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Assistive Technology

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Application of technology to compensate for loss or lack of physical, sensorial, ... Over 70 million baby boomers. Controlling $9 trillion in assets ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Assistive Technology


1
Assistive Technology Universal Design
  • Providing access and assistance to people with
    special needs

2
Agenda
  • Questions

3
Assistive technology
  • Application of technology to compensate for loss
    or lack of physical, sensorial, or cognitive
    functions
  • Assists people with disabilities in their
    activities in life

4
Universal design
  • Design with the intent of having the broadest
    range of ability levels possible be able to use a
    product or an environment
  • Roots in architectural design
  • Evolved in last 30 years to include most areas of
    design involved in interaction between people
    with products and environments

5
Universal design principles
  • Equitable use
  • Flexibility in use
  • Simple and intuitive to use
  • Perceptible information
  • Tolerance for error
  • Low physical effort
  • Size and space for approach and use

6
Why an important class of systems?
  • Whats the impact of aging in America over the
    next decade?
  • Over 70 million baby boomers
  • Controlling 9 trillion in assets
  • Will start to acquire significant disabilities

7
Examples of disabilities
  • Visual impairment
  • Hearing impairment
  • Speech impairment
  • Physical impairment
  • Dyslexia
  • Autism
  • Others

8
Other needs for universal design
  • Age groups
  • Older people
  • Children
  • Cultural differences
  • Influence of nationality, generation, gender,
    race, sexuality, class, religion, political
    persuasion, etc. on interpretation of interface
    features
  • Interpretation and acceptability of language,
    cultural symbols, gesture and colour

9
Range of physical impairments
  • Complete lack of function
  • Absence of a limb
  • Paralysis usually due to spinal injury, the
    higher the damage the greater the degree of
    paralysis
  • Tetraplegia / quadriplegia all four limbs
  • Paraplegia lower limbs only
  • Lack of strength
  • Tremor / lack of accuracy
  • Slowness

10
Keyboard modifications
  • Keyguards
  • Alternative layouts
  • Reduce movement
  • One-handed keyboards, possible chords
  • Membrane surfaces (minimize required pressure)
  • Software modifications
  • Sticky keys
  • Slow keys or disable auto-repeat
  • Modify keyboard mappings
  • On-screen keyboards

11
Alternative input devices
  • Speech input
  • Dictation versus control
  • Pen input
  • Handwriting recognition
  • Gesture recognition
  • Software keyboards
  • Switches
  • Keyboard has approximately 50 switches
  • Scanning interfaces

EdgeWrite Jacob Wobbrock http//www-2.cs.cmu.ed
u/edgewrite
12
Possible switches
  • Foot pedal
  • Leaf switch highly sensitive
  • Sip and puff
  • Dual switch (can be used for Morse code)
  • Joy stick
  • Muscle switch
  • Neural implant
  • Eye gaze

13
Scanning interfaces
14
Mouse alternatives
  • Trackball
  • Proportional joystick
  • Switched joystick or cursor keys
  • Head sensor or mouth stick
  • Eye-gaze
  • Keyboard only

15
Vision
  • Low-vision
  • Color blindness
  • Blindness
  • affordances of different media
  • interface model
  • special purpose doesnt work
  • challenge of generality
  • The vast majority of visually disabled people
    have some sight

16
Myopia and hypermetropia
  • Myopia Hypermetropia
  • (short-sighted) (far-sighted)

17
Macular degeneration
18
Diabetic retinopathy
19
Cataracts
20
Tunnel vision
21
Accommodating partial sight
  • Large monitor, high resolution, glare protection
  • Control of color and contrast
  • Control of font size everywhere
  • Keyboard orientation aids

22
Hardware or software magnification
  • 2 to 16 times
  • Virtual screen
  • Viewport, control
  • Notification of outside events
  • CRTs for physical items

23
Magnification not always a help
Now is the time,
24
Accommodating blind users
  • Capture and model graphical interface
  • Translate graphical objects
  • Support efficient and intuitive interaction
  • Screen readers
  • Full-featured
  • Cursor-tracking, routing
  • Dialogue focus
  • View areas

25
Screen reader output
  • Braille
  • Only 10?
  • Many Braille codes
  • Real and virtual displays
  • Tactile pads
  • Synthesized speech
  • Good design matters
  • Why?
  • IBM aDesigner http//www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/
    adesigner

26
Hearing
  • Redundant output
  • hardware (flashing title bar)
  • software (text to speech)
  • Sometimes necessary
  • An increasing problem?
  • Population
  • Phone interfaces

27
Deafness
  • Communication aids
  • Sign language
  • Speech training
  • Writing aids
  • Preventable form of mental retardation
  • Importance of language development
  • Seeing Voices (Sacks)

28
Sign language
  • Sign languages are true languages
  • Syntax, semantics, pragmatics
  • Differ dramatically from oral-based languages
  • Many different sign languages
  • American (ASL) close to French Sign Language but
    different than British (BSL)
  • Signed Exact English for one-to-one translation

29
Minicoms and TDDs
  • Universal telephone technology
  • Text terminal (keyboard, LED display, modem)
  • Deaf relay centers
  • TypeTalk
  • Automation?

30
Most significant new communication device is
  • The mobile phone
  • with SMS
  • Sidekicks, Blackberry, etc. extremely popular

31
Computing assistance
  • Translators
  • Speech to sign
  • Sign to speech
  • Gesture recognition
  • Need sign language grammars
  • Video phones
  • Word processors (Write This Way)
  • Speech training (Speech Viewer, IBM)

32
Speech conversation
  • Conversation is a dialogue in which the one
    taking a breath is called the listener
  • 150 words/minute
  • Predictive interface, stored phrases, iconic
    boards
  • Chat

33
Generating Words
34
Input techniques
  • Word boards
  • Switch input
  • Scanning techniques
  • Predictive input

35
Speech synthesis
  • Quality of synthetic speech
  • Similarity to human speech

36
Cognitive impairments
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Problem-solving
  • Learning impairments
  • redundant input-output, motivation
  • Language impairments
  • dyslexia (spelling corrector)
  • aphasia (symbolic languages)
  • Everyday impairments - in-place information
  • Writing Home

37
Impaired mental capabilities
  • Memory
  • Short or long term, recall and recognition
  • Perception
  • Attention, discriminating sensory input
  • Problem solving
  • Recognizing the problem, implementing solutions
    and evaluation
  • Concepts
  • Generalizing, skill development

38
Common causes
  • Learning disability
  • Head injury or stroke
  • Alzheimers
  • Dementia

39
Design guidelines
  • Input / interface Control
  • e.g., touchpad, prompts and menus
  • Presentation format
  • e.g., blank space to focus attention
  • Informational content and prompting
  • e.g., match vocabulary level to user

40
Learning impairment
  • Infinite patience
  • Risk-free environment
  • Accommodate cognitive impairment
  • Motivate

41
Direct Brain Interfaces
Melody Moore Computer Information Systems Dept.
42
What is a Direct Brain-Computer Interface?
a system that captures signals directly from
the human brain, providing a channel to control
computers and other devices. The GSU
BrainLab Mission is to pioneer real-world
applications research for biometric technologies
to improve the quality of life for people with
severe disabilities, and to explore mainstream
applications.
43
Brain signal detection techniques
Invasive implanted electrodes (single neuron)
Noninvasive scalp electrodes (EEG)
44
Neural Internet
  • Neurally controlled Internet Access
  • Specialized web browser and email program
  • Uses
  • communication
  • shopping
  • education
  • handling of personal finances
  • employment

45
Restoring Motion - Neural Prosthetics
  • Brain re-learns how to move limbs via an
    artificial
  • nervous system
  • Simulation
  • Virtual reality hand
  • Restoring Physical Motion
  • Robotic arm

46
The Aware Chair
  • Integrated communication and environmental
    control
  • Intelligent, neurally controlled wheelchair
  • Conversation and environmental control
    prediction
  • Learns users habits and context
  • Provides emotional expression
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