamination
  • Quantifiable costs treatment and remediation
    finding and replacing water supplies public
    information campaigns regulatory compliance
    loss of property value and tax revenue
  • Less quantifiable costs health costs lost
    productivity lost economic development
    opportunities lost consumer confidence

10
Contamination Is Expensive
  • A community may spend millions of dollars
    responding to contamination

11
Saving Money Through Prevention
  • Cost savings via complying with standards
  • Monitoring waivers
  • Water as a commodity or raw material -- quality
    matters

12
Other Economic Benefits
  • Real estate values
  • Business development
  • Tax revenues
  • Jobs
  • Recreation and tourism revenue

13
Still More Economic Benefits
  • BMPs are standard operating procedures that can
    reduce the threats that activities at homes,
    businesses, agriculture, and industry can pose to
    water supplies
  • BMPs can increase the aesthetic beauty and value
    of residential and commercial properties

Detention pond
14
Non-Monetary Benefits
15
Health Benefits
  • Reduce risk to human health
  • illnesses and death
  • productivity and wages
  • medical expenses

16
Quality of Life Benefits
  • Safeguarding resources for future generations
  • Building confidence in the water supply
  • Healthy ecosystems and recreational benefits

17
The Costs of Prevention
  • Vary based on the prevention measure(s) selected
  • Differ from community to community

18
Comparing Costs and Benefits
  • Responding to contamination can be as much as 200
    times as costly as prevention

19
SWP Is Worth It
20
Contamination Pathways
21
What Health Effects Can Contaminated Source Water
Cause?
  • Acute health effects
  • Chronic health effects

22
What Contaminants Cause Acute Health Effects?
  • Parasites, protozoa or cysts
  • Nitrate
  • Viruses (e.g., Norwalk virus)
  • Bacteria (e.g., Shigella, E.Coli)

Parasite - Cryptosporidium
Warning Sign About Dangers of Nitrate
Parasite - Giardia lamblia
23
What Contaminants Cause Chronic Health Effects?
  • Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs)
  • Inorganic chemicals (IOCs)
  • Synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs)

24
SDWAs Major Source Water Protection Programs
25
Historical Basis - Early State Approach
  • Multiple barrier approach used by States since
    early 1900s included source selection and
    protection
  • Sanitary surveys to check system from source to
    tap

26
SDWA Source Water Protection Programs
  • 1974 SDWA
  • Sole Source Aquifer program
  • Underground Injection Control program
  • 1986 SDWA Amendments Wellhead Protection
    program
  • 1996 SDWA Amendments
  • Source Water Petition program
  • Source Water Assessment program

27
What Is the Sole Source Aquifer Program?
  • A sole source aquifer
  • Supplies at least 50 of drinking water
  • Is the only feasible drinking water source that
    exists
  • Any person may petition EPA
  • 70 designated sole source aquifers

28
Significance of the Sole Source Aquifer Program
  • EPA reviews Federally-funded projects
  • Information from SSA designation can help
    delineate SWPAs
  • SSAs can raise community awareness
  • SWAPs can help evaluate candidate SSAs

29
What is the UIC Program and Why is it Significant?
DRY
WATER TABLE

USDW
Underground Source of Drinking Water lt10,000 TDS
AQUIFER
BRINE
Brine - Salt Water (gt10,000 TDS)
30
Class I Industrial Well
Class V Agricul-tural Well
Source GWPC
31
What Is Wellhead Protection?
Shari Ring Image from EPA WWW
  • Protection of ground water sources
  • Authorized by SDWA Section 1428 of the 1986
    Amendments
  • EPA-approved, State-designed wellhead protection
    plans can receive Federal funding to protect
    ground water sources
  • Requirements for Federal compliance

32
WHP Significance - Most CWSs Use Ground Water
33
Source Water AssessmentProgram
34
What is a Source Water Assessment?
35
Source Water Assessments as the Basis of
Protection
  • Provide important information
  • May be used to prioritize protection activities

36
Elements of State SWAPs
Shari Ring Image from EPA WWW
  • Public participation in developing SWAP
  • Plan to delineate areas, inventory contaminants,
    determine susceptibility
  • Timetable for implementation, agencies involved,
    plan to update assessments
  • Plan to make the results of assessments available
    to the public

37
Other Source Water Protection Programs and
Initiatives
38
Source Water Protection Initiatives
  • Source Water Contamination Prevention Strategy
  • National Rural Water Association
  • Environmental Finance Center Network

39
Source Water Protection under the Clean Water Act
CWA
SDWA
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Water Systems
Surface Water Used as Drinking Water
Surface Water Used for Industrial Uses,
Recreation, Wildlife Habitat, and Fishing
Ground Water
Ground Water Used as Drinking Water
Wastewater Discharges
40
Source Water Protection under the Clean Water Act
Watershed
Protection
41
Source Water Protection under the Clean Water Act
  • Point sources or non-point sources
  • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
    (NPDES)
  • Water quality standards
  • Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

42
Other Federal Source Protection Programs
43
Other Federal Source Protection Programs
  • See http//www.epa.gov/safewater/
    protect/feddata.html for a list of Federal data
    sources related to source water protection

44
Who Ultimately Protects the Source?
45
Introduction to Source Water Contamination
Protection Measures
46
What are Source Water Protection Measures?
  • Practices to prevent contamination of ground
    water and surface water that are used or
    potentially used as sources of drinking water
  • Protection measures form the first barrier to
    drinking water protection

47
How Can Protection Measures Fit into a SWPP?
  • Impose by regulation
  • Encourage through non-regulatory means
  • Combine approaches as appropriate given
    site-specific considerations

48
What are BMPs?
49
Selecting Management Measures
  • Land use controls
  • Regulations and permits
  • Structural measures
  • Good housekeeping practices
  • Public education
  • Land management
  • Emergency response planning

50
Land Use Controls
  • Subdivision growth controls
  • Zoning
  • Land purchase
  • Acquisition of development rights
  • Land use prohibitions

51
Subdivision Growth Controls
  • Primary purpose is to control division of land
    into lots suitable for building
  • Can protect drinking water supplies from
  • Septic system effluent
  • Storm water runoff

52
Zoning
53
Land Purchase and Development Rights
  • Land purchases
  • Conservation easements
  • Land trusts and conservancies

54
Land Use Prohibitions
  • Effective way to remove threats from sensitive
    areas
  • Source-specific and chemical-specific standards

55
Land Use Prohibitions
56
Regulations and Permits
  • Construction and operating standards
  • Permit requirements
  • Land use prohibitions
  • Public health regulations

57
Construction and Operating Standards
58
Permit Requirements
  • Local authorities can require permits
  • Permit fees can help recover program costs
  • Permits can be site-specific
  • Inspections enforce permit requirements

59
Public Health Regulations
  • Underground storage tanks
  • Construction standards
  • Leak testing
  • Septic systems
  • Number and size in a given area
  • Siting, setback distances and construction
  • Maintenance standards
  • Floor drains

60
Structural Measures
  • Constructed systems or devices
  • Vegetative measures

61
Constructed Systems or Devices
  • Automatic shut-off and leak detection devices on
    USTS
  • Secondary containment
  • Drainage diversion
  • Segregated floor drains
  • Waste collection devices

62
Vegetative Measures
Photo Texas Chapter, APWA
Swales
63
Good Housekeeping Practices
  • Equipment operation and maintenance
  • Product storage, use and handling
  • Waste storage and disposal
  • May be required by local ordinances or health
    regulations

64
Equipment Operation and Maintenance
65
Product Storage, Use and Handling
66
Proper Waste Storage and Disposal
Photos Texas Chapter, APWA
67
Other Tools
  • Public education
  • Environmentally responsible land management
  • Financial incentives
  • Emergency response planning

68
Public Education
69
Responsible Land Management
70
Emergency Response Planning
What if..?
71
Source Water Protection Measures for Specific
Sources
72
Storm Water Runoff
Erosion from runoff
73
Storm Water Runoff
  • Nonstructural measures to control runoff
  • Good housekeeping
  • Public education
  • Roadway maintenance
  • Erosion and sedimentation control measures

Sewer stenciling
74
Storm Water Runoff
  • Engineered devices to control runoff
  • Grassed swales
  • Buffer strips
  • Filter strips
  • Wet ponds
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Infiltration practices
  • BMPs for Class V wells

Porous design minimizes impervious area
75
Storm Water Runoff
Photo Texas Chapter, APWA
Photo Texas Chapter, APWA
Filter strip
Grassed swale
76
Storm Water Runoff
Photo Texas Chapter, APWA
Wet Ponds and Constructed Wetlands
77
Storm Water Runoff
Infiltration Practices
Photo Texas Chapter, APWA
78
Storm Water Runoff
  • Storm water drainage wells (Class V)
  • Protection measures for Class V wells
  • Siting
  • Design
  • Operation

Storm drain
79
Storm Water Runoff
  • Municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s)
  • Regulated under the NPDES Program
  • Over 5,000 nationwide

80
Septic Systems
Ground water
81
Septic Systems
Septic system drain field
82
Septic Systems
83
Above and Underground Storage Tanks
Corroded underground storage tank
84
Above Ground Storage Tanks
  • Corrosion protection
  • Secondary containment
  • Monitoring
  • Periodic cleanup
  • Evaporation protection
  • Proper closure

Sheltered above ground tank farm
85
Underground Storage Tanks
  • Proper installation
  • Corrosion protection
  • Spill prevention
  • Overfill protection
  • Leak detection
  • Proper closure

Backfilling an UST installation in a lined pit
86
Vehicle Washing Facilities
  • Minimize runoff
  • Enclose wash areas and locate them on impervious
    surfaces
  • Use alternative cleaning agents

87
Vehicle Washing Facilities
Car wash with vegetated area
88
Small Quantity Chemical Use, Storage, and Disposal
89
Small Quantity Chemical Use, Storage, and Disposal
Water-based paint
90
Small Quantity Chemical Use, Storage, and Disposal
  • Conduct a chemical audit
  • Implement a chemical management plan
  • Store chemicals properly
  • Do not empty in sinks or drains

91
Small Quantity Chemical Use, Storage, and Disposal
  • Have a spill response plan
  • Do not mix hazardous and nonhazardous waste

92
Animal Waste
  • Livestock
  • Pets
  • Wildlife

93
Animal Waste
  • Feedlot management
  • Waste lagoons
  • Litter storage facilities
  • Clean water diversion
  • Composting

Hog parlor with lagoon
94
Animal Waste
  • Land application of manure
  • Nutrient management
  • Proper placement
  • Crop rotation
  • Pasture or grazing management
  • Fencing

Livestock fencing
95
Animal Waste
Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
96
Animal Waste
  • Managing pet waste
  • Clean up waste
  • Bury waste
  • Keep pets away from streams and lakes

97
Animal Waste
  • Wildlife waste
  • Harassment programs
  • Reducing attractiveness of water supply areas

Snow geese
98
Agricultural Fertilizer Application
  • Time nitrogen fertilizer applications for maximum
    uptake
  • To minimize phosphorus runoff, control erosion
    and apply phosphorus based on soil tests

Fertilizer spreader
99
Agricultural Fertilizer Application
  • Use proper application rates
  • Correctly place fertilizer
  • Calibrate application equipment

Wheat-corn-fallow rotation
100
Agricultural Fertilizer Application
  • Use environmentally-friendly farming techniques
  • Crop rotation
  • Buffer and filter strips
  • Conservation tillage
  • Laser-controlled land leveling
  • Precision agriculture

No tillage wheat farming
101
Turf Grass and Garden Fertilizer Application
102
Turf Grass and Garden Fertilizer Application
Composting can supply nutrients to the soil
103
Turf Grass and Garden Fertilizer Application
  • Calibrate equipment
  • Properly apply fertilizer
  • Irrigate after application
  • Follow label directions

104
Large-Scale Pesticide Application
Spraying cotton in Mississippi
105
Large-Scale Pesticide Application
  • Integrated Pest Management combines three pest
    control tactics
  • Biological
  • Cultural or horticultural
  • Chemical

The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata first
approved biological control agent for salt cedar
in the US
106
Large-Scale Pesticide Application
Ultra low volume herbicide application
107
Small-Scale Pesticide Application
  • Select disease-resistant plants
  • Use plant management techniques
  • Use natural biological controls and manual
    control activities

108
Small-Scale Pesticide Application
109
Small-Scale Pesticide Application
  • Lady bugs are a natural biological control for
    aphids

110
Combined and Sanitary Sewer Overflows
Combined sewer overflow
Combined sewer outlet
111
Combined and Sanitary Sewer Overflows
Sanitary sewer overflow
112
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
21 million gallons of deicing/anti-icing fluid
are discharged to surface waters annually.
113
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
Infra-red deicing system.
114
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
115
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
  • Disposal of spent fluid
  • Deicing pads
  • Vacuum sweeper trucks
  • Detention basins
  • Bioremediation systems
  • Transport to a POTW

116
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
  • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
    (NPDES)
  • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

117
Aircraft and Airfield Deicing
118
Highway Deicing
119
Highway Deicing
Road Weather Information Systems provide data on
air and pavement temperatures, precipitation, and
the amount of deicing chemicals on the pavement.
120
Highway Deicing
Anti-icing can reduce the amount of chemicals
needed to keep roads safe.
121
Highway Deicing
Plows are a chemical-free option for clearing
snow and ice.
122
Abandoned Wells
  • Locations often unknown
  • Common nearby activities may degrade water
    quality
  • Runoff also poses threats

Photo Purdue Extension Service
123
Abandoned Wells
  • Plug abandoned wells
  • Use licensed well drillers

Graphic North Dakota State Univ.
124
Class Discussion
  • Implementing Source Water Protection
  • Measures

125
(No Transcript)
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