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Kein Folientitel

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Photos: P.D. Jenssen ... Sanitization easy and cheap: DO NOT MIX !!! Volume. l/(P*year) Greywater. 25.000 ... Low-Tech, very cheap, little maintainance required ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kein Folientitel


1
Ecological Sanitationhigh-, medium and low-tech
solutions Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf
OtterpohlDirectorInstitute of Wastewater
Managementand Water Protection
2
  • Goals of this workshop
  • solutions for the sanitation crisis in
    developing countries and why WE have to work
    on it
  • understand principles of Ecological Sanitation
    by cases
  • see decentral water technologies as efficient
    demand side management tool
  • get ideas for creative CONCEPTS

3
think about water, sanitation, hygiene
technologies
4
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5
Water misused Brussels, 2004raw wastewater
discharge, exception in Europe,but the most
common method worldwide
6
health in danger
water misused
7
Inefficient Water Usage, Loss of Soil Fertility,
Pollution of Rivers, Lakes and the Seas
Major problems related to Wastewater
(Miss)Management Pollution of Rivers, Lakes and
the Seas Scarcity is often a consequence of
inefficient Water Usage
8
Loss of Soil Fertility (slow but dramatic, global
scale)counteraction by returning treated
biowaste and faecals (Map from WWW.FAO.ORG)
9
Mainly linear flows in conventional sanitation
even withexcellent wastewater treatment plants
10
Mainly linear flows in conventional sanitation
even withexcellent wastewater treatment plants
Large parts of thenutrients are emittedand lost
in the seaswhere they add to over-fertilisation
Sludge is poor in nutrients except phosphate, if
from chemical precipitation hardly available to
plants
11
Coral Reefs endangered by global warming, excess
of nutrients,industrial agriculture, wastewater,
snail collectors
12
Monsoonhow does a flush-sewerage system perform?
13
Raw wastewater irrigation on ripe
vegetables,Haroonabad, Pakistanthis is NOT
ecosan, sanitisation is necessary
14
Millions of people diefrom faecal contamination
of watermostly babies and children below the age
of 5 yearsWhat can be done?WE do have to act!
15
Ecosan principlesContainment, sanitisation,
reuse(Ecosan is not a technology but following
these principles)Full REUSEZERO Emissions
16
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17
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18
what is your solution?
19
Flushwatercan be saved6.000 - 25.000
Volumel/(Pyear)
Yearly Loadskg/(Pyear)
20
Flushwatercan be saved6.000 - 25.000
Volumel/(Pyear)
Yearly Loadskg/(Pyear)
N 4-5
P 0,75
K 1,8
COD 30
Treatment
Biogas-PlantComposting
S, Ca, Mg and traceelements
Treatment
Reuse / Water Cycle
Fertiliser
Soil-Conditioner
Geigy, Wiss. Tabellen, Basel 1981, Vol. 1, LARSEN
and GUJER 1996, FITSCHEN and HAHN 1998
21
Low/Non-diluting toilets are the key for new
sanitation concepts
22
Water and Wastewateryour choice of systems?
One single pipe?
Infiltration or sewer?
23
  • Blackwater and integrated systems design
  • Dry sanitation / Low Cost solutions
  • Urine-Diversion with flush sanitation

24
The Vacuum-Biogas-System of OtterwasserEcologica
l Settlement Lübeck-Flintenbreite
25
Ecological Settlement Lübeck-Flintenbreite
Double-Houses
Terraced Houses
26
Peri-Urban Settlement Lübeck-Flintenbreite
(design 250 inhabitants) Vacuum-Biogas-System for
Blackwater plus Biowaste Otterwasser GmbH, Lübeck
www.otterwasser.de
27
Vacuum-Toilet 0.7 litres/flush
Vaccum-Technology Roediger, Hanau
28
Vacuum-Toilet - 0.7 litres/flush- small diameter
pipes- evacuation pumpstation needed-
pneumatic control of the valves - can lift water
up to4.5 meters- technically complex,maintenanc
e needed- rather for groups of houses or
hotels,office buildings- scaling in pipes
acidevery 5 years- explain users functioningto
avoid clogging
Vaccum-Technology Roediger, Hanau
29
Lübeck-Flintenbreite
All infrastucture in one trench (except
greywater) that goes around the settlement
Heat distributionfrom Heat/Power Unit(cold
climates only)
DrinkingWater Supply
Electricity and Communication
Vacuum Pipe
30
Community Building with central technical
DevicesLübeck-Flintenbreite
Cellar Vacuumstation, Biowaste Grinder,
Hygienisation, Biogas PlantAbove ground
Seminar/Party room, Office, 4 Flats and
HPG(Otterwasser GmbH, Lübeck, Germany, 2001)
31
Bio-Waste Inletand Grinder
to Digester
Vacuum PumpingStation forBlackwater
Sanitisation of Blackwater and biowaste
32
Blackwater digestors research at TUHH, Hamburg
University of Technology
33
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34
Greywater treatment Constructed wetland /
Bio-sandfiltervertical flow, subsurface, sand
0-4mm2m² per capita (cold climate, else
less)Lübeck-Flintenbreite, Germany
35
Constructed Wetland / Bio-Sandfilter1. vertical
flow 2. water level at bottom 3. intermittant
feeding
36
Clean effluent,low in nutrients
37
Nutrient loads in blackwater and
greywatermeasured valuesmore phosphate than
expected, from dishwasher tablets
Greywater
Blackwater
38
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39
Stormwater management is one of the major tasks
of wastewater systems. Rainwater that runs off a
surface is defined as wastewater. Mixing clean
rainwater runoff with household and industrial
wastewater is not a proper method with respect
to resources efficiency and environmental
protection. If ecosan solutions that mostly work
without a central sewerage systemare installed,
other ways of rainwater management are needed.
For theFlintenbreite settlement infiltration
swales where made at low costs. Ifthe ground is
less pervious there is teh possibility of
swale-trench systemsor the open type of monsoon
drains
40
Infiltration of Rainwateris RWH if aquifer
recharged and used Usually around 10 to 20 of
imperviousarea is reqired for infiltration
41
Rainwater Harvesting fits well to
Ecosan Ecosan can diminish the freshwater
demand strongly resulting in longer
lasting tank reserves
from CSE Indiasee www.rainwaterharvesting.org
from Lange/Otterpohl Abwasser
42
Future Vision Vakuum-Biogas-System with
production of dry fertiliser and full water
reuse, Modules for 500 to 10.000 personsMost
feasible for new construction where no central
pipes are in place, costs can be lower than
conventional. Water for firebrigades from storage
tanks / local groundwater. Modules linked for
redundancy. Freshwater demand down to 10
litres/p/d from local rain
43
Project Freiburg Vauban, GermanyArbeiten
WohnenVacuum-Biogas-System for
Blackwater/Biowaste(Passive-house One of the
most energy-efficient houses worldwide) ATURUS,
Jörg Lange/Arne Panesar, Freiburg, Germany
www.passivhaus-vauban.de
44
Biogas-Project of BORDA, Bremen, Germany
(www.borda.de) and BEST, Indonesia
Indonesia,Settlement Tangerang
Wastewater treatment belowthe building
Biogas-plant for blackwater, can be low-tech in
tropical climates
45
City plan of Lanxmeer, Culemborg near
Utrecht (www.eva-lanxmeer.nl designed by Eble)
46
EVA Lanxmeer, Culemborg / Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • Initiative by Marleen Kaptein andand the city
    council ofCulemborg
  • Planned for 1.000 inhabitants,small industry
    and conference centre
  • Blackwater separate,
  • treatment in biogas plant
  • Greywater in constructedwetlands plus
    aquaculture
  • Solar energy usage and semicentralheat supply
    from earth-waterheat pump

47
Photos P.D. Jenssen
Greywater treatment at Klosterenga
Oslo, Norway Prof. Petter Jenssen has
alsodeveloped a vacuum-blackwatersystemwww.umb.
no/research/ecosan
48
  • Gravity separation toilets in the office building
    and vacuum separation toilets in the apartment
    house of the WWTP Stahnsdorf, Berlin
  • EU-Project of the Centre of Competence for
    WaterBerlin Water Works / Veolia Water
    Peter-Fröhlich et al., 2004

49
Greywater treatment for reuse
Huber Technology
Fa. A3, Gelsenkirchen
  • MBR
  • Membrane-Bio-Reactor
  • small footprint
  • high efficiencybut
  • high energy consumptionand complex technology

50
MBR is an excellent option for water reuse,
sanitisation is includes as bacteria do not pass
the membrane Cost efficiency is better in case
of reuse as there is a direct revenueMake sure
that maintenance is assured
Moduar units that can be used for greywater
treatment and reuse
Busse, Germany
Membrane module
51
Biological Treatement Microfiltration, Reverse
Osmosis
Greywater to Tapwater
52
An unique idea The blackwater loop
  • Toilet wastewater is not wasted but treated for
    reuse as toilet flushwater
  • Treatment with MBR plus ozonisation including
    nitrification assures high quality
  • Pharmaceutical residues and hormones are
    eliminated
  • Closed loop producing a clear liquid with about
    the same volume and concentrations of nutients as
    put into the toilet
  • This system can solve the hygienic and pollution
    risk from hospital effluents (they usually emit
    to the sewerage system that is open to the
    environment trough stormwater overflows and
    inadequate treatment in conventional plants)
  • Sizes start from some 100 people /hotel beds, for
    new construction and complete reconstruction this
    system can be significantly cheaper than
    conventional ones and reduse freshwater demand to
    10 litres per person and day
  • Anaerobic treatment of faecal matter with
    biowaste for larger systems
  • Technically complex, operation and maintenance
    have to be organised and financed

53
Hotel Ecosan
Soil infiltration for post-treatment and storage
Patent Ulrich BraunINTAQUA / TUHH
54
Hotel Ecosan
Blackwater-cycle
Patented Ulrich Braun
55
Blackwater LoopResearch unit at TUHH
MBR
Solids separation
56
Breakthrough in futureWater Management
  • Typically 70 to 90 of investment in wastewater
    systems goes into transport only
  • Economy of scale only for WWTPs
  • Advances in small scale technologyEconomy of
    scale in NUMBERS
  • WWTP in most situations incapable of high degree
    of reuse
  • Many micro-pollutants go through WWTPs

57
Breakthrough in futureWater Management
  • for new development and major reconstruction
  • Rainwater infiltration
  • Greywater treatment with MBR, infiltration(adapt
    household chemicals)
  • Draw raw-water from groundwater(lined
    underground storage if necessary)
  • Tapwater production through RO(drinking
    possible, else sourcewater)
  • Micro-Fertiliser factory from toilets / biowaste

58
Breakthrough in futureWater Management
  • for new development and major reconstruction
  • Rainwater infiltration
  • Greywater treatment with MBR, infiltration(adapt
    household chemicals)
  • Draw raw-water from groundwater(lined
    underground storage if necessary)
  • Tapwater production through RO(drinking
    possible, else sourcewater)
  • Micro-Fertiliser factory from toilets / biowaste

Costs can be significantly lowerif no central
system is in place
59
What are the principles of blackwater systems?
60
  • Blackwater and integrated systems design
  • Dry sanitation / Low Cost solutions
  • Urine-Diversion with flush sanitation

61
  • Composting-toilets, Germany
  • maintenance cruicial for function
  • better with urine sorting(too many failures
    without)
  • rural and peri-urban areas

Berger Biotechnik,Hamburg
Clivus Multrum company
62
Eco-Settlement Braamwisch, Hamburg, Germany
  • Blackwater separate,
  • treatment in composter
  • Greywater in constructed wetlands
  • Solar energy usage

63
Sanitization easy and cheapDO NOT MIX !!!
  • One GRAM of faeces can contain
  • 10,000,000 Viruses
  • 1,000,000 Bacteria
  • 1,000 Parasite cysts
  • 100 Parasite eggs. (source UNESCO, 2001)

5 MILLION people die of polluted water every year
(WHO)
64
DANGER!do not mix
Volumel/(Pyear)
Yearly Loadskg/(Pyear)
N 4-5
P 0,75
K 1,8
COD 30
MOSTPATHOGENS!
65
This settlement was supposed to get central
sewerage. People talked to their neighbours in
the next village and learnt the central system
was very costly and that they had no more
Fertilisers for their fields left. Ecosan costs
where only 1/3rd and reuse fesible
66
Dry Sanitation in Mexico from Esrey et
al.,Ecological Sanitation, 1998revised edition
2004 free download www.ecosanres.org/news-publicat
ions.htm
Principles2 chambers, used alternately with 6
to 12 month fefore removal of material, urine
diversion, flush with soil, soil-ash,
soil-ash-limeeither built outside or inside with
chambers access from outside
67
  • Espacio de Salud
  • Cuernavaca, Morelos
  • MEXICO

68
Can be installed inupscale homes, too Key
issue explain prospective users idea and
function, operation can be organised by small
local organisation Almost no water shall go into
the faecals chamber(take care of washwater in
cultures with wet anal cleansing) Public toilets
can better be equipped with squat toilets that
are available with urine diversion, too
69
Local production and operational services keep
money inside the community. This lady will
probably purchase her food in the same village.
Money spent on imported goods will often go to
wealthy shareholders. Ecosan has the potential to
do good for the wealthy ones far away by not
increasing the heavy burden of money furher.
Commercial fertiliser is often imported, urine is
a cost efficient alternative
70
Two chamber dry toilet for cultures with wet anal
cleansing Urine diversion and usage of urine as
fertiliser, solids as soil conditioners after
decomposition Community based projects are a key
to success, informed choice, information about
costs of alternatives, demand for mainitenance
  • EcoSolutions, Paul Calvert, India Ecological
    Sanitation, 2004 www.ecosanres.org/news-publicatio
    ns.htm

71
design Lin Jiang, China
72
Ecosanres has startedmany ecosan projects
inChina, including multi-storey houses (Erdos,
seewww.ecosanres.org)
73
EcoSanRes,China pilot projects
74
make use of solar radiation
Solar heat per capita Solar-Radiaion (average of
global-radiation)Source World Energy Council,
am 27.11.01
75
Solar Desiccation-Toilet with urine diversion
Low-Tech, very cheap, little maintainance
required (from Esrey et al., Ecological
Sanitation, SIDA 1998)
76
De-siccation Toiletwith solar heating of the 2
chambers Mali, West Africa GTZ / Otterwasser GmbH
77
Solar desiccation of feaces, Mali, West Africa
(GTZ / Otterwasser)
black lids forsolar heating
Chamber 2
built ABOVE soil, no contact to groundwater,
monsoons !
78
Ecosan Toilets, Rumania (TUHH / WECF)
Institute of Wastewater Management and Water
Protection
79
Neue Schultoilette, Ukraine (TUHH/WECF)
80
Sawdust or ashes are used to flushsquat-urine-d
iversion-toilet byLin Jiang, ChinaWECF Women
in Europe for a Common Future (Holland)in
co-operation with TUHHwww.wecf.org
81
What are the principles ofdry sanitation?
82
  • Blackwater and integrated systems design
  • Dry sanitation / Low Cost solutions
  • Urine-Diversion with flush sanitation

83
Roediger Sorting-Toilet
  • Non-diluting Urine collection www.roevac.de

84
GustavsbergSorting-Toilet
85
Settlement Palsternackan, Sweden Urine-Sorting
Toilets and Yellow Water collection in urban
social housing. The urine is stored and
transported by vacuum-truck to agriculture
86
Ecological Settlement Understenshöjden, Sweden
Sorting Toilets and Urine collection
Greywater Treatment
Yellow Water Storage
87
Pilot Project Lambertsmühle
  • Initiative and Finance
  • Wupperverband and
  • Verein Lambertsmühle
  • Develpement of the Sanitation Concept
  • Otterwasser GmbH, Lübeck
  • Scientific consultation
  • TUHH Inst. of Wastewater Management
  • Elements of the Sanitation Concept
  • Urine-sorting Toilets and waterless Urinals
  • Storage Tank for Yellow Water
  • Pre-Composting Tank (2 chambers, Filter Bags)
  • Constructed Wetland for filtered Grey- and
    Brownwater

88
Fertilizer for 200 to 400 m² in agricultureis
produced per person(one growth season/year) 6
month storage, thenwork into brown landbefore
seeding/planting
Urine-Tank10 Persons(Glass-Resin)
Potential problems withutilisation of
urine residues of pharmaceuticalsand
hormones Problem is relevant in
flush-sanitation, too direct linkto water
supply
89
2-Chamber Composting Tank
Composting does not really work. Experiments at
TUHH (nesxt slide) showed that the combination
with vermicomposting can make this unit a great
solids converter 3 to 4 monthfrom wet faecals
to something like soil..(Dissertation Moataz
Shalabi, 2006, TUHH)
90
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91
Vertikal Sandfilter for Greywaterand filtrate of
Brownwater
Principles of constructed wetland?
92
Vertical sub-surface flow constructed wetlandfor
greywater plus filtrate from brownwater
93
Consultant
Bio-Sand-filter
Urine-tank
Composting- chamber
94
Urine containers and pre-composters for 106
flats and a school in Linz, Austria
Reserach project of Linz AG , Water and Power
Utility of the city
95
Starting the Future
DeSa/R with separation
Implementation in HUBER administration
buildingthat was newly built for 200 employees
96
Storage tanks
in the construction phase
Yellow Water
Brownwater
Greywater
in use
97
What are the principles of urine sorting flush
systems?
98
Wastewater reuse from conventional WWTPs Use as
FERTILISER, not exclusive source of water to
avoid heavy overfertilising
99
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100
Fertiliser usage in China
  • Blackwater of 900 Mio. rural Chinese people
  • 450 Mio tons of organic
    Fertiliser
  • Potential savings on commercial Fertilisers
    2,6 Billion US per year!
  • In addition soil improvement, protection of
    inland waters and the seas....
  • UNESCO, 2001

101
Solar Water Desinfection www.sodis.ch
SANDEC/EAWAG
102
Rainwater Harvesting INDIA
  • Monsoonshort flooding,
  • long draughts
  • water runs off fast
  • checkdams stop it and allow recharge of
    aquifers

urban RWH in Delhi at CSE
103
Ecological Sanitation Options for different
geographical and socio-economic conditions
  • Dry Toilets comments
  • simple Bucket systems rural low cost
  • Pre-Composting-Toilets more comfortable
  • Large Chamber Composters too wet or too dry
  • Solar Desiccation Toilets (2 chambers) hot
    climates, paper
  • Earth Toilets (2 chambers) comfortable
  • ....
  • Flush Toilets
  • Urine-Sorting in decentral and main step
    nutient central systems recovery
  • Vacuum-Toilets and Transport dense population
  • Low-Flush with Booster more dilution
  • Conventional Flush Sanitation ww not exclusive
    and real agricultural reuse (nutrients)
    water source, HM

104
Integrated Planning for Appropriate Water
Infrastucture
  • Water availability, prices
  • Population density
  • Climate / Rainfall pattern
  • Infiltration, Agriculture
  • City planning
  • Local /regional Economy
  • Sociological / Cultural factors
  • Existing Infrastructure
  • Legal framework / Stakeholders
  • Long term operation and finance

105
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106
www.ecosan.org, SIDA www.ecosanres.org,
GTZ www.gtz.de/ecosan
Thank you !
107
Thank you !
  • Goals of this class achieved?
  • see if there is a sanition crisis
  • learn solutions of reuse oriented saniation from
    examples
  • understand principles of Ecological Sanitation
  • see the strength and limitations of decentral
    water technologies
  • get ideas for creative solutions adapted to the
    situation

Homeworkcheckwww.ecosan.org, www.ecosanres.org,
www.gtz.de/ecosan in a group of 2 or 3
people review the principles, make a rough
ecosan design for a place you know
108
Technological options for wastewater
infrastructure
Central
Semi-central
Decentral
Stormwater infiltration

Peri Urban
Wasterwater component
Future Technology
109
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110
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111
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112
Ecological Sanitation in new settlements
113
Ecological Sanitation in new settlements
  • dry desiccation
  • composting or earthalways urine separation
  • wet urine separationplus composting tank
    orbiogas system
  • blackwater digestor
  • and a lot more...
  • low flush toilets with biogas systems
  • urine separation with conventional WWTP
  • black- and greywater cycle
  • innovative dry systems
  • ...

storm-water!
114
ABWASSER -Handbuch zu einerzukunftsfähigen
WasserwirtschaftJörg Lange Ralf Otterpohl301
Seiten, 105 Abbildungen, 58 Tabellen Zweite
Auflage 2000ISBN 3-9803502-1-5 Preis 26,-
incl. MWSt. MALLBETON, Donaueschingen(0771)
8005-0oder über den Buchhandel...Sorry, only
in German.
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