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Energy From Fossil Fuel

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Title: Energy From Fossil Fuel


1
Energy From Fossil Fuel
  • Chapter 12

2
Energy Sources and Uses
  • Harnessing Energy Sources An Overview
  • A. advances in technology has been tied to the
    development of energy sources
  • in early times that was muscle power (animal or
    human)
  • gradually water power and wind power were
    developed, and to some extent, energy from the
    sun.

3
  • The Industrial Revolution was based on the
    development of the steam engine.
  • First firewood was used and then coal was
    substituted.
  • 1. Coal became the dominant fuel from the end of
    the 1800s into the 1940s.
  • coal was used for heating cooking and industrial
    processes
  • in the 1920s, 80
  • By 2002, 22

4
  • Air pollution was a major problem
  • the source of the famous pea soup fogs.
  • 2. Oil Rules
  • by the late 1800s the internal combustion engine
    wa developed as well as oil drilling technology.
  • This was an alternative to steam power.
  • Replaced coal fired steam engines with oil fueled
    engines.
  • This improved air quality.
  • It was only in the 1960s that polulution from
    cars became a problem.

5
  • Power to weight ratios became very important
  • a gasoline engine weighs a fraction of what a
    steam engine of the same power weighs.
  • By 1951 crude oil became the dominant energy
    source for the nation
  • makes up 38 of total US energy
  • 35 of global energy
  • In Eastern Europe and China coal is still the
    ominant fuel
  • Coal provides 22 of US demand.

6
  • Gas too
  • Natural gas is the third primary fossil fuel
  • found in association with oil
  • made mostly of methane, it produces only CO2 and
    H2O when it burns
  • most gas released from oil field is vented and
    burned - as waste of valuable fuel
  • natural gas satisfies about 23 of US demand
  • Gas, Oil, and Coal provide 83.5 of US energy
    consumption and 79.5 of the world consumption.

7
  • B. Electrical Power Production
  • electricity is a secondary energy source because
    it depends on a primary energy source to turn a
    generator.
  • Over 33 of fossil fuel production is used to
    generate electricity.
  • In 1950 this was only 10
  • Generators are coils of wire passing through a
    magnetic field causing a flow of electrons. This
    process converts mechanical energy into
    electrical energy

8
  • The reverse (use electrical energy to turn an
    axel or wheel, you have a motor).
  • To generate electricity, a turbogenerator is used
    some source of fuel is used to boil water
    creating steam that drives a turbine that is
    attached to a generator.
  • The furl source can be coal, oil, water, or
    nuclear energy
  • in the future, maybe burning refuse or solar
    power will be used.

9
  • 1. Fluctuations in demand
  • Electricity comes from the grid. This grid
    consists of many power stations that are
    responsible for balancing energy supply and
    demand, regardless of fluctuation.
  • demand cycle see the Weekly demand cycle, Plants
    are turned on and off as demand rises. Water is
    allowed to run through a dam when needed.
  • A deficiency in available power will prompt a
    brownout (reduction in voltage) or a blackout
    (loss of power).

10
  • Blackouts and brownouts are a serious threat on
    our economy as we are very much electricity
    dependent.
  • Is electricity a clean energy source?
  • It is nonpolluting at the point of its use.
  • To get the energy, coal, hydropower, nuclear
    energy or another energy source must be used.
  • Coal is the major source of acid deposition.
  • Hydropower displaces people, farmland, wildlife
    and disrupts migration of fish.

11
  • Matching sources to uses
  • Primary energy use is divided into four
    categories
  • Transportation
  • Industrial processes (direct use of coal, oil,
    etc)
  • Commercial and residential use (direct use of
    coal, oil, etc)
  • Generation of electrical power (secondary energy
    use) that goes into industrial processes and
    commercial and residential use
  • Be sure to look at figure 12-10 in the book and
    consider the waste heat that is generated as the
    energy is consumed. This tells you something
    about the efficiency of the energy use.

12
Exploiting Crude Oil
  • How are fossil fuels formed
  • Coal is derived from plant material that lived in
    swamps and shallow seas that thrived in the
    Mesozoic and Paleozoic.
  • The plant material did not rot but was submerged
    in soil in anaerobic conditions. It was
    converted by pressure to coal
  • Microscopic organisms that lived in seas
    (phytoplankton and zooplankton) was converted
    under similar conditions into oil. Or natural gas.

13
  • Fossil fuels may still be forming through natural
    processes to this day.
  • We are using fossil fuels faster than they ever
    formed.so we cannot say that these fuels are
    renewable resources.
  • It would take 1000 years to accumulate the
    organic matter that the world consumes in one day.

14
Crude Oil Reserves Versus Production
  • Geologists may guess where the worlds reserves
    are located
  • These educated guesses are the worlds estimated
    reserves.
  • Drilling would determine the extent and depth of
    the oil field.
  • That amount then becomes proven reserves.
  • Amounts are measured in barrels (42 gallons)

15
  • Oil is a viscous fluid. It is not in a
    convenient pool ready to be pumped to the
    surface.
  • Oil is locked in sedimentary rock like water is
    held in a sponge.
  • Much of the oil might be under pressure. This
    pressure might develop a gusher.
  • These gushers are short lived. The oil then
    seeps sloply from the rock into a well from which
    it is pumped out.
  • Generally only 25 of the oil in an oil field can
    be removed by pumping.

16
  • 50 60 more can possibly be removed, but it is
    more costly because it involves injecting brine,m
    steam or other substances into the wells. This
    is called secondary or tertiary recovery.
  • No company will spend more money to extract oil
    than it expects to make selling the oil.
  • Oil was 10/barrell in the late 1990s. The
    price Tuesday was over 70/barrell.
  • This increased cost will justify reopening old
    oil fields to extract the oil left behind.

17
Declining U.S. Reserves and Increasing Importation
  • Up to 1970, the US was largely oil independent
  • In 1970, new discoveries fell short, production
    decreased, but consumption continued to grow
    rapidly.
  • To fill the energy gap, the US depended more and
    more on imported oil, primarily from Arab
    countries. Europe and Japan did likewise.
  • Imported oil was cheap, 9.19 per barrel in 2002
    dollars.
  • The US and other industrialized countries became
    more and more dependent on oil imports.

18
  • A group of Arab countries formed OPEC.
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • They agreed to restrain production in order to
    get higher prices
  • OPEC also initiated an embargo on oil sales to
    countries that gave military and economic support
    to Israel.
  • This led to spot shortages and widespread panic.
  • We paid
  • OPEC resumed shipments at a price of 29/barrell
    in 2002 dollars. (4X the previous price)

19
  • OPEC has forced prices higher and higher.
  • This led to inflation in the 1980s and
    recessions in the 1990s.
  • The purchase of foreign oil remains the single
    largest factor in our balance of trade deficit

20
Adjusting to Higher Prices
  • So what did we do.
  • Step up exploratory drilling
  • Construction of the Alaska pipeline
  • Reopen fields that had been closed down
  • To decrease consumption
  • Standards were set for automobile fuel efficiency
    (new average was to be 27.5 mpg)
  • New speed limits 55mph
  • Goals for energy efficiency (insulation)
  • Development of alternative energy resources
  • To protect against another OPEC boycott
  • Strategic oil reserve created (599 billion
    barrels of oil stockbpiled) 59 days worth

21
  • BUT when the price is low, the economic returns
    or savings may not justify the necessary
    adjustments.
  • As we entered the 1980s the adjustments were
    having an impact
  • Consumption of oil was declining
  • Discoveries in Mexico, Africa and the North Sea
    made the world less dependent on OPEC oil.
  • OPEC was unable to restrain its own production,
    world oil production exceeded consumption and
    there was an oil glut.

22
  • So then what happened?
  • World oil prices crashed in 1986 from the high
    20s to 14/barrell.
  • Considering inflation, oil prices were almost as
    low as they were in the early 1970s.
  • SOOPEC cut production just as East Asia was
    coming out o a recession, rise in demand brought
    on a shortfall in the oil supply, the price of
    crude oil rose. OPEC promised to increase
    production and primised to aim towards a price of
    22-32 per barrel.

23
  • Wellsince oil prices fell, exploration became
    more costly as wells are drilled deeper and in
    more remote locations.
  • Production from older oil fields was terminated
    This devastated the economics of Texas and
    Louisiana
  • Conservation efforts and incentives were
    abandoned.
  • Government standards for fuel efficiency were
    frozen at 27.5 mph.
  • Speed limits were set at 65 and 75 mph.

24
  • tax incentives were terminated. This destroyed
    emerging new businesses engaged in solar and wind
    energy
  • Grants for R and D were cut sharply.
  • Need for conservation and for the development of
    alternative ways to provide transportation seems
    to have largely passed from the mind of the
    public.
  • US production of crude oil has continued to drop,
    this includes Alaska. But consumption has risen.
  • Consumers began buying vehicles that were less
    fuel efficient.

25
Problems of Growing US Dependency on Foreign Oil
  • 1. cost of purchasing oil
  • 2. the risk of supply disruptions due to
    political instability in the Middle East
  • 3. Ultimate resource limitations
  • We continue to contribute to the trade deficit by
    being dependent on foreign oil.
  • The price at the pump is generally the same
    regardless of whether the oil is produced here or
    abroad.
  • If we are buying our own oil, the money
    circulates within our own economy, providing jobs
    and services.
  • Cost of oil spills

26
Persian Gulf Oil
  • Maintaining peace in the Middle East is vital to
    our oil interests.
  • We fought for an ongoing presence in the Persian
    Gulf region in 1991 when Sadam Hussein armies
    were thrown from Kuwait.
  • This angered Al Qaeda, which led to 9/11 attacks.

27
  • So, was the real motivation behind the war to
    gain access to Iraqs oil reserves?
  • As a result of the war, the Iraqi museum was
    looted of priceless historical artifacts
  • It has become clear that the US and Britain
    arent simply going to commandeer Iraqs oil but
    they will be part of the renewal effort of the
    Iraqi oil industry.
  • Considering the cost of maintaining a military
    presence in the Persian Gulf, we were paying the
    equivalent of 91/barrel in 2002.

28
  • We are now importing oil from Canada, Venezuela,
    Columbia, Mexico and Russia. Several African
    countries are important new potential sources of
    oil.
  • Resource Limitations
  • So how much is left?
  • We have probably reached the point where
    production has tapered off and the world has
    entered an era of rising oil prices.

29
  • USGS
  • Their estimate is that there are undiscovered
    reserves of 732 BB of oil remaining in unknown
    fields and 688 BB in known fields. (this is not
    based on proven reserves).
  • The 21 century will become known as an era of
    declining oil use.
  • As oil becomes more scarce OPEC will again
    dominate the world oil market.
  • In light of this, we should reduce our dependency
    on foreign oil
  • HOW?

30
  • 1. Increase the fuel efficiency of our
    transportation system.
  • 2. use other fossil fuels to make fuel for
    vehicles
  • 3. develop alternatives to fossil fuels

31
Other Fossil Fuels
  • Natural gas is gradually coming into use as a
    fuel for vehicles.
  • Most of this fuel is currently being used for
    heating and cooking but is increasingly being
    used for generating electrical power.
  • The supply of proven reserves of natural gas is
    close to 50 years.
  • Cars can be converted (about 1000 to run on
    natural gas)
  • It is a clean burning fuel, dos not produce
    sulfur oxides.

32
  • Natural gas can be converted to a hydrocarbon
    that is liquid at room temperature (synthetic
    oil).
  • This fuel is currently (2003) only about 10 more
    expensive than oil.
  • But, dont forget that natural gas is not
    limitless. It will not b a sustainable solution.

33
  • King Coal
  • 51 of electricity comes from coal fired power
    plants in the US.
  • We produce more coal than we use
  • We export about 4 of our coal.
  • Mining is hazardous
  • Coal is mined either by strip mining or surface
    mining
  • Underground fires and land subsidence are
    problems. There is a fire in a coal area in
    Pennsylvania that could burn for another 100
    years.

34
  • In strip mining, the entire ecology of an area is
    destroyed
  • Federal regulations require that a strip mined
    area be reclaimed (graded and replanted)
  • In the west water limits may prevent the
    ecosystem from being reestablished.
  • Coal Power
  • Once the coal reaches a typical power plant, 8000
    tons of coal is burned each day. This releases
    20,000 tons of carbon dioxide and 800 tons of
    sulfur dioxide each day.
  • Most of this is can be removed with scrubbers if
    the plant has them.
  • The waste produced is 800 tons of fly ash and 800
    tons of boiler ash residue daily. This will go
    into a special land fill.

35
  • Coal can be cleaned to remove the sulfur. The
    Clean Air Act of 1990 made changes as to the
    amount of SO2 that could be released into the air
    but there are still greenhouse gas emissions
    being released.
  • Coal can be converted into a liquid or gas fuel.
    These are referred to as synfuels.
  • So far these synfuels are too expensive to
    produce. These would be profitable only if oil
    rose to 60-70 barrel.
  • The conversion process creates by-products that
    pollute the environment.

36
  • Oil Shales and Oil Sands
  • Oil Shale is a fine sedimentary rock that
    contains a mixture of solid wax like hydrocarbons
    called kerogen. There is a lot of it in CO, UT,
    WY
  • The shale has to b heated to release the
    hydrocarbon vapors
  • The process also requires large amounts of water
    which is a precious resource in the above states.
  • Oil Sands contain bitumen. When heated the
    bitumen can be melted out. Oil Sands are found
    in Alberta Canada. Canada is commercially
    exploiting the oil sands because production is
    commercially profitable.

37
  • Fossil Fuels and Energy Security
  • From 1973-1995 we had a reduction in energy
    growth due to steps taken after the oil crisis of
    the 1970s but we have slipped back into our old
    ways.
  • How does our oil dependence threaten our national
    security?
  • We imported 105 billion dollars worth of oil in
    2002.
  • Most of this oil is for transportation. There is
    no substitute for it.
  • Each time oil supply drops, the price rises
    rapidly and brings on inflation, a drop in the
    GNP and a recession.
  • Continuing to rely on oil from OPEC is asking for
    economic and political trouble in the future

38
  • Energy infrastructure
  • Our whole energy network present attractive
    targets for terrorists
  • Continuing involvement in the Middle East has
    angered potential terrorists
  • Nuclear power plants are particularly vulnerable.
  • Other areas are vulnerable also. The
    Trans-Alaska pipeline was shut down for three
    days after a hunter shot a hole in it.

39
  • Global Climate Change we continue to meet our
    energy needs with fossil fuels. This will effect
    climate change. Coal, oil and natural gas
    produce CO2 as a byproduct.
  • There is overwhelming evidence that the
    greenhouse gas emissions of the 20th century have
    increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and
    a rise in global temperatures.
  • This will cause polar melting and a rise in sea
    levels.
  • This will also cause shifts in precipitation
    patterns, droughts, heat waves and extreme storms.

40
  • Supply side Policies
  • The National Energy Policy Report produced in
    2001 estimated that over the next 20 years oil
    consumption will increase 30, natural gas by 50
    and electricity by 45. Their recommendations
  • Opening the ANWR to gas exploration and
    production
  • Add 1,300 1,900 coal fired electrical power
    plants in the next 20 years
  • Provide tax incentive encouraging energy
    production from fossil and nuclear fuels

41
  • Streamline the permitting process for drilling
    and hydropower licensing. Establish new
    electrical transmission lines
  • Expedite the planning of a natural gas pipeline
    to bring Alaskan natural gas to the lower 48.
  • Provide support to the efforts of other countries
    to develop their oil and gas resources nad
    pipelines
  • Require by executive order that all federal
    agencies issuing regulations which could
    adversely affect energy supplies or use to
    document the energy impacts of the regulations
    and propose alternatives to the action.

42
  • The Cheney report recommended building more
    nuclear power plants, resolving the nuclear waste
    repository problems, and developing alternative
    energy sources.
  • This sounds like business as usual and
    represses a supply side policy.

43
  • Demand side policy would reduce our energy needs
    and make it more possible to move into a future
    where renewable energy can become the ruling
    technology
  • Conservation
  • Cars that double fuel efficiency from 13 to 27.5
    mpg (CAFÉ, or corporate average fuel economy) are
    satisfying their transportation needs with only
    half the earning expenditure of energy and
    dollars.
  • There is still more conservation to be done.
  • If we can get to a 40 mpg CAFÉ by 2012, that
    woulde save 1.9 million barrels per day.

44
  • The Bush administration has raised the CAFÉ for
    light trucks, SUVs and minivans to 22.2 mpg but
    has not touched the CAFÉ for cars.
  • This is being perceived as a victory for car
    manufacturers and the steel and oil industries.
  • Apparently the Cheney group received most of its
    advice from those industries.
  • CHPs
  • Combined heat and power. According to this
    methodology, a factory or large building installs
    a small power plant that produces electricity and
    heats the building with the waste heat. This
    would achieve an efficienty of 80.

45
  • Combined cycle systems In this unit, two
    turbines are used. The first burns natural gas
    in a conventional gas turbine. The second is a
    steam turbine that runs on excess heat from the
    gas turbine. The cost of combined cycles systems
    is half that of coal burning plants. Pollution
    is much lower
  • Deregulation Much of the money spent on power
    is delegated towards new power plants. So we are
    spending money for something that is not even
    built yet. Shareholders should pay for this.

46
  • If energy suppliers were selling their services
    at a free market rate, the consumer would be able
    to choose the cheapest supplier.
  • Appliances refrigerators and freezers are used
    in every home. Changes in technology have
    reduced the energy demand per unit tp ¼ what it
    was in 1974.
  • Seeing the light fluorescent lights are between
    20 and 25 efficient. Incandescent light bulbs
    are only 5 efficient. Why build new power
    plants when people can replace incandescent bulbs
    with fluorescent bulbs and save energy dollars?

47
  • Most lighting in U.S. homes is produced by
    inefficient incandescent light bulbs or
    moderately efficient fluorescents. A switch from
    incandescents to compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs
    can result in up to a 75 decrease in energy use.
    A typical CFL will save over 50 in replacement
    bulb and electricity costs over its lifetime.
  • The best targets for conversion to CFLs are
    60-100W bulbs used several hours a day. In
    addition, CFLs eliminate the cost of buying and
    installing at least a dozen ordinary bulbs. CFL
    bulbs now come in a wide variety of sizes and
    shapes making it possible to replace almost any
    incandescent bulb. Some newer CFLs are also
    capable of producing a warmer light which is
    closer to the light produced by incandescents
    than that produced by some earlier CFLs.

48
  • Each CFL can prevent the emission of between
    1,000-2,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide from entering
    the atmosphere, and between 8-16 lbs. of sulfur
    dioxide (the cause of acid rain). CFLs run cooler
    than incandescents and halogens, minimizing fire
    hazards and reducing the cost of cooling in
    summer. CFLs also last up to seven years, which
    saves you the expense and hassle of frequent
    light bulb replacements.

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