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Occupant Protection on School Buses

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Testing - 3 Point Restraints. 13 School Buses. 11 Counties. Digital Video Cameras. Results. Good Feedback, esp. from drivers. reduced discipline problems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Occupant Protection on School Buses


1
Occupant Protection on School Buses
Derek Graham Section Chief, Transportation
Services NC Department of Public Instruction
2
The School Bus - Its big, yellow and SAFE!
  • Students sit high above the impact zone
  • Many Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards that
    are applicable only to school buses
  • Passive occupant protection system known as
    compartmentalization
  • Special equipment that is safety specific Stop
    sign, warning lights, roof hatches, crossing
    arms, padded seats, and more

3
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4
Weve Come a Long Way!
5
Continuing Work on Occupant Protection
  • Compartmentalization is most effective in frontal
    and rear collisions
  • Risk of injury to students when they are ejected
    from the vehicle or otherwise leave the
    compartment
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Report to Congress. Report shows that 3-point
    restraints perform best.

6
NHTSA TESTING - VIDEO
7
Report to Congress
  • Students are nearly 8 times safer riding in a
    school bus than in cars - credit to
    compartmentalization
  • Requiring lap belts on large school buses would
    have little, if any, benefit in reducing
    serious-to-fatal injuries ain severe frontal
    crashes
  • Use of lap-shoulder belts could provide benefit
    if used properly

8
Testing - 3 Point Restraints
  • 13 School Buses
  • 11 Counties
  • Digital Video Cameras

9
(No Transcript)
10
Results
  • Good Feedback, esp. from drivers
  • reduced discipline problems
  • When left to the students, the belts will not be
    worn..esp. in High School / Middle School

11
To go to and from school, kids are safest when in
a school bus!
  • NON-CONFORMING VEHICLES
  • Federal law requires that any new SCHOOL BUS (a
    vehicle built to transport 11 or more passengers
    including the driver and used to transport
    students to school or school-related events) sold
    or leased by a dealer meet all FMVSSs applicable
    to school buses
  • In most places, there is no legal prohibition on
    BUYING or USING such a vehicle

12
VANS IN SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION
  • 1994 - Jacob Strebler died in a van crash in
    South Carolina
  • School knowingly operated a less safe vehicle
  • School and the selling dealer settled the case
    with the parents

13
National Transportation Safety Board
Investigations
  • Studied four fatal crashes
  • Recommendations to each state
  • Require that all vehicles transporting children
    to school and school related events meet school
    bus structural standards
  • Adopt NHTSAs guidelines for the safe
    transportation of preschool children

14
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15
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16
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17
Multi-Function School Activity Bus
  • New Federal Classification of Vehicle
  • School Bus Construction Standards
  • Warning lights / Stop Sign not required

18
Transportation of Pre-Kindergarten StudentsOn
School Buses
19
National Highway Traffic Safety Admin. Guidelines
  • Pre-K children should be transported in a Child
    Safety Restraint System (CSRS)
  • CSRSs must meet Federal Standards for Seats and
    Anchorages
  • Most current bus seats in North Carolina dont
    meet these specs
  • http//www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/buses/Guide
    1999/prekfinal.htm

20
NHTSA GUIDELINES
  • Each pre-school age child to be transported has a
    CSRS appropriate for the childs weight, height,
    and age.
  • The CSRS is used and secured correctly in the
    school bus.
  • All CSRS attachment hardware, anchorage systems
    and school bus seats meet Federal requirements.
  • Personnel are trained and pre-school age children
    are supervised acc. To their needs.
  • School-bus seats designated for CSRSs are located
    starting at the front of the vehicle to provide
    drivers with quick access to and a clear view of
    the CSRS occupants.

21
NHTSA GUIDELINES (contd)
  • CSRS anchorages on school bus seats should meet
    all applicable FMVSSs.
  • When ordering new school buses, the maximum
    allowable seat spacing should be specified..
  • If other students share seats with the CSRSs, the
    CSRSs are placed in window seating position.
  • When a school bus is retrofitted (per
    manufacturers instructions), the bus owner should
    ensure that seat spacing is sufficient for the
    CSRS to be used.
  • There needs to be a written evacuation plan and
    evacuation drills need to be practiced regularly.
  • CSRSs are not placed in school bus seats adjacent
    to emergency exits.

22
Child Safety Restraint SystemsState Response
  • 2000 2001 model replacement buses were equipped
    with Thomas Built Bus MOMS (mobile occupant mini
    seat) seats in first two rows.

23
Thomas Mobile Occupant Mini Seat (MOMS)
24
MOMS
  • Standardized solution
  • Initially thought to be the solution.
  • Storing carriers presented problems, especially
    for multiple tripped buses when the carriers were
    not needed.

25
C.E. White CSRS
26
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27
Other Child Safety Restraint Systems
28
Retro-fitting CSRS
  • First 2 rows on 72, 66, and 53 passenger buses
    may be installed with CSRS without re-spacing the
    remainder of the seats. First row on 36 and 41
    without re-spacing.
  • No CSRS can be installed adjacent to emergency
    exit windows. If needed, you may move the window
    and associated decals to a position that is not
    blocked by a seat back.

29
Retrofitting Issues
  • Most NC seats are not 210 Compliant
  • Not certified to have lap belts installed
  • Tested for forces from one direction
  • Seat Spacing Issues

30
New Head Start Transportation Guidelines
31
JANUARY 18, 2002
  • All vehicles must be equipped with communication
    equipment and emergency safety equipment and must
    undergo an annual safety inspection. (Licensed or
    state operated)
  • All drivers must have a CDL, receive classroom
    and behind the wheel instruction, and be trained
    in first aid and emergency evacuation.
  • Routing must be done to limit one-way trips to
    and from a Head Start program to a maximum of one
    hour.

32
JANUARY 20, 2004
  • At least one monitor per vehicle and more if
    required by passenger needs.
  • All vehicles to be equipped with height- and
    weight-appropriate CSRSs and reverse beepers.

33
JANUARY 18, 2006
  • By 01/18/06, children to be transported to and
    from Head Start and Early Head Start programs on
    school buses or allowable alternate vehicle
    with CSRSs, reverse beeper, communication
    equipment and emergency equipment with signs

34
Transporting Pre-K Students
  • Federal Guidelines
  • Equipment Issues
  • Head Start Guidelines
  • ITS A WHOLE DIFFERENT GAME!!

35
SECTION 1310.11 CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS
  • Effective date January 20, 2004

36
SECTION 1310.11 CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS
  • Each agency must ensure that each vehicleis
    equipped for use of height- and
    weight-appropriate child safety restraint systems.

37
SECTION 1310.12 REQUIRED USE OF SCHOOL BUSES OR
ALLOWABLE ALTERNATE VEHICLES
  • (a)Effective January 18, 2006, any agency
    providing transportation services must ensure
    that school buses or allowable alternate vehicles
    are used,

38
SECTION 1310.12 (contd)
  • that they are equipped for use of height- and
    weight-appropriate child restraint systems and
    that they are equipped with reverse beepers.
    (Exception for home-based option is indicated.)

39
SECTION 1310.12(contd.)
HEAD START
  • (b)Effective February 20, 2001, each Head Start
    and Early Head Start agency receiving permission
    from HHS to purchase with grant funds a vehicle
    to be used to transport children in its program
    or its delegate agencys program

40
SECTION 1310.12(contd.)
HEAD START
  • must ensure that the funds are used to purchase
    a school bus or an allowable alternate vehicle
    that is equipped as described in the previous
    slides.

41
SECTION 1310.15 OPERATION OF VEHICLES
  • (a)On a vehicle equipped for use of such devices,
    each child weighing 50 pounds or less is seated
    in a child restraint system appropriate to the
    height and weight of the child while the vehicle
    is in motion.

42
SECTION 1310.15 (contd)
  • (b)Baggage and other items transported in the
    passenger compartment must be properly stored and
    secured aisles must remain clear doors and
    emergency exits must remain unobstructed at all
    times.

43
SECTION 1310.17 (contd)
  • (f)Each agency providing transportation services
    must ensure that
  • (1)annual observation of each driver includes an
    on-board observation of road performance

44
SECTION 1310.17 (contd)
  • (2)monitors are pre-trained on child boarding
    and exiting procedures, use of child restraint
    systems, required paperwork, responses to
    emergencies, emergency evacuation procedures, use
    of special equipment, child pick-up and release
    procedures and pre-and post-trip vehicle check.

45
SECTION 1310.20 TRIP ROUTING
  • (a)Ensure safety of children is primary
    consideration in planning fixed routes
  • (b)Adhere to the following basic principles

46
SECTION 1310.20 (contd)
  • (1)One-hour maximum ride-time unless no shorter
    route is available or a shorter route is unsafe
  • (2)No overloads

47
SECTION 1310.21 SAFETY EDUCATI0N
  • (a)Provide training in pedestrian safety for
    parents and children within the first 30 days of
    the program year.
  • (b)Ensure that children are taught

48
SECTION 1310.21 (contd)
  • (1)safe riding practices
  • (2)safe loading/unloading procedures
  • (3)safe roadway crossing to and from the vehicle
    at stops

49
SECTION 1310.21 (contd)
  • (4)Recognition of the danger zones around the
    vehicle
  • (5)Emergency evacuation procedures, including
    drills in the vehicle the children will be riding

50
SECTION 1310.20 (contd)
  • (c)Provide training for parents that
  • (1)emphasizes the importance of escorting their
    children to the vehicle stop and reinforcing
    training children receive regarding vehicle
    safety and

51
SECTION 1310.20 (contd)
  • (2)complements training provided to children for
    reinforcement both in Head Start and at home by
    the parent.

52
SECTION 1310.21 (contd)
  • (d)Ensure at least two (2) vehicle evacuation
    drills (in addition to one required in paragraph
    (b) (5) of this section) during the program year.

53
SECTION 1310.22 CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES
  • (a)Effective January 18, 2006, ensure that school
    buses or allowable alternate vehicles adapted or
    designed for transporting children with
    disabilities are available as necessary.

54
SECTION 1310.22 (contd)
  • Note B
  • Whenever possible, children with disabilities
    must be transported in the same vehicles as are
    non-disabled peers.

55
SECTION 1310.22 (contd)
  • (b)Ensure compliance with ADA, HHS regulations at
    45 CFR part 84 and Head Start Program Performance
    Standards on Services for Children with
    Disabilities as they apply to transportation
    services.
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