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The Metadata Object Description Schema MODS

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Title: The Metadata Object Description Schema MODS


1
The Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)
  • D.C. Special Library Association
  • Feb, 4, 2003
  • Rebecca Guenther,
  • Library of Congress

2
Overview of presentation
  • Types of metadata
  • Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)
  • Purpose
  • Features
  • Comparison with Dublin Core
  • Implementation at LC

3
Types of Metadata
  • Descriptive metadata
  • Major focus of library catalog (especially MARC)
  • Increased number of descriptive metadata
    standards for different needs
  • Most standardized of type of metadata
  • Administrative metadata
  • Structural metadata
  • Rights metadata
  • Preservation metadata elements

4
Descriptive metadata standards
  • MARC
  • MODS
  • Dublin Core
  • ONIX
  • EAD
  • VRD Core Categories
  • CDWA
  • TEI
  • FGDC
  • GILS
  • MPEG-7

5
How might descriptive metadata interact?
  • MARC continues for exchange, perhaps in XML
  • Libraries may receive records using other
    metadata schemes
  • Descriptive metadata may come as part of digital
    objects
  • Collaborative use of metadata for access
  • OAI harvesting
  • Z39.50 and ZING
  • Reuse of existing elements/standards by different
    metadata schemes

6
What is MODS?
  • Metadata Object Description Schema
  • Bibliographic element set (descriptive metadata)
  • Initiative of Network Development and MARC
    Standards Office at LC
  • Uses XML Schema
  • Specifically for library applications, although
    could be used more widely
  • A derivative of MARC

7
How does MODS relate to MARC?
  • Part of the MARCXML toolkit
  • A MARC derivative
  • Inherits MARC semantics
  • Includes equivalent fields, but only a subset of
    all MARC fields
  • Repackages some information
  • More user-friendly

8
Why MODS?
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language) is the markup
    for the Web
  • Investigating XML as a new syntax for MARC
    element set
  • MARC XML architecture will accommodate various
    needs
  • Allows conversions between syntaxes/schemas
  • Need for rich descriptive metadata in XML but
    simpler than full MARC

9
Potential uses of MODS
  • As a Z39.50 Next Generation specified format
  • As an extension schema to METS (Metadata Encoding
    and Transmission Standard) for descriptive
    metadata
  • As an alternative format to represent metadata
    for harvesting (OAI)
  • For original resource description in XML syntax
  • For metadata in XML that may be packaged with an
    electronic resource

10
Advantages of MODS
  • Element set is richer than Dublin Core
  • Hierarchy allows for description of complex
    digital objects
  • Element set is more compatible with library data
    than ONIX or DC
  • Element set is simpler than the full MARC format
    (MARCXML is entire format in XML syntax)

11
Features of MODS
  • Some data has been repackaged in some cases what
    is in several data elements in MARC may be
    brought together into one in MODS
  • MODS does not assume the use of any specific
    cataloging code
  • Reuse element descriptions throughout the schema
  • Uses language-based tags
  • Not intended to be a MARC replacement!

12
Limitations of MODS
  • Because its a subset of MARC fields, a
    conversion retains core data and loses other data
  • Does not allow for a round-trip mapping to and
    from MARC
  • Content rules are not covered by MODS, although
    definitions of elements come from MARC

13
MODS for electronic resources
  • Development
  • electronic resources an important target
  • input from several digital library projects
  • Xlink attribute throughout
  • Related item structure supports hierarchy needed
    for complex digital objects
  • Digital origin attribute
  • Several date types specifically for digital
    projects (e.g., capture)
  • E-resource identifiers, e.g., DOI

14
MODS high-level elements
  • Title Info (mandatory)
  • Name
  • Type of resource
  • Genre
  • Origin Info
  • Language
  • Physical description
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents
  • Target audience
  • Note
  • Subject
  • Classification
  • Related item
  • Identifier
  • Location
  • Access conditions
  • Extension
  • Record Info

15
Differences between MODS and Dublin Core
  • MODS has structure
  • Names
  • Related item
  • Subject
  • MODS is more MARC-like and fits better in library
    environment
  • Semantics
  • Conversions
  • Relationships between elements

16
Using DC or MODS
  • DC simple as a lowest common denominator
    between diverse metadata schemes
  • DC for interoperability at coarse level
  • Qualified DC still needs work
  • Most DC implementations use local adjustments
    (resulting in less interoperability)
  • MODS useful for
  • compatibility with existing bibliographic data
  • embedded descriptions in relatedItem

17
LC uses of MODS
  • Describing electronic resources
  • AV project, web archiving
  • Technician input
  • web archiving (Minerva)
  • Incorporation with XML resources
  • METS projects
  • OAI collections
  • LC offers MODS, MARCXML, DC simple

18
Minerva project
  • Web archiving project
  • Sept. 11 archive
  • Olympics 2002
  • Campaign 2002
  • Metadata component
  • Contactors to create records for resources in
    MODS
  • Use for searching and as preliminary catalog
    record
  • Testbed for MODS

19
Fields used in Minerva project
  • Title
  • Name (structured form)
  • Abstract
  • Date captured
  • Genre (value always Web site)
  • Physical description (file formats)
  • Identifier (base URL)
  • Language
  • Access conditions/rights management
  • Subject (keyword or LCSH if possible)

20
ltmodsgt lttitleInfogt lttitlegtBush-Cheney 2000
computer filelt/titlegtlt/titleInfogt ltname
typecorporategt ltnamePartgt Bush for President,
Inc.lt/namePartgtlt/namegt ltgenregtWeb
sitelt/genregt ltoriginInfogt ltdateCaptured
encodingISO8601"gt 20001011lt/dateCapturedgt
lt/publicationInfogt ltlanguage authority"iso639-2b"
gtenglt/languagegt ltlanguage authorityiso639-2bgts
palt/languagegt ltphysicalDescriptiongt ltinternetMedia
Typegttext/htmllt/internetMediaTypegt lt/physicalDescr
iptiongt
21
ltabstractgtPresents information about Texas
Governor George W. Bush (b. 1946) and his
campaign to become the Republican nominee for
U.S. President. Contains a biographical sketch, a
schedule of appearances, and news about the
campaign. Offers access to details about issues
and speeches. Discusses how to participate in the
campaign.lt/abstractgt ltsubject authoritylcshgt ltt
opicgtRepublican Partylt /topicgtlt/subjectgt ltsubject
authoritylcshgtlttopicgtPresidential
candidateslt/topicgt lttopicgtBiographylt/topicgtlttempor
algt20th centurylt /temporalgt lt/subjectgt ltsubject
authoritylcshgtltgeographicgtUnited States
lt/geographicgtlt/subject gt ltsubject
authoritylcshgt ltgeographicgtTexaslt
/geographicgtlt/subjectgt ltidentifier
typeurigthttp//www.georgewbush.com/lt/identifier
gt lt/modsgt
22
AV Prototype Project
  • Exploring digital preservation for audio and
    video
  • Digitally reformatted and born digital
    collections
  • Use of METS with focus on metadata
  • Where possible records converted from LC ILS into
    MODS also allows original input
  • METS/MODS tool

23
Status of MODS
  • 6-month review Jun.-Dec. 2002
  • version 2.0 will be available soon
  • Part of the XML MARC tool kit
  • Increasing interest and experimentation
  • Some users have holdings as extension using
    Z39.50 holdings schema
  • XML alternative to DC or full MARCXML
  • LC provides conversion tools will provide a DTD

24
For further information
  • MODS
  • http//www.loc.gov/mods
  • http//www.loc.gov/mods/mods-outline.html
  • METS
  • http//www.loc.gov/mets
  • MARCXML
  • http//www.loc.gov/marcxml
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